Skip to main content

Full text of "The History of Pettis County, Missouri, including an authentic history of Sedalia, other towns and townships, together with ... biographical sketches .."

See other formats

"I .' ,1 ■ 

;'!i'. ;.-,'. V;V ■ >!■: 


/(•:».'' i:" ■'■■■■■ 

) Vci. 


V * 




Pettis County, Missouri, 





ING; WAR record; township histories; 
churches; schools; railroads and 
BUSINESS enterprises; miscel- 
laneous MATTERS, etc., ETC. 




r, Lenox and Tilden // 
Foundations, /> 


After nearly a y-iar from the be£>inning of the enterprise, with much 
labor and expense, tV-e History of Pettis County is now ready lor the public. 
Embracing the ear.y and more recent history of one of the most popu- 
lous and wealthy t.ounties of Missouri, it is not be expected that a 
work of this mag litude could be compiled and issued without the 
expenditure of much time, labor and money. Most of the material com- 
prising this volume was never before collected in any form; no pains or 
outlay having been spared to make it worthy of so noble a County and 
State, and it will ssuredly be a welcome guest in the intelligent families 
of Pettis County, and although its value is material and immediate yet 
posterity will more highly prize this book and rely upon it as the basis of 
all subsequent history. 

The task of the historians has been performed conscientiously, free 
from partiality and prejudice, and with a view of recording such facts as 
will be most valuable. To a great extent the history is what the people 
have been pleased to make it. If the people had furnished less informa- 
tion, there would have been less in the book, and if the information had 
been of a different character, its pages would also have reflected that fact. 
The style of composition has aimed at purity and precision, rather than 
periods and highly wrought figures. In some cases the same fact may 
appear more than once, and if a difference in detail is observed, it should 
be remembered as bearing the authority of the one who furnished it. 

The mechanical work shows skill and finish, comparing favorably with 
the best in this and other States. The map, electrotype views, lithograph 
and steel portraits, together with the typography, have all received that 
artistic touch which renders the work highly satisfactory to the pub- 
lishers, and no doubt will meet the hearty approval of all patrons who 
are capable of judging. 

The volume has greatly exceeded the limits originally intended. In 
the prospectus it was promised that the book should contain from TOO 
to 900 pages, but it has been found impossible to comprise the mate- 
rial in less than 1,120 pages. The history of Sedalia has been written 
and prepared complete in itself, expressly for this volume, chiefly from 
the able pen of Mr. I. Mac D. Demuth, who has long lived amid the 
scenes he describes, and to whom, with two other prominent, well-informed 
citizens, the proof-sheets were all submitted for corrections. 

The history of the different townships has been collected and compiled 


with great care and accuracy by those specially adapted to that laborious 
task, and although it is not assumed to be in all cases absolutely free 
from errors, it can be relied upon as substantially correct in facts, names 
and dates. 

The biographical department is an important feature, and remarkably 
free from errors, when taking into consideration the numberless mistakes 
and incorrect statements often given by the subject of the sketch. Until 
comparatively of recent date only persons of national or world-wide 
renown were thought worthy a biographical notice, while the humblest 
walks furnish not a name for the pages of enduring history. These 
sketches will be of value not only to the family and friends but also to the 
community at large. 

Many difficulties were encountered in the early part of the undertaking. 
Not the least was the prejudice of the people against book and map 
enterprises of every description, partly occasioned by the fault of people 
themselves, and partly by the swarms of canvassers, seeking to inveigle 
the citizens into some worthless project, and take away their money 
without rendering any equivalent or fulfilling their promises. Thus it was 
some stood aloof, remained inaccessible, not lending their aid and encour- 
agement. The cost in time and money has been much greater than those 
unaccustomed to such work are apt at first to realize, but the publishers, 
perceiving the growing favor with which county histories are received 
all over the country, confidently expect to meet with the anticipated 
. amount of sales. 

Among the many worthy advocates of progress and enterprises in 
Pettis Count}', the publishers desire to express their grateful acklowledg- 
ments to F. A. Sampson, Esq., for the chapter on Natural History and 
correcting the proof-sheets of Sedalia history; to I. Mac D. Demuth for 
much ot Sedalia's history; to Rev. Dr. John Montgomery for the his- 
tory of the Presbyterian Church; to Rev. John Letts for the history of 
the Baptist Church; to Rev. A. H. Stevens for the history of the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church; to Elder J. H. Duncan for the history of 
the Christian Church; to Rev. J. B. Fuller, Rev. G. A. Beattie, Rev. H. 
R. Miller, Rev. R. A. Johns and others for church history; Mr. C. A. 
Leach for the chapter on Courts and Bar, also the chapter on Pettis 
Countv Live Stock; to Col. A. D. Jaynes, Col. Thomas F. Houston, Maj. 
William Gentry, R. W. Gentry, Dr. J. W. Trader, O. A. Crandall, the 
custodians of the county records, to the editors of the several newspa- 
pers and to many others, by whose liberal support and material aid the 
work has been carried foward to a successful completion, to all and singu- 
lar much credit is due, and many thanks are tendered by 


F. A. North, Manager. 




Historical and Political- 9 

Prehistoric Missouri 10 

The White Race in Missouri 15 

Missouri as a State 25 

Summary of Events and Dates. . . 25 

Counties and population 26 

Census Report, 1880 27 

State Finances 29 

Presidential Vote, 1820 to 1880 30 

Governors From 1820 to 1880 31 

United States Senators 31 

Members of Congress 32 

Public School System 34 

Protectional Laws 40 

Homestead Exemption 40 

Exemption of Personal Property. . . 42 

Rights of Married Women 43 

Taxation 43 

Public Debt Limitation •. . . 44 

Comparative Tax Rate 45 

Federal Affairs in the State 46 

Missouri's Distinguished Men — 

Daniel Boone 47 

Thomas H. Benton 47 

James B. Eads 48 

Carl Schurz 49 

Prof. Charles V. Riley 49 

Missouri in the Civil War 50 


Geology and Minerals 66 

Geological Chart 67 

Mineral Resources 72 

Earth, Clays, Ochre, etc 77 

Geography of Missouri 78 

Rivers and Water Courses 81 

Notable Springs 82 

Soils and their Products 83 

Wild Game 85 

Climate 87 

Healthfulness of the State 89 

Agriculture 90 

Staple Crops 91 

Horticulture 98 

The Grasshopper Plague 96 

Navigation and Commerce 99 

The Lewis and Clark Expedition 100 

First Steamboats in Missouri 101 

The Barge System 103 

Railroads in Missouri 104 

Manufacturing in Missouri 107 

Principal Cities in Missouri 108 

Constitution of the United States 113 

Constitution of Missouri 124 

Abstract of State Laws and Forms. . . 166 
Practical Rules for Every Day Use. . . 196 
Names of the States of the Union and 
their siguificance 202 


Chapter L Introduction and Name. — Object of the Work ; Task of the Historian ; 
By Whom Collected and Compiled; Criticisms; The Name; Hon. Spencer Pettis. 205, 

Chapter II. Early Settlements and Pioneers. — Habits and Characteristics of the 
Pioneers; Pin Hook; Flat Creek; Georgetown; Names of Early Settlers 210, 

Chapter III. Natural History. — Geological Formations; Paleontology; Conchol- 
ogy ; Botany, etc., with partial lists of distribution ot Species 221, 

Chapter IV. Organization. — County Organizations in general ; Act incoi-poratlng 
Pettis County; Names of Commissioners locating the Countv Seat; Organization of 
Townships .' 240, 

Chapter V. Political History. — Whigs and Democrats; Parties in I860; Test Oath 
of 1865; Incidents of the War; Official Election Returns; Official Directory. . .254, 

Chapter VI. Finances. — First Records; Exhibit of Countv Revenue; Treasurer's 
Report for 1850; Railroad Bonds ; Assessment of 1881 and 1882 267, 

Chapter VII. The Courts and Bar. — Origin and Aulhorily of Law ; Seat of Justice 
of Pettis County; Early Courts; List of Judges; Roll of Attorneys from organiza- 
tion to the present time ; Personal mention 275, 

Chapter VIII. Religious History.— Baptists of Pettis County; Presbyterians; The 
M. E. Church South; The Christian Church; The Cumberland "Presbyterian 
Church 29S, 

Chapter IX. Educational History.— Early Schools; Georgetown Schools; Com- 
missioners and Superintendents; Teachers' Institutes 319, 

Chapter X. The Medical Profession 331, 







Chapter XI. Agriculture 342, 350 

Chapter XII. Horticulture 350, 355 

Chapter XIII. Pettis County Live Stock.— History of Stock Raising in Pettis 

County; Men engaged in Stock Raising; Natural Advantages of Pettis County, 355, 369 

Chapter XIV. Railroad History 369, 375 

Chapter XV. Martial History.— Roster of Officers and Soldiers, enlisted in the 

Civil War, and many other important facts connected therewith 375, 390 

Chapter XVI. Newspapers of Pettis County 390, 396 



Chapter I. Introduction, and Foundation of the City 399, 405 

Chapter II. From 1860 to 1865 405, 434 

Chapter III. Capture of Sedalia by the Confederates 434, 458 

Chapter IV. Sedalia after the War 458, 496 

Chapter V. The City Government 496, 504 

Chapter VI. Public Enterprises 504, 511 

Chapter VII. Commercial and Business Interests 511. 540 

Chapter VIII. Churches .540, 572 

Chapter IX. Educational .572, 592 

Chapter X. Social Development 592, 602 

Chapter XI. The Present and the Future 602, 604 


Chapter XII. Houstonia Township 757, 801 

Chapter XIII. Bl.\.ckwater Township 801, 835 

Chapter XIV. Long wood Township 835, 856 

Chapter XV. He.^tii's Creek Township 856, 880 

Chapter XVI. Lamonte Township 880, 907 

Chapter XVII. Dresden Township 907, 925 

Ch.\pter XVIII. Cedar Township 925, 946 

Chapter XIX. Bowling Green Township 946, 963 

Chapter XX. Elk Fork Township 963, 984 

(;hapte:i XXI. Prairie Tow-nship 984, 1001 

Chapter XXII. S.mithton Township 1001, 1036 

Chapter XXIII. Green Ridge Township 1036, 1063 

Chapter XXIV. Washington Township 1063, 1078 

Ch.^pter XXV. Fl.\t Creek Township 1078,1097 

Chapter XXVI. Lake Creek Township 1097, 1108 


Map of Pettis County 7 

Post-Office, Kaisas City 204 

Baking Johnn)' Cake 215 

School of i\Iines and AIetallurg\' 235 

State University 325 

United States Coat of Arms 341 

State Agricultural College 347 

Printing Press 396 

Missouri Coat of Arms 398 

.1 . M. Offield's Block 423 

J. M. Clute'.'i Business House 431 

.lay Gould Hotel 431 

Residence of J. R. Barrett 447 

Residence of S. T. Lupe 459 

Residence of Cyrus Newkirk 475 

Residence of Tlios. B. Price 491 

J. W. Truxel's Music House 495 

Residence of Wm. Gentry 507 

W. J. Bagby's Grocery Store 523 

D. I. Holcomb's China Store 533 

Baptist Churcli, East Sedalia 561 

Residence of R. W. Gentry 575 

Story's Block 579 

Residence of John Montgomery, Jr. . . 581 

Sedalia Business College.. 588 

Bazoo Printing House. 590 

Democrat Office 591 

Portrait— Thos. H. Benton 604 

Kruse & Frederick's Block . .opposite 604 

H. W. Wood's Block opposite 604 

First Baptist Church opposite 605 

Residence of .1. D. Crawford 635 

Residence of J. N. Dalby 639 

Residence of J. C. Thompson 743 

Residence of J. C. Higgins 819 

Residence of J. G. Senior 826 

Residence of Samuel Shanks 828 

Residence of J. L. Cartwrigbt 867 

Residence of Joshua Gentry 909 





History of the State of Missouri. 



When a book is written, it is presumed that the writer had some object 
in view and some end to achieve by his labor in collecting the material 
and writing the book; and it is right that he should put himself on good 
terms with his readers at the outset by making a brief, but frank and 
honest statement of his object, plan and purpose in the book which he 
offers to public patronage. The writer of this History of Missouri has 
aimed to embody in a brief space the greatest amount of solid and reliable 
information about things which directly hinge and center upon or within 
the territory of this State — this international commonwealth, which holds 
by right divine the royal prerogative of a destiny imperial and grand, if 
she can acquire or develop human brain and muscle adequate to utilize 
wisely, honorably and energetically her magnificent natural resources, 
both of commercial position and of agricultural and mineral wealth. The 
writer's desire and effort has been to present nothing which would not be 
read with deep interest by every intelligent citizen of Missouri at the 
present time; and also stand as a permanent body of information, at once 
useful and reliable for future reference. Discussion of theories, problems 
or doubtful matters has been avoided; solid facts have been diligently 
sought after; and the narrative has been made to embody as many facts 
and events as possible without falling into the dry-bones method of mere 
statistical tables. In fact, the limit of space allotted him has compelled the 
writer to condense, epitomize, shorten up — and therefore continually to 
repress his desire to embellish the narrative with the graces of rhetoric 
and the glow of an exuberant and fervid enthusiasm. This, however, 
secures to the reader more facts within the same space. 

In preparing this work more than a hundred volumes have been con- 
sulted, to collate incidents and authenticate dates and facts, besides much 
matter gathered from original sources and not before embraced in any 


represented a captive bound with thongs. Both figures showed the 
peculiar contour of head and features which marks the mound-builder 

In December, 1868, some laborers engaged in grading Sixth street, in 
East St. Louis, dug up a nest of unused flint hoes or shovels, and another 
deposit of shells with string-holes worked in them, and another deposit of 
boulders of flint and greenstone, ready to make more tools or weapons 
from. These deposits were on high ground, and about half-way between 
two ancient mounds. 

In 1876 or 1877 some ancient mounds were discovered on the banks of 
the Missouri river near Kansas City. They were in groups of three 
and five together, at different points for five miles up and down the river. 
Some were built entirely of earth, and some had a rude stone chamber or 
vault inside, but covered with earth so that all looked alike outside. They 
were of an irregular oval shape, from four to six feet high, and had 
heavy growths of timber on top. Mr. W. H. R. Lykins, of Kansas 
City, noticed a burr-oak tree five feet in diameter, growing on top of 
one of them, and the decayed stump of a black walnut of about the same 
size, on another. In describing the exploration of some of these mounds 
Mr. Lykins gives some points that will be of interest to everyone. He 
says : 

" We did not notice an}^ very marked peculiarity as to these bones 
except their great size and thickness, and the great prominence of the 
supraciliarv ridges. The teeth were worn down to a smooth and even 
surface. The next one we opened was a stone mound. On clearing oft 
the top of this we came upon a stone wall inclosing an area about eight 
feet square, with a narrow opening for a doorway or entrance on the 
south side. The wall of this inclosure was about two feet thick; the 
inside was as smooth and compactly built and the corners as correctly 
squared as if constructed b^^ a practical workman. No mortar had been 
used. At a depth of about two feet from the top of the wall we found a 
layer of five skeletons lying with their feet toward the south." * 

None of the other walls examined were so skilfully laid as this one. 
The bones were crumbly, and only a few fragments were preserved by 
coating them well with varnish as quickly as possible after they were 
exposed to the air. One stone enclosure was found full of ashes, char- 
coal and burnt human bones, and the stones and earth of which the 
mound was composed all showed the effects of fire. Hence it is pre- 
sumed that this was either a cremation furnace or else an altar for human 
sacrifices — most probably the latter. Some fragments of pottery were 
found in the vicinity. 

L. C, Beck in 1823f reported some remains in the territory now con- 
stituting Crawford county, Missouri, which he thought showed that there 

* Smithsonian Report, 1877, p. 252. 

f Gazetteer of Illinois and Missouri, published by L. C. Beck, in 1828-23. 


was in old time a town there, with streets, squares, and houses built with 
Stone foundations and mud walls. He also mentions the ruins of an 
ancient stone building described to him by Gen. Ashley, as situated on a 
high cliff on the west side of the Gasconade river. And another one said to 
be in Pike county, is thus described: " It presents the dilapidated remains 
of a building constructed of rough, unhewn stones, fifty-six feet long and 
twenty-two broad, embracing several divisions and chambers. The 
walls are from two to five feet high. Eighty rods eastward of this 
structure is found a smaller one of similar construction. The narrow 
apartments are said to be arched with stone, one course overlapping the 
other, after the manner of the edifices of Central America." 

I. Dille, Esq., of Newark, Ohio, reported that he had examined some 
of these pre-historic town ruins, in the vicinit}' of Mine-la-Motte and 
Fredericktown, in Madison county, Missouri. He speaks of them as 
groups of small tumuli, and says: "I have concluded they are the 
remains of mud houses. Thev are alwavs arranijed in straifjht lines, 
with broad streets intervening- between them, crossinij each other at riijht 
angles. The distance apart varies in different groups, but it is always 
uniform m the same group. '••' * I have counted upwards of 
two hundred of these mounds in a single group. Arrow heads of jasper 
and agate, and axes of sienite and porphyry have been found in their 
vicinity." "" 

Mounds or other pre-historic structures have been found on Spencer's 
creek in Ralls county; on Cedar creek in Boone county; on Crow's Fork 
and other places in Callawav countv ; near Berger Station in Franklin 
county; near Miami in Saline county; on Blackwater river in John- 
son county; on Salt river in Pike countv; on Prairie Fork in Mont- 
gomery county; near New Madrid; and in many other parts of the 

The class of ancient ruins, partly built of stone, said to exist in 
Clay, Crawford, Pike and Gasconade counties, Missouri, are not found 
further north, but are frequent enough further south, and are supposed 
to indicate a transitional period in the development of architectural 
knowledge and skill, from the grotesque earth-mounds of Wisconsin to 
the well-finished adobe structures of New Mexico, and the grander stone 
ruins of Yucatan. But, no matter what theory we adopt with regard to 
these pre-historic relics, the present citizens of Missouri can rest assured 
that a different race of human beino-s lived and flourished all over this 
region of country, hundreds — yes, thousands of years ago, and that they 
were markedly different in their modes of Hfe from our modern Indians. 

* Many large and costly works have been published by scientists, devoted to the general 
subject of Pre-Historic Man; but of cheap and popular works for the general reader, the 
best are Foster's "Pre-Historic Races of the United States"; and Baldwin's "Ancient 


And there are at least two discoveries known which show that these people 
were here before the extinction of the mastodon, or great American 
elephant. In the " Transactions of the St. Louis Academy of Sciences," 
1857, Dr. Kock reports that in the year 1839 he dug up in Gasconade 
county [as that county then was] the bones of a mastodon, near the 
Bourbeuse river. The skeleton of this gigantic creature was buried in 
such a position as to show that it had got its hind legs down in a bog so 
deeply that it could not climb out, although its fore feet were on dry 
ground. The natives had attacked it with their flint arrows and spears, 
most of which were found in a broken condition; but they had finally 
managed to build a big fire so close to its head as to burn it to death, the 
head-bones and tusks being found all burnt to coals. The account of 
this discovery was first printed in the Philadel-phia Presbyterian^ Jan. 12, 
1839, and copied into the "American Journal of Science " the same year. 
The authenticity of the incident has been disputed, on the assumed 
ground that man did not exist as long ago as when the mastodon roamed 
over these pre-historic plains; but science now has indisputable evidence 
that man existed even in the Tertiary age of the geological scale, (see 
note to chart in chapter on Geology) long before the glacial epoch; hence 
that objection has no force at present. 

Dr. Koch further reports that about a year after unearthing the Gas- 
conade county monster, he again found in the bottom land of the Pom- 
me-de-Terre river, in Benton county, a nearly complete skeleton of the 
great extinct beast called Missotiritcm, with arrow-heads under it in such 
a way as to show beyond question that they were made and used while 
the animal was alive. This skeleton is now in the British Museum. * 

Human foot frints have been found in the rocks at De Soto in JefTerson 
county, also in Gasconade county, and at St. Louis. H. R. Schoolcraft, 
in his book of travels in the Mississippi river country in 1821, said of 
these footprints: "The impressions in the stone are, to all appearance, 
those of a man standing in an erect posture, with the left foot a little 
advanced, and the heels drawn in. The distance between the heels, by 
accurate measurement, is 6|- inches and between the extremities of the 
toes 13^ inches. The length of these tracks is 10 J inches; across the 
toes 4^ inches as spread out, and but 2|- at the heel." 

Our eminent U. S. Senator, Thomas H. Benton, wrote a letter April 
29th, 1822, in which he says: "The prints of the human feet which you 
mention, I have seen hundreds of times. They were on the uncovered 
limestone rock in front of the town of St. Louis. The prints were seen 
when the countr}' was first settled, and had the same appearance then as 
now. No tradition can tell anything about them. They look as old 
as the rock. They have the same fine pohsh which the attrition of the 

* See Foster's " Pre-Historic Races of the United States," pp. 62-3-4-5-6. 


sand and water has made upon the rest of the rock which is exposed to 
their action. I have examined them often with great attention. They 
are not handsome, but exquisitely natural, both in the form and position. 
* * A block 6 or 8 feet long and 3 or 4 feet wide, containing the 
prints, was cut out by Mr. John Jones, in St. Louis, and sold to Mr. 
Rappe, of New Harmony, Indiana."- 

Prof. G. C. Broadhead, and some other writers, think these were not 
natural impression of human feet, but sculptures made by hand. This 
theory requires a belief that the pre-historic men of Missouri had tools 
with which they could cut the most delicate lines in hard rocks; and that 
they studied the human form in its finest details ot muscular action and 
attitude, and had the art of sculpturing these things so as to look " exqui- 
sitely natural^'' as Col. Benton expresses it — thus rivaUing, if not exceUing 
the most famous sculptors of ancient Greece; all of which is wholly incon- 
sistent with the known facts. And besides this, there is no better geolog- 
ical reason for doubting their genuineness as natural footprints, than there 
is in the case of the famous bird and reptile tracks in the sandstones of 
Connecticut, or those found by Prof. Mudge in Kansas, in 1873. There 
is no valid reason, either of an sesthetic, historical, or scientific nature, for 
pronouncing them anything but just what they show themselves to be — 
fossil footprints of a man who stood in the mud barefooted; and in course 
of time that mud became solid stone, preserving his footprints just as he 
left their exact impression in the plastic material. 



In 1512 the Spanish adventurer Ponce de Leon discovered Florida; and 
at this time and for some years after the old countries of Europe were filled 
with the wildest and most extravagant stories about the inexhaustible mines 
of gold, silver and precious stones that existed in the country north of the 
Gulf of Mexico ; also of great and populous cities containing fabulous wealth, 
beyond what Pizarro and Cortes had found in Peru and Mexico. And 
besides all this, the "fountain of perpetual youth," which all Europe had gone 
crazy after, about this time, was supposed to be in that region. Indeed, 
it can hardly be doubted that the Spaniards in Mexico had gathered from 
the natives some inkling of the wonderful healing waters now known as 

* See Smithsonian Report, 1879, pp. 357-58. Also " American Antiquities," by Josiah 
Priest, 1833, pp. 1850-51-52. 


Hot Springs, Arkansas, and the brilliant quartz crystals found in that 
region, as well as the glittering ores of Missiouri. 

Ferdinand de Soto was a w^ealthy cavalier w^ho had won fame as a 
leading commander in Pizarro's conquest of Peru; he imbibed deeply the 
current imaginings about the undiscovered wonders of the new world, 
and was eager to immortalize his name bv brinffinir to his king and coun- 
try the glory of still more important conquests and discoveries; and he 
especiall}^ desired to find the supposed " fountain of perpetual youth." 
Accordingly, in 1538 he received permission trom the king of Spain to 
conquer Florida at his own cost — "Florida" then meaning all the 
unknown country from the Gulf of Mexico to the Northern ocean. He 
collected a band of more than six hundred vouncr bloods who were able 
to equip themselves in all the gorgeous trappings and splendor of a Span- 
ish cavalier dress parade, and w'ith this plumed and tinselled troupe, very 
like the orand entj-ec riders of a modern circus, he landed in Tampa Bay, 
Florida, in 1539. From here he boldh' struck out into the interior, wan- 
dering about and pushing forward with dogged perseverance, in spite of 
bogs and streams and blufls; in spite of tangling thickets and dense for- 
ests; in spite of heats and rains: in spite of the determined hostilitv of 
the natives — until in May, 1541, he discovered the Great River, a few 
miles below where the city of Memphis now stands; and thus he made 
his name memorable for all time. After some delay, to construct boats, 
they crossed the river and pushed on northward as far as where the city of 
New Madrid now stands ; and this w^as the first time that the eyes of white 
men looked upon any portion of the soil now comprised within the State 
of Missouri.* But, so fruitless was this visit that no white man set foot 
within our present State boundary again until one hundred and thirty-two 
years .afterward, W'hen the French missionaries, Marquette and Joliet, . 
came from the great lakes down the Wisconsin and Mississippi rivers, to 
the mouth of the JNIissouri, in June, 1073. This was the first time white 
men had beheld the waters of this great stream, and they named it Pcki- 
ionoui, or " Mudd}^ Water River ". It was known by this name until 
about 1710 or 1712, when it becran to be called " the river of the Mis- 
souris," referring to a tribe of Indians that dwelt at its mouth, chiefly on 
the lands now comprised in St. Louis county. Marquette and Joliet went 
on down the river as far south as the mouth of the Arkansas river, of course 
making several camping stops on Missouri soil, and discovering the Ohio 
river. From the Arkansas they returned northward the same way they 

* De Soto and his army came into Mi&soHii trom the south, twice crossing the Ozark 
mountains. He spent the ^Yinte^ of 1541-42 in Vernon countj-, in the extreme western 
part of the State. Ruins of their winter camp structures and smelting operations are still 
found there. They melted lead ore for silver, and the glittering, lustrous, yellow, zinc 
blende or Smilhsonite for gold; but were deeply disgusted to find at last that they had 
been handling only the basest metals. 


came down, and reached Green Bay, Wisconsin, again in September of 
that year — 1673. 

The next visit of white men to this State was in 1682. In 1678 the 
French had built a fort with a missionary station trading post, near 
where the city of Peoria, Ills., now stands. During the winter of 1681 
-82, Robert de la Salle made preparations, first in Canada, and then at 
this Illinois fort, to explore the Mississippi river to its mouth. He left the 
fort with a company of twenty Frenchmen, eighteert Indian men and ten 
squaws, in such boats and canoes as he could provide. They rowed down 
the Illinois river and reached its mouth on the 6th of February; a few 
days were spent here making observations, repairing boats, preparing 
food, and establishing signals that they had been there and taken posses- 
sion of the land in the name of their great king. By February 13th La SaUe 
was ready to push on, and started with his little fleet to solve the great 
mystery of a navigable waterway to the Gulf of Mexico. Of course this 
expeditipn passed along the eastern border of Missouri, but no points are 
mentioned to identify any landing which they may have made within our 
State. Early in April La Salle accomplished the grand object of his ven- 
ture by discovering the three principal mouths of the Mississippi; and on 
the nearest firm dry land he could find from the mouth he set up a col- 
umn bearing the cross and the royal arms of France, while the whole 
company performed the military and religious rites of loyalty to their 
king and country — and La Salle himself, acting as chief master of cere- 
monies, in a clear, loud voice proclaimed that he took possession of all 
the country between the great gulf and the frozen ocean, "in the name of 
the most high, mighty and victorious prince, Louis the Great, by the 
grace of God king of France and Navarre, 1-ith of the name, this 9th day 
of April, 1682." In honor of his sovereign he named the whole vast 
region Louisiana — that is, Louis' land, and named the river itself St. 
Louis. And thus it was that our State of Missouri first became a part 
of historic Louisiana, and passed under the nominal ownership and 
authority of France. 

The next historic appearance of white men within our State \vas in 
1705. The French settlers in this vast new country had kept themselves 
entirely on the east side of the Mississippi river; but during this year 
they sent an exploring party up the Missouri river in search of gold; it 
prospected as far as the mouth of the Kansas river, where Kansas City 
now stands, without finding anything valuable, and returned disheartened 
and disgusted. On September 14, 1712, the king of France, Louis XIV, 
gave to a wealthy French merchant named Anthony Crozat, a royal patent 
of " all the country drained by the waters emptying directh^ or indirectly 
into the Mississippi, which is all included in the boundaries of Louisiana." 
Crozat appointed his business partner, M. de la Motte, governor, and he 


arrived in 1713; Kaskaskia, Illinois, was then the provincial headquarters, 
and source of supplies for Upper Louisiana, which was also sometimes 
called Illinois; but New Orleans was the nominal seat of government for 
the whole Louisiana territory. The old town of Mine-la- Mo tte, in Mad- 
ison county, commemorates this first governor. Crozat expected to find 
inexhaustible mines of gold and silver in this territory, and spent immense 
sums of money in vain efforts to attain his object. Practical miners were 
sent every where that the natives reported any glittering substance to exist. 
The explorers found iron, zinc, copper, lead, mica, pyrites, quartz crystals, 
etc., in great abundance, but no gold, silver or diamonds; and after five 
years of disastrous failure and disappointment, in 1717, Crozat returned his 
luckless charter to the king. 

Next, in 1716 an adventurous Scotchman named John Law, got up a 
grand scheme for making everybody rich without work, and induced the 
French king and court and people to engage in it. This wild financial 
venture is known in history as the " Mississippi bubble," the " South Sea 
bubble," etc. The charter of Louisiana and monopoly of all its trade was 
given to a corporation, called the " Company of the West," whose cap- 
ital stock was to be 100,000,000 francs, with power to issue stock in small 
shares, and estabhsh a bank, etc. Shares rose to twenty times their 
original value, and the bank's notes, though essentiall}'- worthless, were 
in circulation to the amount of more than $200,000,000. Law himself 
sunk $500,000 in the scheme; but it bursted, as bodiless as a bag of wind; 
while he, the originator and manager of it, had to escape from Paris for 
his life, and died poor at Venice in 1729. In 1731 the charter of Louis- 
iana was again returned to the crown. However, the excitement over 
this great scheme for making fabulous wealth out of nothing, had 
brought many adventurous Frenchmen into the territory as gold-hunters, 
who failing in that, worked some of the lead mines, and sent their pro- 
ducts back to Europe. 

In 1720 or 1721, an enterprising Frenchman named Renault took 
charge of a large lead mining enterprise. He brought M. La Motte, 
who was a professional mineralogist, with about two hundred expert 
miners and metallurgists, and five hundred negroes, to develop the mineral 
wealth that actually did exist. He made his headquarters at Fort de Char- 
tres, on the Illinois side, ten miles above St. Genevieve, and sent out explor- 
ing and working parties to locate mining camps west of the Great River. 
Mine-la-Motte, in Madison county, was one of the first of these loca- 
tions; also Potosi and Old Mine in Washington county; and many 
others. In 1765 a few families located at Potosi. Much of the mining 
was surface work — hence, scattered and transitory; and their smelting 
operations were merely to melt the ore in a wood fire and then clear away 
the ashes and gather up the lumps of lead. This was carried to 


the river on pack-horses or on rude ox-carts, and thence shipped to New 
Orleans by fleets of drifting keel-boats, which returned laden with for- 
eign goods. Many of the immigrants of this period also engaged in 
agriculture, especially in Illinois, so that there really began to be a settled 
occupation of the country, as a final outcome of the greatest speculative 
delusion known to history. Lippincott's Gazetteer of the World says: 
" Fort Orleans, near where Jefferson City now stands, was built by the 
French in 1719"; this was a temporary safeguard for John Law's crazy 
gold-hunters, but did not make a permanent settlement. Kaskaskia, now 
in Randolph count}', Ills., was settled by the French in 1673, and was 
for about a century the metropolis of the vast territory sometimes called 
"Upper Louisiana," sometimes "Illinois," and sometimes the "Northwestern 
Territory." And in 1735 some emigrants from Kaskaskia, moved across 
the Great River and made a settlement at what is now St. Genevieve, 
Missouri, w^hich was the first permanent white settlement made and 
maintained within the State; the previous adventurers in search of min- 
eral wealth had located mining camps at several points, but had not 
established any permanent town or trading post. 

The next settlement that can be historically traced to its origin was 
that of St. Louis. A Frenchman named Pierre Liguest Laclede,* who 
hved in New Orleans in 1702, organized the "Louisiana Fur Company," 
under a charter from the director-general of the province of Louisiana; 
this charter gave them the exclusive right to carry on the fur trade with 
the Indians bordering on the Missouri river, and west of the Mississippi, 
" as far north as the river St. Peter" (the same that is now called the Min- 
nesota river, and empties into the Mississippi at Fort Snelling). Laclede 
seems to have formed a definite plan and purpose to establish a permanent 
trading post at some point in Upper Louisiana, for he made up a company 
of professional trappers, hunters, mechanics, laborers, and boatmen, and 
with a supply of goods suitable for the Indian trade, they left New 
Orleans in August, 1763, bound for the mouth of the Missouri river. 
The manner of navigating these boats against the current of the Missis- 
sippi for a distance of 1,194 miles, was of the most rude, primitive and 
laborious sort. Sometimes when the wind was favorable they could sail 
a little; but the main dependence was by means of push-poles and tow- 
ropes. The boats were long and narrow, with a plank projecting six or 
eight inches on each side. The boat would of course keep near the shore; 
a man at each side, near the bow of the boat, would set his pole on the 
river bottom, then brace his shoulder against the top of the pole with 

* Campbell's Gazetteer of Missouri says this man's family name was Liguest; B. 
Gratz Brown gives it in Johnson's Cyclopedia as Lingueste; but the man himself appears 
to have written his name Laclede, of the firm of Laclede, Moxan & Co., who constituted 
the historic "Louisiana Fur Company." 


all his might, and as the boat moved under him he would walk along 
the narrow plank until he reached the stern, and the boat had thus been 
propelled forward the distance of its length; then he would walk back 
to the bow, dragging his pole along in the water, set it on the bottom 
and push again as before. And thus it was that the rugged pioneers of 
civilization in the new world for more that a hundred years navigated 
the Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin, and some other rivers, 
with what were in later years called keel-boats. But sometimes, for a 
rest, or when the beach was favorable, a gang of men would go ashore 
with a long rope attached to the boat, and thus tow it along against the 
current, or they would tie the forward end to a tree or snag and let those 
on the boat pull in the rope and thus draw the boat along — meanwhile 
those on shore going ahead with another rope, making another tie — and 
so on; this was called "warping"; but when it was necessary to cross 
the stream they had recourse to oars or paddles. It took Laclede three 
months in this way to get from New Orleans up to St. Genevieve, or 
Fort de Chartres, the militar}'- post on the east side a few miles further up 
the river, where he arrived on the third of November. Here he left his 
goods and part of his company, but taking a few picked men, he himself 
pushed on to the mouth of the Missouri. He seems to have had a sort of 
prophetic forecast that this was the right spot to locate the future trading 
post for all that vast region of country which was drained by the two prin- 
cipal great rivers of the new world. At the mouth of the Missouri he 
found no site that suited him for a town, and he turned back down the 
Mississippi, carefully exploring the west bank until he reached the high, 
well protected and well drained location where the city of St. Louis now 
stands. This was the nearest spot to the mouth of the Missouri which 
at all met his idea, and he began at once to mark the place by chopping 
notches in some of the principal trees. This was in December, 1763. 
He then returned to the fort and pushed on his preparations for the new 
settlement, saying enthusiastically to the officers of the fort that he had 
*' found a situation where he was going to plant his colony; and the site 
was so fine, and had so many advantages of position for trade with all 
this region of country, thai it might in time become one of the finest cities 
in America!''' 

Early in February, 1764, a company of thirty men, in charge of 
Auguste Chouteau, set out from Fort de Chartres and arrived at the 
chosen spot on the 14th. The next day all hands went to work clearing 
the ground and building a storehouse for the goods and tools, and cabins 
for their own habitation. In April Laclede himself joined them and pro- 
ceeded to lay out the village plat, select a site for his own residence, and 
name the town Saint Louis, in honor of his supposed sovereign, Louis XV. 
This very territory had been yielded up to Spain in 1762, but these loyal 


Frenchmen in naming their new town after the French king never 
dreamed that they were then and for nearly two years had been Spanish 
subjects, instead of French; the unwelcome news had reached New 
Orleans in the same month, April, but did not arrive at St. Louis until late 
in the year; and when it came the inhabitants were appropriately wroth 
and indignant, for they hated Spain with a fighting hatred. However, the 
change made very little practical difference to the town or its people. In 
1763 all the French possessions on the east side of the Mississippi river, 
and also Canada, had been ceded to England, but it was late in 1764 
before the English authorities arrived to take possession of Kaskaskia, or 
Fort de Chartres, and other military posts ; and when they did come, 
many of the French settlers moved over to St. Louis, giving it a consid- 
erable start, both in population and business. The Indians, too, being 
generally more friendly toward the French than the English, came over 
to St. Louis to trade their peltries, instead of going to Kaskaskia, as they 
had formerly done; and this fact gave the new town a powerful impulse. 

From this time forward new settlements began to spring up within our 
present boundaries. New Bourbon was settled in 1789. In 1762 a 
hunter named Blanchette built a cabin where the city of St. Charles now 
stands, and lived there many years; but just when the place began to be 
a town or village does not appear to be known. However, in 1803, St. 
Charles county was organized, and then comprised all the territory lying 
north of the Missouri and west of the Mississippi; thus taking in all of 
north Missouri, and the entire States of Iowa, Minnesota, Dakota, and on 
west to the Pacific ocean. This was the largest single " county " ever 
known in the world, and St. Charles city was the county seat. 

In 1781 the Delaware Indians had a considerable town where New 
Madrid now stands; and that year Mr. Curre, a fur trader of St. Louis, 
established a branch house here. In 1788 a colony from New Jersey 
settled here, and laid out a plat for a large city, giving it the name of New 
Madrid, in honor of the capital of Spain. But they never reahzed their 
high hopes of building up a splendid city there. 

Among the historic incidents of early settlement worthy of mention at 
this point, is the case of Daniel Boone, whose hunter life in Kentucky 
forms a staple part of American pioneer history. Boone came to this 
territory in 1797, renounced his citizenship in the United States, and took 
the oath of allegiance to the Spanish crown. Delassus was then the 
Spanish governor; and he appointed Boone commander of a fort at 
Femme Osage, now in the west part of St. Charles county. He roamed 
and hunted over the central regions of Missouri the rest of his life, and it 
was for a long period called the "Boone's Lick country," from some salt 
licks or springs which he discovered and his sons worked, and which 
were choice hunting grounds because deer and other animals came there 


to lick salt. Col. Boone died Sept. 26, 1820, in St. Charles county, but 
was buried in Marthasville in Warren county, as was his wife also. 
Their bones were subsequently removed to Frankfort, Kentucky. 


In 1801 the territory west of the Mississippi was ceded back to France 
by Spain; in 1803 President Jefferson purchased from the French 
Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, the entire territory of Louisiana, for $15,- 
000,000; the formal transfer was made at New Orleans, December 20, 
1803. On the 26th of March, 1804, Congress passed an act dividing this 
vast accession into two parts, the lower one being named the "Terri- 
tory of Orleans," with its capital at New Orleans; the upper division 
was called the "District of Louisiana," with its capital at .St. Louis. 
This latter district comprised the present State of Arkansas and all from 
that north to nearly the north line of Minnesota, and west Irom the Mis- 
sissippi river to the Rocky Mountains. Don Carlos Dehault Delassus 
had been the last Spanish governor at St. Louis, and no change was 
made after its re-cession to France, until in March, 1804, when he delivered 
the keys and the public documents of his governorship to Capt. Amos 
Stoddard, of the United States army, who immediately raised the first 
American flag that ever floated west of the Mississippi river, over the 
government buildings at St. Louis. There it has floated proudly and 
uninterruptedly ever since, and there it will float until St. Louis becomes 
the central metropolis and seat of empire of the entire North American 

It should be mentioned here that the war of the American Revolution 
did not involve any military operations as far west as the Mississippi river; 
hence the little French fur-trading village of St. Louis w^as not affected 
by the clash of arms which was raging so desperately throuj^h all the 
States east of the Ohio river. But the success of the colonies in this 
unequal conflict gave them control of all south of the river St. Lawrence 
and the great lakes, as far west as the Mississippi river; and when Napo- 
leon had sold to the new republic the extensive French possessions west 
of the Mississippi, he remarked that this accession of territory and con- 
trol of both banks of the Mississippi river would forever strengthen the 
power of the United States; and said he, with keen satisfaction, "I have 
given England a maritime rival that will sooner or later humble her 

On the 3d of March, 1805, Congress passed at act to organize the 
Territory of Louisiana; and President Jefferson then appointed as territo- 
rial governor. Gen. James Wilkinson; secretary, Frederick Bates ; judges, 
Return J. Meigs and John B. Lucas. Thus civil matters went on, 


and business increased rapidly. When the United States took pos- 
session of this district or territory it was reputed to contain nine thous- 
and white inhabitants and about three thousand negroes. The first cen- 
sus of St. Louis was taken in 1T99, and it then had 897 inhabitants. 
This is presumed to have included the village of Carondelet also, which 
was started as a rival town soon after the founding of St. Louis. 

In June, 1812, Congress passed another act with regard to this new 
country, and this time it was named the Territory of Missouri, instead of 
Louisiana. The President was to appoint a governor; the people were 
to elect representatives in the ratio of one for every five hundred white 
male inhabitants; this legislative body or lower house, was to nominate 
to the President eighteen of their own citizens, and from those he was to 
select and commission nine to form, a senate or legislative council. The 
house of representatives was to consist of thirteen members at first; they 
were to hold their office two 3'ears, and must hold at least one legislative 
session at Saint Louis each year. The territory was also authorized to 
send one delegate to Congress. 

In October, 1812, the first territorial election was held, and these peo- 
ple experienced for the first time in their lives the American privilege of 
choosing their own law-makers. There were four candidates for Con- 
gress, and Edward Hempstead was elected. He served two years from 
December 7th, 1812; then Rufus Easton served two years; then John 
Scott two years; Mr. Easton was one of the four candidates at the first 
election ; and Mr. Scott was one of the members from St. Genevieve of 
the first legislative council. The first body of representatives met at the 
house of Joseph Robidoux, in St. Louis, on December 7th, and consisted 
of the following members: 

From St. Charles — John Pitman, -Robert Spencer. 

St. Louis— T>2iv\di Musick, B. J. Farrar, Wm. C. Carr, Richard Caulk. 

St. Genevieve — George Bullet, R. S. Thomas, Isaac McGready. 

Cafe Girardeau — G. F. Ballinger, Spencer Byrd. 

New Madrid — John Shrader, Samuel Phillips. 

They were sworn into office by Judge Lucas. Wm. C. Carr of St. 
Louis, was elected speaker. The principal business of this assembly was 
to nominate the eighteen men from whom the President and U. S. Sen- 
ate should select nine to constitute the legislative council; they made their 
nominations and sent them on to Washington, but it was not known until 
the next June who were selected. June 3d, 1813, the secretary and acting 
governor, Frederick Bates, issued a proclamation declaring who had been 
chosen by the President as the council of nine, and they were — 

From St. Charles — James Flaugherty, Benj. Emmons. 

St. Louis — Auguste Chouteau, Sr., Samuel Hammond. 

St. Genevieve — John Scott, James Maxwell. 


Cape Girardeau — Wm. Neely, Joseph Cavener. 
JVew Madrid — Joseph Hunter. 

In July of this year the newly appointed governor, Wm. Clarke, took 
his seat, and held it until Missouri became a State in 1S20.* 

December, 1S13, the second session of the territorial lesislature was 
convened in St. Louis, and continued until January 19, 1814. This year 
the second territorial election occurred, and the new general assembly 
met December 5, this being the third sitting of the territorial legisla- 
ture. The fourth commenced in November, 1815, and continued until 
about the last of January, 1816. And it was during this session that the 
common law of England, and her general statutes passed prior to the 
fourth year of James I, were adopted as the laws of Missouri, except 
such changes as were necessary to phrase them for the United States 
and its system of government, instead of England. 

April 29, 1816, Congress again legislated for this territory, and pro- 
vided that the legislative council or senate should be elected by the peo- 
ple instead of being appointed by the President; that the legislature 
should meet biennially instead of annually; and that the U. S. judges 
should be required to hold regular terms of circuit court in each county. 
The fifth legislative session (being the first under this act) met the first 
week in December of this year, and continued until February 1, 1817. 
Then there was no further legislation until the regular biennial session 
which met about December first, 1818. But during 1817, Henry S. 
Gayer, Esq., compiled a digest of all the laws, including those of French, 
Spanish, English and American origin, which were still in force in this 
territorv. This was a verv important work, in view of the fact that 
there were land titles and instances of property inheritance deriving 
their legal verity from these different sources; and it was now desirable 
to get all titles and vestitures clearly set upon an American basis of law 
and equity. The next or sixth session of the legislature continued 
through December, 1818, and January, 1819; and the most important thing 
done was applving to Congress for Missouri to be admitted as a State. 
John Scott, of St. Genevieve county, was then the territorial delegate in 
Congress, and presented the applicaUon. A bill was introduced to 
authorize the people of Missouri to elect delegates to a convention w'hich 
should frame a State constitution. The population of Missouri territory 
at this time (or w-hen the first census was taken, in 1821,) consisted 
of .o9,393 free white inhabitants and 11,25-4 slaves. A member of 
Congress from New York, Mr. Talmadge, offered an amendment to the 
proposed bill, providing that slavery should be excluded from the proposed 
new State. This gave rise to hot and angry debate for nearly two 

* Gov. Clarke died Sept. 31, 1838, at St. Louis. 

h:-7:?.v zt ttd; state of missoosi. 95 

years, and is-liich at times seemed to threaten an immediate disst^atKm of 
the Natioaal Uiii<n. But the strife was finalbr quieted by the adc^stioo in 
Congress on March 6, 1620, <rf what is famous in bistmy as the "Mis- 
sonri Compromise,'' by isrbich it w^as agreed that Missomi mi^it come 
into the Union as a slave-holding State; bat that slavery should never be 
established in anv State which might diereafiber be formed from lands 
lying north of latitude 36 deg. 30 min. The eledioos were hdd for dele- 
gates, the cc«istituti<Hial convention n- .^: _- :_:_-. accepted the terms 
of admisaon pr^oibed by Congress, an r. _. I9di, 1S30, Mx^onri 
took her place as one of the sovereigT. S-;.:ts ;: -':.- ^ donal Umoo. 


July 19, 1820, ^Missouri laid off the vestments of territofial totdage and 
put on the matronly robes of matore statdiood, as the coHStilulioDalcnnven- 
tion was authorized to frame the oi^anic law and give it immediate £ocoe 
^Htboat submitting it to a vote of the people, and this cot^titntion stood 
in force \\-ithout any material change until the free Siite : ' r-ration dL 
1865 was adopted. The first general election unc r . r r r _ :; : - is 
held in August, 1820, at which time Alexander McIn . . : — ; _ : . - 

emor and J<^m Scott representative in Congrr?? Mt _-> : r_...i- 
ture had been chosen at the same time, comprls : _ : _ ; i r. i 

fortv three representatives; and this first gecr -. - — : .: .- -: .- 

convened in St. Louis in the latter part of S.^..:: z^r 7 t :-r ::£ 
thing of historic interest done by this assembly was i.z r t: :. .e 
United States Soiate of Thomas H. Benton, who conti-uri . t- _. r.- 
terruptedly untQ 1851, a period of thirty years, and was \:.-z. -'.-y.-zi -jz 
1852 as representative in Congress : ::: . r S: 1 :_:? i _:..:: Tr.e 
other senator elected at this time was I .11 ]; : ;r : r .t f . r: 

term," and was renelected in 1824. 


Application made to Ccwigress for a state government March 16, 
IfclS, and December IS, ISIS. — A bill to admit was defeated in Congress, 
which was introduced February 15, 1S19. — Apphcation mace to Congress 
for an <^naMing act, December 29, IS1&. — Enabling act <^ known as the 
Missouri Compromise) passed by Consrress March <?. 1S2C'. — First stare 
constitntiao formed Juty 19, 182(«. — Rri:.-.i::r. .: iir.i: -; :-. -.l:-. ; --ti 
Senate December 12, 1820 : zzz:-.ti :. -.':.z H:-5z 7r:.-_i.: 14. 1^_1. — 



Conditional resolution to admit approved March 2, 1821. — Condition 
accepted by the legislature of Missouri and approved by governor, June 
26, 1821. — By proclamation of the President, admitted as a state August 
10, 1821. 

The State capital was first at St. Louis; then at St. Charles about five 
years; but on October 1st, 1826, it was moved to Jefferson City, and 
has remained there ever smce. 


The first census of the State was taken in September, 1821, and showed 
the population by counties as follows: 

Boone county 3,692 

Calloway 1,797 

Cape Girardeau 7,852 

Chariton 1,426 

Cole 1,028 

Cooper 3,483 

Franklin 1,928 

Gasconade 1,174 

Howard 7,321 

Jefterson 1,838 

L,illard (afterward called La- 
fayette) 1,340 

Lincoln 1,674 

Marion 1,907 

Montgomery 2,032 

New Madrid 2,444 

Perry 1,599 

Pike 2,677 

Ralls 1,684 

Ray 1,789 

Saline 1,1T6 

St. Charles 4,058 

St. Genevieve 3,181 

St. Louis 8,190 

Washington 3,741 

Wayne 1,614 

The total was 70,647, of which mumber 11,254 were negro slaves. 
The area of the State at this time comprised 62,182 square miles; but in 
1837 the western boundary was extended by authority of Congress, to 
include what was called the " Platte Purchase," an additional area of 
3,168 square miles, which is now divided into the counties of Platte, 
Buchanan, Andrew, Holt, Nodaway and Atchison. This territory was 
an Indian reservation until 1836. 

The last census was taken in June, 1880, when the state had an area of 
65,350 square miles, divided into one hundred and fourteen counties, with 
populations as follows: 



Counties. Total. Male. Female. Native. Foreign. White. Col'd. 

Adair 15,190 

Andrew 16,318 

Atchison 14,565 

Audrain 19,739 

Barry 14,424 

Barton 10,332 

Bates 25,382 

Benton; 12,398 

Bollinger 11,132 

Boone 25.424 

Buchanan 49,824 

Butler 6,011 

Coldwell 13,654 

Calloway 38,670 

Camden 7,267 

Cape Girardean 20,998 

Carrroll 23,300 

Carter 2,168 

Cass 22,431 

Cedar 10,747 

Chariton 25,224 

Christian 9,632 

Clark 15,031 

Clay 15,579 

Clinton 16 073 

Cole 15,519 

Cooper 21.622 

Crawford 10,763 

Dade 12,557 

Dallas 9,272 

Daviess 19,174 

DeKalb 13,343 

Dent 10,647 

Dousrlass 7,753 

Dunklin 9,604 

Franklin 26,536 

Gasconade 11,153 

Gentry 17,188 

Greene 28,817 

Grundy 15,201 

Harrison 20,318 

Henry 23,914 

Hickory 7,388 

Holt 15,510 

Howard 18,428 

Howell 8,814 

Iron 8,183 

Jackson 82,328 

Jasper 32,021 

Jeflerson 18.736 

Johnson 28 177 

Knox 13,047 

Laclede 11,524 

Lafayette 25,731 

Lawrence 17,585 

Lewis 15,925 

Lincoln 17,443 

Linn 20 016 

Livingston 20,205 

McDonald 7,816 

Macon 26,223 

Madison 8,860 

Maries 7.304 

Marion , 24,837 

















































































































































7 763 



































9 983 














































































































































































































Male. Female. Native. Foreign. 

Connties. Total. 

Mercer 14,674 

Miller 9,807 

Mississippi 9,270 

Moniteau 14,349 

Monroe 19,075 

Montgomery 16,250 

Morgan 10,134 

New Madrid 7,694 

Newton 18,948 

Nodaway 29,560 

Oregon 5,791 

Osage 11,824 

Ozark 5,618 

Pemiscot 4,299 

Perry 11,895 

Pettis 27,285 

Phelps 12,565 

Pike 26,716 

Platte 17,372 

Polk 15,745 

Pulaski 7,250 

Putnam 13,556 

Ralls 11,838 

Randolph 22,751 

Ray 20,193 

Reynolds 5,722 

Ripley 5,377 

St. Charles 23,060 

St. Clair 14,126 

St. Francois 13.822 

St. Genevieve 10,390 

St. Louis 31,888 

Saint Louis (City) 350,522 

Saline 29,912 

Schuyler 10,470 

Scotland 12,507 

Scott 8,587 

Shannon 3,441 

Shelby 14,024 

Stoddard . . . . : 13,432 

Stone 4,405 

Sullivan 16,569 

Taney 5,605 

Texas 12,207 

Vernon 19,370 

Warren 10,806 

Washington 12,895 

Wayne 9,097 

Webster 12,175 

Worth 8,208 

Wright 9,733 

The classification footings of the census of 1880 show: 


































































































































































































































1 699 



















































































Males...." 1,127,424 

Native born 1,957,564 

White 2,023,568 

Females 1,041,380 

Foreign born 211,240 

Colored* 145,236 

Total population in June, 1880, 2,168,804. 

■This includes 92 Chinese, 2 half-Chinese, and 96 Indians and half-breeds. 


The following table shows the population of Missouri at each Federal 
census from 1810 to 1880: 

Tears. White. 

1810 17,227 

1820 55,988 

1830 114,795 

1840 323,888 

1850 592,004 

1860 1,063,489 

1870 1,603,146 

1880 2,023,568 


Total Popu- 




























The bonded indebtedness of Missouri has various periods to run. The 
following table is compiled from the State Auditor's report for 1879- 
1880, and embodies all state bonds that will become payable from 1882 
to 1897, at 6 per cent interest. 

St. Louis & Iron Mountain Railroad series $1,361,000 

Cairo & Fulton Railroad 267,000 

North Missouri Railpad 1,694,000 

State Debt proper 439,000 

Pacific Railroad 2,971,000 

Consolidation 2,727,000 

Platte County Railroad 504,000 

State University 201,000 

Northwestern Lunatic Asylum 200,000 

State Bank Stock, refunding 104,000 

State Funding 1,000,000 

Penitentiary Indemnity • • • • 41,000 

Renewal Funding ..."'. 3,850,000 

School Fund Certificates 900,000 

Total $16,259,000 

In addition to this there are $250,000 of revenue bonds, issued June 1, 
1879; and $3,000,000 bonds issued to the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad 


The receipts of the State from all sources during the years 1879 and 
1880 were as foUows: 



State Revenue Fund .$3,024,084.39 

State Interest Fund ' 2,429,040.71 

State School Fund 335.55 

Swamp Land Indemnity Fund 15,408.05 

Insurance Department Fund 31,096.40 

Executors' and Administrators' Fund 6,790.07 

State School Moneys 241,080.00 

State Seminary Mone}^s 3,660.00 

Earnings Missouri Penitentiary 214,358.97 

Militia Fund , . 82.25 

Total $5,965,936.39 

The total balance of all moneys in the State treasury January 1, 1881, 
was $517,517.21. 

During the year 1879, the state paid a total of $6,458.00 as bounty on 
wolf scalps; but in 1880 the amount was only $1,428.50, 




Pregideutial Candidates 
Voted for in Miseouri. 

Political Parties. 

1820 James Monroe Democratic 

1824 John Q. Adams Coalition 

Andrew Jackson Democratic 

Henry Clay Democratic 

1828 Andrew Jackson Democratic 

John Q. Adams National Republican. 

1832 Andrew Jackson* Democratic 

1836 Martin Van Buren Democratic 

W. H. Harrison Whig 

Hugh L. White Independent 

1840 W. H. Harrison Whig 

Martin Van Buren Democratic 

1844 Jas. K. Polk Democratic 

Henry Clay Whig ... 

1848 Zachary Taylor Whig 

Lewis Cass Democratic 

1852 Franklin Pierce Democratic 

Winfield Scott Whig 

1856 Jas. Buchanan Democratic 

Millard Fillmore A^merican 

1860 Abraham Lincoln Republican 

J. C. Breckenridge State Rights Dem'cr't 

John Bell Old Line Whig 

Stephen A. Douglas . . .Union Democrat. . . . 
1864 Abraham Lincoln Republican 

Geo. B. McClellan Democratic 















D. D. Tompkins. 
Nathan Sanford. 
John C. Calhoun. 
Andrew Jackson. 
John C. Calhoun. 
Richard Rush. 
Martin Van Buren. 
R. M. Johnson 
Francis Granger. 
John Tyler. 
John Tyler. 
R. M.Johnson. 
Geo. M. Dallas. 
Th. Frelinghuysen. 
Millard Fillmore. 
Wm. O. Butler. 
Wm. R. King. 
Wm. A. Graham. 
J. C Breckenridge. 
A. J. Donelson. 
Hannibal Hamlin. 
Joseph Lane. 
Edward Everett. 
H. V. Johnson. 
.tVudrew Johnson. 
George H. Pendleton. 

• This year Gen. Jackson received 5.192 majority; bnt the popular vote of Missouri for this year does 
not appear .n any of the statistical tables. The oilier presidential candidates this year were: Henry 
Clay, National Republican; John Floyd, Independent; Wm. Wirt, Anti-Mason. 





Political Parties 



Presidential Candidates 
Voted for in Missouri. 

Ulysses S. Grant Republican , 86,860 

Horatio Seymour Democratic 65,628 

Ulysses S Grant Republican 119,196 

Horace Greeley Dem. and Liberal. . . .151,434 

Chas. O'Conn/ r Democratic 2,429 

Thos. A. Hendricks 

B. Gratz Brown 

David Davis , . 

Rutherford B. Hayes . . . Republican 145,029 

Samuel J. Tilden Democratic 203,077 

Peter Cooper Greenbacker 3,498 

G. C. Smith Prohibitionist 64 

Scattering 97 

James A. Garfield Republican 153,567 

W. S, Hancock Democratic 208,609 

James B. Weaver Greenback 35,135 






Vice President 

Schuyler Colfax. 

F. P. Blair, Jr. 
Henry Wilson, 
B. Gratz Brown. 
Geo. W. Julien. 
John M. Palmer. 
T. E. Bramlette. 
Willis B. Machem. 
William. A Wheeler. 
Thomas A. Hendricks. 
Samuel F. Carey. 

G. T. Stewart. 

Chester A Arthur. 
W. H. English. 
B.J. Chambers. 



1820 AlexanderMcNair 

1824 Frederick Bates died in oflBce. 

1825 Abraham J. Williams vice Bates. 

1826 John Miller 

1828 John Miller 

1832 Daniel Dunklin resigned; appointed Serv. Gen. U. S. 

1836 Lilburn W. Boggs vice Dunklin. 

1840 Thos. Reynolds died 1844. 

1844 M. M, Marmaduke vice Reynolds. 

1844 John C. Edwards 

1848 Austin A. King 

1852 Sterling Price 

1856 Trusten Polk resigned. 

1857 Hancock Jackson vice Polk. 

1857 Robert M. Stewart " " [State Convention.^ 

1860 C. F. Jackson ofBce declared vacant by Unionist 

1861 Hamilton R. Gamble appointed governor by State Conven- 

1864 Willard P. Hall vice Gamble. [tion; died in oflSce. 

1864 Thos. Fletcher 

1808 Joseph W. McClurg 

1870 B. Gratz Brown 

1872 Silas Woodson 

1874 Charles H. Hardin 

1876 John S. Phelps term now 4 years instead of 2. 

1880 Thos. T. Crittenden 


Tear. Names. 

1820 Thomas Hart Benton 

1824 David Barton 

1826 Thomas Hart Benton 

1830 Alexander Buckner died in 1833 

1832 Thomas Hart Benton 

1833 Lewis Field Linn vice Buckner 

Tear. Names. 

1857 Trusten Polk 

1861 Waldo Porter Johnson 

1862 Robert Wilson 

1863 B. Gratz Brown 

1863 John B. Henderson 

1867 Chas. D. Drake resigned 1870 




Year. Names. 

1836 Lewis Field Linn 

1838 Thomas Hart Benton 

1842 Lewis Field Linn died 1843 

1843 David R. Atchison vice Linn 

1844 David R. Atchison 

1844 Thomas Hart Benton 

1849 David R. Atchison 

1651 Henry S. Geyer 

1857 Jas. S. Green 

Tear, Names. 

1869 Carl Schurz 

1870 Daniel F. Jewett vice Drake 

1871 Francis P. Blair, Jr 

1873 Lewis V. Bogy 

1875 Francis M. Cockrell 

1879 Daniel H. Armstrong 

1880 James Shields vice Bogy 

1881 George G. Vest 





















John Scott 
















John Scott 



John Scott 



Edward Bates 



Spencer Pettis 

Spencer Pettis, died 1831 . . . 
Wm. H. Ashley, vice Pettis. 

Wm. H. Ashley 

John Bull 

Wm. H.Ashley 

Albert G. Harrison 



Albert G. Harrison . . 
John Miller 




Albert G. Harrison, died in 


John Miller 

J.Jamison, vice Harrison.. 
John Miller , . - - 



John C. Edwards . . . 
James M. Hughes. . . 

James H. Relfe 

John Jamisom 



John B. Bnwlin 

Guslavus M. Brown. 
James B. Bowliu. . .. 
James H. Relfe ... . 
Sterling Price, resigr 

John S. Phelps 

Leonard H. Sims 

Wm. McDaniels, vice 
James B. Bowlin. . . . 




led. . . . 



John Jameson 


James S. Green 

Willard P. Hall 

John S Phelps 




James B. Bowlin. . . . 


William V. N. Bay. . 

James S. Green 

Willard P Hall 

John S.Phelps 




John F. Darby 

Gilchrist Porter 



John G. Miller 

Willard P Hall 




John S.Phelps 

Thos H. Benton 

Alfred W. Lamb .... 




John G. Miller 

Mordecai Oliver 

John S. Phelps 

James I. Lindley, at large. . 
Samuel Carruthers, at large. 

L. M. Kennett 

Gilchrist Porter 

John I. Lirylley 

Mordecai Oliver 

John G. Miller, died 1855. . . 

John S. Phelps 

Samuel Carruthers 

Thos. P. Aiken, vice Miller. 

Francts P. Blair 

T.L.Anderson [1857 

Jas. S. Green, elec. U. S. Sen. 

James Craig 

James H. Woodson 

John S. Phelps 

Sam'l Carruthers 

John B. Clark, vice Green . . 
J. Richard Barrett, declared 

not elected 

Thos. L. Anderson 

John B. Clark 

Jas Craig ... 

Jaa. H. Woodson 

J oha S. Phelps 

John W. Noell 

Francis P. Blair, Jr., resigned 
J. Richard Barrett, vice Blair 

Francis P. Blair, Jr 

Jas. S. Rollins 

John B. Clark, expelled 

E. H. Norton . . . .' 

John AV. Reid, expelled 

John S. Phelps 

John W. Noell 

Wm. A. Hall, vice Clark. . . . 
Thos. L. Price, vice Reid . . . 

Francis P. Blair 

Henry T. Blow 

John W. Noell, died 1863... 

Sempronius S. Boyd. . 

Joseph W. McClurg 

Austin A. King 

Benjamin F. Loan 



MEMBERS OF CONGRESS FROM 1820 TO 16S0.— Continued. 

t i 

1862 38 

1864 89 

5lft66 40 

1867 40 

1868 41 

1870 42 

1872 43 






W. A. Hall 

John S. Rollins 

John G. Scolt, vice Noell . . . 

John Hogan 

Henry T. Blow 

Thos. E. Noell 

John R. Kelsoe 

Joseph W. McClurg 

Robert T. Van Horn 

Benjamin F. Loan 

John F. Benjamin 

George W. Anderson 

William A. Pile 

C. A. Newcombe 

Thomas E. Noell. deceased. . 

J. J. Gravely 

Jos. W. McClurg, resigned 

Robert T. Van Horn 

Benjamin F. Loan 

John F. Benjamin 

George W. Anderson 

J. R. McCormack, vice Noell 
John H. Stover,vice McClurg 

Erastus Wells 

G. A. Finkelnburg 

J. R. McCormack 

S. H. Boyd 

Samuel S. Burdett 

Robert T. Van Horn ( 

Joel F. Asper 

John F. Benjamin 

David P. Dyer 

Erastus Wells 

G. A. Finkelnburg 



1874 44 

1876 45 

1878 46 

J. R. McCormack 

H. E. Havens 

Samuel S. Burdett 

A. Comingo 

Isaac C. Parker 

James G. Blair 

Andrew King 

E. O. Stauard 

Erastus Wells 

W. H. Stone 

Robert A. Hatcher 

Richard P.Bland 

Harrison E. Havens 

Thomas F. Crittenden. . , 

Abram ComingO 

Isaac C. Parker 

Ira B. Hyde 

John B. Clark, Jr 

John M. GLover 

A. H. Buckner 

1879 46 

1880 47 



1 Edward C. Kerr 

2 Erastus Wells 

3 William H. Stone 

4 Robert A. Hatcher 

5 Richard P. Bland 

6 Charles H. Morgan 

7 John F. Philips 

8 Benjamin J. Franklin 

9 David Rea 

10 Rezin A. DeBolt 

11 John B. Clark, Jr 

12 John M. Glover 

13 AylettH. Buckner 

1 Anthony Ittner 

2 Nathan Cole 

3 Lyne S. Metcalfe 

4 Robert H. Hatcher 

5 Richard P. Bland 

6 Charles H. Morgan 

7 Thos. T. Crittenden 

8 Benjamin J. Franklin 

9 David Rea 

10 Henry M. Pollard 

11 John B. Clark, Jr 

12 John M. Glover 

13 Aylett H. Buckner 

1 Martin L. Clardy 

3 Erastus Wells 

3 Richard G. Frost 

4 Lowndes H. Davis 

5 Richard P. Bland 

6 James R. Waddill 

7 Alfred M. Lay, died 

7 John F. Philips, vice Lay. 

8 Samuel L. Sawyer 

9 Nicholas Ford 

10 Gideon F. Rothwell 

11 John B. Clark, Jr 

12 Wm. H- Hatch 

13 Aylett H Buckner 

1 Martin L. Clardy 

2 Thomas Allen 

3 Richard G. Frost 

4 Lowndes H. Davis 

5 Richard P. Bland 

6 Ira S. Ilazeltine 

7 Theron M. Rice 

8 Robert T. Van Horn 

9 Nicholas Ford 

10 J. II. Burroughs 

11 John B. Clark, Jr 

12 Wm. H. Hatch 

13 Aylett H. Buckner 

The election for members of the legislature and members of Congress 
Dccnrs biennially on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November of 


the even numbered years — as 1880, 1882, etc.; and the legislature meets 
on the first Wednesday after January 1st, in the odd numbered years — 
as 1881, 1883, etc. The governor is elected every four years, at the same 
time with the presidential election. 



The State of Missouri has made liberal provision for the support of 
public schools, equal to any other state in the Union.* The main fea- 
tures of our school system are well epitomized in a report made by the 
state superintendent in 1879, as follows: 

School Revenue — Is derived from invested state funds, bearing inter- 
est at the rate of six per cent per annum, and one-fourth of the state reve- 
nue collections, annually, equal to a tax of five cents on the $100 of valu- 
ation; from the invested county funds at rates from 6 to 10 per centum 
annually, secured by real estate mortgages; from the sixteenth section or 
township fund invested and producing income in the same manner as the 
county funds. 

The state and township permanent funds arise principally from the sale 
of lands donated by the general government. The income is used only 
for teachers' wages, and is apportioned upon the number of children to 
districts having maintained the minimum term of school. 

The deficiency is supplied by local taxation, limited in amount, and con- 
trolled in the first instance by boards of directors, and second, by the 
tax-payers in annual meeting assembled. 

State Boards. — State Board of Education consists of the super- 
intendent of public schools, the governor, secretary of state, and attorney- 
general. The duties, practically, are simply the investment and care of 
the state permanent fund. 

Board of Curators of the State University — Consists of nine 
members, appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate, tor 
a term of six years, three being appointed every two years. They con- 
trol and manage the university, agricultural college and school of mines 
and metallurgy. 

Boards of Regents — Of normal schools consist of six members 

* The first free day school ever opened in Missouri was by the Church of the Messiah^ 
in St. Louis. This church was organized in 1834, by Rev. Wm. Q. Elliott, D. D., who was 
the founder, and is now Chancellor of Washington University. 


to each school, appointed by the governor, with consent of the senate, 
from the locality. The state superintendent of public schools is ex 
oficio member of each board. 

Boards of Control — Of other institutions vary in name and num- 
ber of members. They are usually appointed by the governor. 

Superintendent of Public Schools — Has general supervision of 
the public schools; collects and tabulates the school statistics of the state; 
apportions the state school funds to the counties; gives information to 
school officers upon construction of school law; prepares and furnishes 
blanks for use of school officers ; spends five days in each congressional dis- 
trict of the state, yearly, consulting and advising teachers and other school 
officers, and delivering lectures; is a member of the board of regents of 
the normal schools, and president of state board of education; receives 
reports from the county commissioners and state institutions of learn- 
ing; makes annual reports to the governor and general assembly alter- 
nately; and is the executive manager of the state school fund under the 
direction of state board of education. 

County School Commissioners — Elected at the annual school meet- 
ings of the various school districts for the term of two years; compen- 
sation varies according to population of county, from twenty to forty 
dollars per annum and a fee, additional, of one and one-half dollars from 
each teacher undergoing examination; examines teachers, grants and 
revokes certificates; has final jurisdiction over appealed cases of changes 
of district boundaries, appealed from the annual meetings; condenses 
and reports to state superintendent of public schools the educational 
statistics of the county, as received by him from the district boards of 
directors; supplies the districts with copies of the law, and all blanks 
needed; performs any and all duties required by the State Superintend- 
ent, and in counties where the people have voted in favor of it, employs 
his whole time in supervision and school work. 

Miscellaneous. — To draw public money, districts must maintain at 
least three months public school in each year, but the law requires and 
provides that four months shall be taught. Any person between the 
ages of six and twenty years may attend the public schools. In cities^ 
towns and villages, the boards are authorized to hold from five to ten 
months term of school each year, and in the country districts the people 
may vote an extension of term over four months. The rate of taxation 
for school purposes, in addition to the distributed state, county and town- 
ship, or sixteenth section funds, is limited to forty cents on the $100 valu- 
ation, except that the people, at the annual school meeting, may vote an 
increase not to exeed sixty-five cents on the $100, by a majority vote of 
tax-payers. To raise funds by taxation for building purposes, requires 


that the increased rate be voted by two-thirds of the qualified voters 
voting at the annual or special meeting. 

Annual School Meeting — Meets at the district school house annu- 
ally, and elects a director for a full term, and fills vacancies in the board; 
determines the length of time in excess of four months, that the schools 
shall be kept open, and orders the proper levies within the Hmitations to 
be made therefor; votes a sum not exceeding $20 per annum for pur- 
chase of books for district Hbrary ; decides for or against proposed changes 
of district boundary lines; directs the sale of property no longer required, 
and determines the applications of proceeds; designates their choice for 
county school commissioner every second year; directs the loan of 
money to aid in erecting school houses; directs the levy of tax for the 
erection of school houses; determines the location of the school house or 
houses; by a two-thirds vote changes location of school house; receives 
the reports of school district board as to financial condition, and itemized 
receipts and disbursements for the year ending. 

District Boards — Consist of three members in the country districts, 
and six members in the city, town and village districts ; each elected for 
a term of three years ; one, annually, in the country, and two in the city, 
town and village districts; they elect one of their number president, and 
appoint a clerk who may not be a member of the board, if it so chooses; 
they are the executive officers of the school corporation, which each dis- 
trict is, being created by law; they serve without compensation; have 
custody of school property; execute the orders of the annual meeting; 
take the school census; make and file the estimates for tax levies; con- 
trol the disbursements of all school money; keep the district records; 
visit the schools; employ teachers; provide for a four months term of 
school without consulting the people; make rules for organization, gra- 
ding and government of the schools, suspend or expel pupils; admit and 
prescribe fees for non-resident pupils, and in general do all things neces- 
sary to carry on the schools. 

In city, town and village districts the board has power to establish 
higher grades of schools, but are subject to the same tax restrictions. 

Some cities have special charters giving other privileges than those 
enumerated, but subject to the same tax restrictions, they being constitu- 
tional provisions. 

Educational Directory. — University of Missouri, located at Colum- 
bia; number of students, 577; legislative appropriation for 1879 and 1880, 
$39,000. State Agricultural College constitutes a department of the 
University. Three State Normal Schools, located respectively at Kirks- 
ville, Warrensburg and Cape Girardeau.* The appropriation to each of 

* St. Louis supports its own normal school, for the preparation and training of its 
teachers, the greater number of whom are graduates of this normal school. 


normal schools is $7,500 per annum. Deaf and Dumb Asylum, located 
at Fulton; legislative appropriation for 1879 and 1880, $91,000. Blind 
Asylum, located at St. Louis; legislative appropriation for 1879 and 1880, 
$46,000. Lincoln Institute,* located at Jeflerson City; legislative appro- 
priation, $10,000 for 1879 and 1880; devoted to training colored teachers 
for colored public schools of the state. School of Mines and Metallurgy, 
located at Rolla; legislative appropriation, $15,000 for 1879 and 1880; 
constitutes a department of the state university. State teachers' associ- 
ation, meets annually at places selected at each session, during the last 
week in June. 

Statistics of 1878. — School population, 688,248; school enrollment, 
448,033; No. of ungraded school districts, 8,142; No. of graded school 
districts, 279. No. of school houses, 8,092; estimated value of school 
houses and sites, $8,321,399; average school year in months, 5; average 
school year in months, in graded school districts, 9; total number of 
teachers employed, 11,268; total wages of teachers, $2,320,430.20; aver- 
age wages of teachers per month, males, $36.36, females, $28.09; aver- 
age wages of teachers per month, in grades schools, estimated, males, 
$87.81, females, $40.73. 

Revenue. — From interest on state permanent fund, $174,030.15; 
from one-fourth state revenue collections, $363,276.32; from county and 
township permanent funds, $440,191.37; from district taxes, $2,446,- 
910.71. Total, $3,424,408.55. 

Permanent Funds. — State fund, $2,909,457.11;" county fund, $2,388,- 
368.29; township or sixteenth section fund, $1,980,678.51. Total $7,278,- 

The state auditor's report for 1879 and 1880 furnishes the following 
school items; and they make a very favorable showing for the public 
school interests of Missouri: 

1879. 1880. 

Amount distributed to the counties 1502,795.18 ' $515,286.09 

Maintenances of State University 19,500.00 19,500.00 

Support of Lincoln Institute 5,000.00 5,000.00 

Support School of Mines and Metallurgy 7,500.00 7,500.00 

JSormal School, 1st district 7,500.00 7,500 00 

2d " 7,500.00 7,500.00 

" « South Missouri district 7,500,00 7,500.00 

Distribution of school laws 308.58 436.50 

♦Lincoln Institute was tirst projected by the 63d Regiment U. 8. Colored Infantry, 
while on duty in Texas, in 1865, and was designed for the higher education of colored 
people. In January, 1866, the state attached a state normal department to it, to provide 
suitable teachers for the public schools for colored children. The school was opened 
Sept. 17, 1876, but was not finally provided for by law as a state normal school until Feb. 
14, 1870, since which time it has gone steadily forward and done a good work for the 
negro population. 



Massaohuso:ts is taken almost universallv as the standard of measure- 
ment for Oilier states. The s:a:e reports ot" >rassachusetts and Missouri, 
for l>7i\ show that in the former there was applied to the educa- 
tion of ever}- child of school a^e the sum of Slo.Tl — in the latter, 

$4.37. Bu: i: nnis: be ren^cr/.bcred :ha: school a^'c in Massachusetts is 
bc'.wcon :".vo :i:\d :ii;cen years; in Missouri between six and twentv; a 
diiiere:-'.ce ot' four years in school. 

T'ne report of the secretary of the Massachusetts board of education, 
for 1S7P. states the "'per cen:ai;e of valuation appropriated for public 
schools," as two and seventv-two one hundredths mills. In Missouri it 
was over n\e nv.'.'.s. T'::.\: ':<. o%-ery tax-paying' Missourian paid nearly 
twice as much tor the -.ri.r.r.'.cnance of public schools on the same amount 
\^of valued of property as th.e tax-pa\er of Massachusetts. 



ISTl Central Colleire Fayette M. E. Church South. 

lSo'3 Chr:s:i.i:i College Canton Christian. 

lS5i^ College Christian Brothers. St. Louis Roman Catholic. 

18T3 Drurv Colleije Springfield Congregational. 

1S6S Hannibal College Hannibal M. :^. Church South. 

lSt>5 Lewis College Glasgow Methodist Episcopal. 

ISTO Lincoln College Greenwood United Presbvterian. 

1S53 McGee College College Mound.. .Cumb. Presbvterian. 

1867 St. Joseph College St. Joe Roman Catholic. 

1832 St. Lou:s University St. Louis Roman Catholic. 

1844 St. Paul College Palmyra Protestant Episcopal. 

1844 St. \'inceRt College Cape Girardeau. .Roman Catholic. 

1857 Washington University. . .St. Louis Xon-Sectarian. 

1853 Westminster College Fulton Presbyterian. 

1853 Wm. Jewell College Liberty Baptist. 

1869 Woodland College Independence .... Chrisrian. 

1835 St. Charles Coflege St. Chades M. E. Church South. 

1852 Central Colle^re Favette •• " " 

1843 Arcadia College Arcadia « « « 


1839 Concordia College St. Louis Evangelical Luth'ran 

1844 St. Vincent College ....... Cape Girardeau . . Roman CathoLic. 

Theological School of West- 
minster College Fulton Presb}'terian. 

1869 Vanderman School of The- 
ology Liberty Baptist. 

In addition to the above, the Baptists have: Stephens College, Columbia* 


Mt. Pleasant College, Huntsville; Baptist Female College, Lexington; La 
Grrange College, La Grange; Baptist College, Louisiana ; Liberty Female 
College, Liberty; St. Louis Seminary for Young Ladies, Jennings Sta- 
tion; Fairvievv Female Seminary, Jackson; Booneville Seminary for 
Young Ladies, Booneville; North Grand River College, Edinburg; 
Ingleside Academy, Palmyra. 

The Christian connection has Christian University, at Canton, in Lewis 

The Congregationalists have Thayer College, at Kidder, in Caldwell 

The German Evangelicals have Missouri College, in Warren county. 

The Methodist Episcopals (North) have Johnson College at Macon 

The Presbyterians have Lindenwood Female College, at St. Charles. 

A good feeUng prevails amongst these different schools. Each attends 
to its own work in its own way, caring for the patronage of its own peo- 
ple and the community at large, as a good neighbor of everv other 
worker. A most liberal and impartial legislative policy is pursued, by 
dealing with all alike before the law, whether in the maintenance of 
vested rights or in the matter of taxation. By constitutional provision 
all property actually used for school and religious purposes mav be 
exempted from taxes, and the same constitution most explicitlv interdicts 
all discrimination, and also all favor or partiality. 



1872 Law College of State University Columbia. 

1867 Law Department of Washington University St. Louis. 



1869 Kansas City College of Physicians and Surgeons. .Kansas City. 

1873 Medical College of State University Columbia. 

1840 Missouri Medical College St. Louis. 

1841 St. Louis Medical College 

1858 Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri " 

1865 Missouri Dental College " 

1864 St. Louis College of Pharmacy " 


1870 Agricultural and Mechanical College (State Uni- 

versity) Columbia. 

1871 Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy (State 

University) Rolla. 

1857 Polytechnic Department of W^ashington University.St. Louis. 



m o o^ • 


Catholic 216 264 200,000 

Protestant Episcopal 65 50 25,000 

Lutheran Independent Evangelical 25 20 1,000 

" English Evangelical 6 6 1,000 

" German " 76 68 3,6;]3 

Presbyterian, O. S. North 210 151 11,143 

" South ]35 73 7,662 

Cumberland 361 169 15,823 

" United 10 12 70a 

" Reformed 8 4 165 

Congregational 71 47 3,747 

Baptist 1,385 823 86,999 

Christian, about 500 500 70,00a 

Methodist Episcopal, South 559 648 53.382 

North 359 420 42,888 

African 58 59 4,954 

African Methodist Episcopal, Zion ) 

Colored " " Ubout 116 118 9,908 

Methodist, Protestant and Free Methodist Episcopal Church ) 

Unitarian 5 5 

Total 4,160 3,437 539,004 

Note.— Church members of the Catholic and Protestant Episcopal Churches include all persons bap- 
tized into the church. The others count only communicants in good standing. 


Our state legislature has made ample and discreet provision for the 
protection of a home-place from sale on execution. The home and property 
rights of married women, widows and orphans, are guaranteed by 
statute as far as is practicable. A limit has also been fixed to the amount 
of indebtedness which may be incurred by the people in voting bonds to 
railroads, or other enterprises in which they may feel a friendly interest, 
but in aiding which, too generally, so many western communities have 
burdened themselves and their posterity with debts and taxation that are 
grevious to be borne. 


The laws of Missouri reserve from execution, in the hands of every 
head of a family living in the country, a homestead, consisting of one 
hundred and sixtj'- (160) acres of land, not exceeding $1,500 in value; to 
ever}'^ head of a family, in cities of over 40,000 inhabitants, a homestead 
consisting of not more than eighteen square rods of ground, and of a 
valuation not exceeding $3,000; and in cities and towns of less than 40,- 
000 inhabitants, a homestead, consisting of not more than thirty square 
rods of ground, and of the value of not more than $1,500. Thus it is 


seen that a farmer's homestead in Missomn consists of one hundred and 
sixty acres of land and the improvements thereon, not exceeding in value 
$1,500; the homestead of the residents of the smaller towns is of the 
same value; while that allowed to the inhabitants of St. Louis, St. 
Joseph and Kansas City, where land is more valuable, and the cost of 
living greater, is fixed at $3,000. 

The homestead is in the nature of a lien or charge, in favor of the 
wife and children, upon certain property of the husband, defined in 
extent, and limited in value. A declaration of what this property is may 
be recorded in the ofBce of the recorder of deeds, and notice is thus 
imparted to all persons having dealings with the owner, that this particu- 
lar property is not subject to execution, and that they ought not to give . 
credit on the faith of it. The state, under this head, provides that: "Any 
married woman may file her claim to the tract or lot of land occupied or 
claimed by her and her husband, or by her, if abandoned by her husband, 
as a homestead. Said claim shall set forth the tract or lot claimed, that 
she is the wife of the person in whose name the said tract or lot appears 
of record, and said claim shall be acknowledged by her before some 
officer authorized to take proof or acknowledgment of instruments of 
writing affecting real estate, and be filed in the recorder's office, and it 
shall be the duty of the recorder to receive and record the same. After 
the filing of such claims, duly acknowledged, the husband shall be de- 
barred from, and incapable of selling, mortgaging and alienating the 
homestead in any manner whatever, and such sale, mortgage or alienation 
is hereby declared null and void; and the filing of any such claims as 
aforesaid with the recorder shall impart notice to all persons of the con- 
tents thereof, and all subsequent purchasers and mortagors shall be 
deemed, in law and equity, to purchase with notice; provided, however, 
that nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to prevent the hus- 
band and wife from jointly conveying, mortgaging, alienating, and, in 
any other manner, disposing of such homestead, or any part thereof." 

Such a law, while securing the benefits of a homestead to the debtor, 
works no injustice to the creditor. He sees that the debtor has certain 
property recorded as his homestead. He never gives credit on the faith that 
this property will be subject to his execution; but he looks simply to the 
other property of the debtor, or to the state of his business and his char- 
acter for honesty. 

It may be added that the supreme court of this state has construed the 
homestead laws liberally, with the view of carrying out the benevolent 
purposes of the legislature. If the debtor is ignorant or timid, when the 
sheriff comes with an execution to levy, and fails to claim his right of 
homestead, his family are not, therefore, to be turned out of doors. The 


sheriff must summon appraisers and set the homestead apart, whether the 
debtor claims it or not; and if he does not do this, his sale will pass no title 
to the purchaser so far as the debtor's homestead is concerned. If the 
debtor makes a conveyance of property embracing his family homestead, 
for the purpose of hindering or defrauding his creditors, this does not 
work a forfeiture of his homestead right; his wrongful act is not thus to 
be appealed to in prejudice of his wife and children. If the cruelty of 
the husband drives the wife from the homestead, this does not put an end 
to her interest in the homestead. She may return and claim it after his 
death, and his administrator must set it apart for her. 


Pursuing the same wise and benevolent policy, the statutes provide 
that the following personal property shall be exempt from attachment and 
execution when owned by the head of a family: "1. Ten head of choice 
hogs, ten head of choice sheep, and the product thereof in wool, yarn or 
cloth; two cows and calves, two plows, one axe, one hoe, and one set of 
plow gears, and all the necessary farm implements for the use of one man. 
3. Two work animals of the value of one hundred and fifty dollars. 3. 
The spinning-wheel and cards, one loom and apparatus, necessary for 
manufacturing cloth in a private family. 4. All the spun yarn, thread 
and cloth manufactured for family use. 5. Any quantity of hemp, flax 
and wool, not exceeding twenty-five pounds each. 6. All wearing apparel 
of the family, four beds, with usual bedding, and such other household and 
kitchen furniture, not exceeding the value of one hundred dollars, as may 
be necessary for the family, agreeably to an inventory thereof, to be re- 
turned, on oath, with the execution, by the officer whose duty it may be 
to levy the same. T. The necessary tools and implements of trade of 
any mechanic while carrying on his trade. 8. Any and all arms and 
military equipments required by law to be kept. 9. All such provisions 
as may be on hand for family use, not exceeding one hundred dollars in 
value. 10. The bibles and other books used in a family, lettered grave- 
stones, and One pew in a house of worship. 11. All lawyers, physicians, 
ministers of the gospel and teachers, in the actual prosecution of their 
calling, shall have the privilege of selecting such books as shall be neces- 
sary to their profession, in the place of other property herein allowed, at 
their option; and doctors of medicine, in lieu of other property exempt 
from execution, may be allowed to select their medicines." In lieu of this 
property, each head of a family may, at his election, select and hold 
exempt from execution any other propert}'^, real, personal, or mixed, or 
debts or wages not exceeding in value the amount of three hundred dol- 

The legislature of the state has wisely considered that the debtor ought 


not to be permitted to plead poverty as against the claims of creditors 
equally necessitous. It is accordingly provided that the foregoing 
exemption cannot be claimed when the debt is for wages due to a house 
servant or common laborer to the extent of $90, and when the action to 
recover the same is brought witjiiiin six months after the last services were 
rendered. Nor can the purchaser of goods make this law an instrument 
of fraud by claiming goods which he has purchased on credit against an 
execution for the purchase money. 


State legislation is extremely careful of the rights of married women. 
If a wife is unjustly abandoned by her husband, the circuit court will 
sequester his property for the purpose of maintaining her and the children 
of the marriage. If he abandons her, or from worthlessness or drunken- 
ness fails to support her, the court will not only allow her to sell her own 
real estate without his joining in the deed, but will require any person 
holding money or property to which he may be entitled in her right, to 
pay the money over to her. 1. Under such circumstances she is entitled 
to the proceeds of her own earnings and those of her minor children. 2. 
If her real estate is damaged for railroads, or other public works, the 
damages accrue exclusively to her. 3. If her husband gets into the peni- 
tentiary, she becomes to all intents and purposes a femme sole . 4. And if he, 
by ill usage, compels her to live separate and apart from him, she may 
claim the sole and exclusive enjoyment of her property as if she were un- 
married. Rents, issues and profits of her real estate cannot be taken in 
execution for his debts, except when contracted for family necessaries. 
Moreover, by a very broad statute lately enacted, a wife may hold all her 
personal property free from her husband's control and exempt from liabil- 
ity for his debts. If he becomes incompetent to lead in the marital part- 
nership, she may take the reins in her hands, engage in trade, accumulate 
property, and no act of his will create a charge upon it. Finally, at his 
death, the family homestead descends to her and the children, if any there 
be, to be held by her for life; if there be any children, in common with 
them; if not, by herself alone. She also takes dower in one-third of all 
the real estate of which her husband may have been seized at any time 
during marriage, in which she has not conveyed her right of dower, 
diminished, however, by the homestead which is set apart to her. She 
takes also a child's share of his personal estate; and, in addition to all 
this, she is allowed to retain as her absolute property a large amount of 

The constitution places it beyond the power of reckless or dishonest 


public agents to burden the people with excessive taxation. Taxes for 
state purposes, exclusive of the taxes necessary to pay the bonded debt 
of the state, cannot exceed twenty cents on the hundred dollars valuation; 
and whenever the taxable property of the state shall amount to $900,000,- 
000 the rate shall not exceed fifteen cents. The rate of taxation for 
county, city, town and school purposes, is likewise strictly limited. 
Counties, cities, towns, townships and school districts cannot become 
indebted bej'ond the revenue provided for each year without a two-thirds 
vote of all voters therein, nor, in any event, to an amount exceeding five 
per cent on the value of the taxable property. 

The statutes of limitation in Missouri provide that an open account can- 
not be collected after it has run five years; a note is uncollectible if held for 
ten 3'ears after due; and a judgment expires by limitation in ten years. 

The standard legal rate of interest in this state is six per cent; but a 
higher rate not exceeding ten per cent may be contracted for. 


The state debt, according to the State Auditor's last report, [1878], is 
$16,758,000. This mostly grew out of the various issues of bonds given 
in aid of railroads, and bears interest at the rate of six per cent per annum. 
To liquidate this debt the constitution provides for the annual levy of 
taxes, now fixed by law at twenty cents on the $100 of the valuation. 
With the sum thus raised the interest of the debt is first to be paid, and of 
the remainder not less than $250,000 is to be set apart as a sinking fund 
for the purchase and retirement of the bonds tliemselves. Hence, in a 
few years, with the vast increase in the taxable wealth, which is sure to 
come, the whole of the debt will be extinguished. There is an additional 
state tax of twent}' cents on the $100 for current expenditures, a large 
share of which is devoted to the support of the common schools. This 
tax is ample for the purposes for which it is intended, and there is a con- 
stitutional provision that it shall be reduced to fifteen cents on the $100 as 
soon as the taxable property of the state shall aggregate a total valuation 
of $900,000,000. 

The state, and all its municipal subdivisions, whether counties, cities or 
towns, are forbidden by the constitution to loan their credit to any corpora- 
tion, so that there is no method by which the public indebtedness can be 
increased in the usual way. Owing to the great zeal of the people to for- 
ward public improvements of all kinds, a municipal indebtedness, aggre- 
gating, according to the auditor's last report, $35,727,560.4.9, has been 
contracted. Of this amount the debt of the city of St. Louis is shown to 
constitute $22,712,000, leaving for the agricultural portion of the state and 
the other cities, towns, townships and school districte only a Httle over 


The present organic law prevents any municipality from contracting 
liabilities, in any one liscal year, beyond the amount of the levy made for 
that year, and in no county can the rate of taxation for local purposes, 
aside from the school tax, exceed fifty cents on the $100 valuation, unless 
two-thirds of the voters shall assent to the levy of a larger sum. Neither 
can the school tax in country districts exceed forty cents on the $100 
without the consent of the ta'x-payers, to be obtained by a vote of the ma- 
jority of the residents. 


It will be interesting to note how the tax rate of our own state com- 
pares with that of adjoining states. 

The average tax lev}^ for all purposes in Missouri is about $1.30 on the 
$100; adding to this 70 cents on the $100 for the payment of bonded 
indebtedness where it exists, there is an average of $2 on the $100 as 
the rate, and a certainty of its steady decrease. This is given as an average, 
and while in a lew counties the tax rate is higher, in the majority it is 
much lower. 

By the report of the state auditor of Kansas, for the year ending June 
30, 1878, the tax levy for state purposes is shown to be 55 cents on the 
$100, and the average levy for local debts and expenses $3.82 on the $100, 
making a total average tax of $4.37 on the $100. The taxable property 
of Kansas in 1878 aggregated the sum of $138,698,810.98, and the local 
indebtedness was reported by the state auditor at $13,473,197.51. In 
Nebraska the tax levy for state purposes alone is 62^ cents on the $100, 
exclusive of taxes to pay local debts and expenses. 

In Iowa, the average rate of taxation for the year 1878 was $2.67 on the 
$100. In Illinois the tax levy for 1877, the last given in the auditor's 
report, was v$3.24 on the $100, and the local indebtedness of that state 
was then the sum of $51,811,691. 

Thus, it is clear that Missouri has a lower rate of taxation than any of 
the neighboring states above mentioned; and, in addition to this, under 
her wise constitutional provision, the rate of taxation must continually 
decrease every year, until only a sufficient amount of taxes to liquidate 
current expenses will be collected. 

There are twenty counties that have no indebtedness whatever, and 
forty more the debt of which is merely nominal ; so that their burden of 
taxation will be lighter than in any other portion of the United States. 




The United States is divided into nine supreme court circuits, to each of 
which one of the supreme court judges is assigned. Missouri is now in 
the eighth circuit, which includes Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, 
Missouri, Nebraska and Colorado; and George W. McCrary, of Iowa, 
who was secretary of war, in President Hayes' cabinet, is now the 
judge of this circuit. Missouri is divided into an east and west United 
States judicial district; and Samuel Treat, of St. Louis, is United States 
judge of the east district, while Arnold Krekel, of Jefferson City, presides 
over the west district. 


Missouri paid the following amounts of internal revenue to the United 
States during the year ending June 30, 1880: On distilled spirits, $2,151,- 
643.98; on tobacco, $2,391,989.93; on fermented liquors, $711,654.53; on 
banking, $182,929.25; on other items, $1,360.27. Total, $5,448,344.83. 
Illinois, Kentucky, New York and Ohio were the only states which paid 
a larger sum of revenue on spirits; Illinois, New Jersey, New York, 
Ohio, Pennsylvania and Virginia paid larger on tobacco; Illinois, New 
York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin paid larger on fermented 
liquors (chiefly lager beer); California, New York and Pennsylvania are 
the only states which paid larger on banking transactions. 

In 1878, Missouri paid $115,729.64 as penalties for violation of U. 
S. internal revenue laws, which was the highest amount on this item paid 
by any state — the next highest being Pennsylvania, which was " caught 
at it" to the amount of $27,867.20. 


There are now three U. S. land offices in Missouri, to-wit: at Boon- 
ville, Ironlon and Springfield. The report of the general land office for 
1879 showed 41,836,931 acres of government land still open to home- 
stead entry in Missouri. 


Gold coins of the United States (un mutilated), and the " greenback" 
paper currency are legal tender for the payment of any possible amount 
of indebtedness. Silver coins are legal tender for any amount not exceed- 
ing $10 at one payment — but the standard silver dollar is legal tender for 


any amount, unless the contract specially provides otherwise. The baser, 
coins of nickel, copper and allo}^ (3 cent pieces), are legal tender for any 
sum not exceeding 25 cents. The "trade dollar," and national bank 
notes are 7iot legal tender; neither is any foreign coin, either of gold or 
silver, nor the " stamped bullion " gold pieces of California. 


St. Louis is a port of entry for foreign goods; and the imports received 
here during the year 1880, amounted to (foreign value), $1,401,180; on 
which the import duties paid was $537,257.83. A fine custom house 
building is in process of erection, and will be completed in 1881. 


In the south part of St. Louis, on the river, there is a United States 
arsenal, and six miles below the city, Jefferson Barracks are situated, a sta- 
tion for a small part of the regular army. A few squares from the 
arsenal there is a United States marine hospital. 


Within our allotted space we can ov^y give a brief sketch of those citi- 
zens of Missouri who have so pre-eminently distinguished themselves as 
to have achieved a solid national, and in some cases a world-wide fame. 
First among these is — 

Daniel Boone. The adventures of this famous hunter and Indian 
fighter have become a staple part of the world's perennial stock of daring 
exploits and hair-breadth escapes. He was born in Bucks county, Penn- 
sylvania, February 11, 1735; emigrated to North Carolina and there mar- 
ried. In 1773 he emigrated with his own and five other families to Ken- 
tucky, and founded the present town of Boonesborough. In 1795 he 
removed to the Missouri river country^ and settled in St. Charles county, 
about forty-five miles west of St. Louis, where he died in 1820, aged 85. 
His remains, together with those of his wife, were many years after- 
ward removed to Boonesborough, Kentucky, and a monument reared 
over them. 

Thomas H. Benton. Col. Benton was, in his lifetime, recognized as 
one of the foremost statesmen of the nation, and the hearts of all good 
Missourians kindle with pride at the mention of his name. He was a 
specimen type of the best sort of Democrat; he always stood with Gen. 


Jackson and opposed the state-rights doctrines of John C. Calhoun; in 
congress he opposed the repeal of the "Missouri Compromise ;" and during 
Gen, Jackson's presidency Col. Benton was so vigorous a champion of 
hard money, as against the old U. S. bank swindle, that he came to be 
familiarly known all over the United States as "Old Bullion." Col. Benton 
was born near Hillsborough, North Carolina, March 14, 1782; studied law 
at Nashville, Tennessee, in 1810. In the war of 1812 he served as a Colonel 
under Gen. Jackson; settled at St. Louis in 1815. In 1820 he was elected as 
the first U. S. Senator from Missouri, and continued to be re-elected every 
term for thirty j^ears; the longest period that any man in the nation has 
fiUed a senatorial seat. In 1852-3 he served one term as member of con- 
gress from the first district. In 1856 he was defeated in his candidacy for 
governor by the state-rights party, to whose doctrines he was strongly 
opposed, fi-om the time of the nullification acts of South Carolina in 1832, 
up to the day of his death. In 1854 he published his great work, "Thirty 
Years in the United States Senate," in two large volumes, and these are 
held in high esteem as standard authority by politicians and statesmen of 
every class. Col. Benton died April 10, 1858, mourned by the whole 
nation as one of her worthiest sons. 

James B. Eads, a citizen of St. Louis. His marvelous achievements as 
a civil ensfineer have made his name familiar in all civilized countries on 
the face of the earth; and his last great work, the jetties at the mouth of 
the Mississippi river, has revolutionized the commerce of three continents. 
Mr. Eads was born at Lawrenceburg, Indiana, May 28, 1820; emigrated 
with his parents to Louisville, Kentucky, in 1829; and in 1833 settled at 
St. Louis. In July, 1861, the government advertised for seven gun-boats 
of about 600 tons burden, drawing not over six feet of water, plated with 
iron 2^ inches thick, to steam nine miles an hour, and carry thirteen guns.* 
Mr. Eads contracted to build those seven vessels in sixty-five days. At 
this time the timber for them stood uncut in the forest; the iron for their 
plating was still in the mines, and no machine yet in existence of capacity 
to roll such enormous plates; and not a pound of iron or steel yet wrought 
or cast for the construction of the twenty-one steam engines and thirty- 
five boilers required to propel the fleet. But within twenty-four hours 
from the signing of the contract at Washington, he had all the iron works, 
foundries and machine shops of St. Louis, started on the work; and inside 
of two weeks he had more than 4,000 men working in alternate gangs by 
night and day, Sundays included, so that not an hour should be lost. The 
boats were built at St. Louis, but the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, 
Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota and Missouri were all drawn upon for material, 
while large works in Cincinnati and Pittsburg were also whirling every 

*8ee Major Boynton's "History of the United States Navy." 


wheel to hasten forward the great undertaking, all being under the direc- 
tion and control by telegraph or in person of this one man ; and he filled 
the contract. The world's history shows no parallel to the wonderful 
mastery of resources and the tremendous vigor of executive and super- 
visory talent which this achievement involved. He projected, planned 
and built the magnificent railroad bridge across the Mississippi river at 
St Louis, which ranks among the greatest works of its kind on this round 
globe. He projected and built the jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi, 
which enable the largest sea-going vessels to pass in and out freely, thus 
making possible the barge system of shipping grain and other products 
from St. Louis and Kansas City direct to foreign countries, and which 
has within two years revolutionized the entire international commerce of 
the Mississippi and Missouri valley states. He is now engaged in devel- 
oping a ship railway across the Isthmus of Panama, which will take the 
heaviest loaded ships into a dry-dock on wheels and trundle them from 
ocean to ocean as easily and safely as they are now towed through the 
ship canal at Suez. 

Carl Schurz. Born near Cologne, Prussia, March 2, 1829; educated 
-at the University of Bonn; took part in the revolutionary agitations of 
Europe in 1848 and following years, involving Germany, Austria, Italy, 
Hungary, etc.; and in which Kossuth in Hungary, and Garibaldi in Italy 
were prominent leaders, whose names are familiar to and honored by all 
Americans. Mr. Schurz came to the United States in 1852; settled as a 
lawyer at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1859; in 1861 was appointed minister 
to Spain; resigned and came home, and in 1862-3-4, was a major-gen- 
eral of volunteers in the Union army. In 1867 he settled at St. Louis as 
editor of the Westliche Post; was United States senator from Mis- 
souri from 1869 to 1875, and was secretary of the interior in President 
Hayes' cabinet. Mr. Schurz has thus won the highest positions ever held 
in the United States by any foreign-born citizen, and has reflected honor 
upon Missouri, his adopted state, by his masterful ability as a public 
speaker, and his strong, earnest, humanitarian efforts as an executive offi- 

Prof. Charles V. Riley, was born in London, England, September 
12, 1843; came to the United States in 1860. In 1868 established in St. 
Louis, in company with Benjamin D. Walsh, a scientific journal called the 
American Entomologist, and was the same year appointed state entomol- 
ogist of Missouri ; this position he filled to the great benefit and honor of 
the state for eight years; then he was called to come up higher, and took 
position as entomologist of the national department of agriculture at 
Washington. Prof. Riley's valuable investigations and discoveries with 
regard to the Colorado beetle (potato bug), the Rocky Mountain locust 


(grasshoppers), the cotton worm, and the phylloxera, or grape insect, have 
placed his name in the foremost ranks in the world of science, and among 
the greatest of benefactors to the agricultural and horticultural industries 
of the world. This he achieved while serving Missouri as state entomol- 
ogist, and through the publication by the state of his annual reports. 
Hence, the name and good repute of our noble commonwealth is insepar- 
ably associated with his honor and fame, which has reached the farthest 
confines of every land where potatoes, cotton or grapes are cultivated. 


Missouri was powerfully agitated by the controversy on- the slavery 
question in 1818-19-20, which resulted in the "Missouri Compromise.'* 
This was a compact, mainly carried through congress by the eloquence 
and influence of the great senator, Henry Clay, of Kentucky, by which 
it was agreed that Missouri should be admitted to the Union as a slave- 
holding state ; but that slavery should be forever excluded from any states 
which might thereafter be formed out of new territory west of the western 
boundary of Missouri, and north of the parallel of 36 degrees, 30 minutes 
of north latitude. This line practically corresponds with the southern 
boundary of Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado and Utah, 
as they now stand. 

In May, 1854, congress passed a bill organizing the territories of 
Kansas a«d Nebraska, in which it was declared that the Missouri Com- 
promise of 1820 did not apply to them. This was an indirect way of 
repealing or rendering nugatory the bargain made between the northern 
and the southern states in that compromise; and the floodgates of angry 
debate, contention and strife were at once opened. This became the issue 
upon which all elections turned. Instead of slavery being prohibited, as the 
compromise of 1820 had declared it should be, it was thrown open for the 
territorial legislature to decide whether it should be free or slave territory. 
In view of this, there was a rush and race of settlers from the free states 
and the slave states into Kansas, to see which party should get control of 
the first territorial legislature; and in this movement Missouri, as a slave 
state, took a prominent part. It was a border country conflict, and there 
was illegality and violence on both sides, making a chapter in our state 
history the details of which might profitably be dropped out and forgotten. 
Suffice to say, the free state party carried the election; and this confiict 
was a precursor of the great civil war. 


In 1860 C. F. Jackson was elected governor of Missouri. Abrahami 
Lincoln had been elected President of the United States at the sanie time. 
Governor Jackson took his seat January 4, 1861; the question of secession 
was then already in warm discussion in some of the southern states, and 
Governor Jackson in his inaugural address maintained that " Missouri 
must stand by the other slave-holding states, whatever course they may 
pursue." The general assembly ordered an election to be held February 
18th, for members of a state convention; the proposed object of this con- 
vention was " to consider the then existing relations between the United 
States, the people and government of the different states, and the govern- 
ment and people of the state of Missouri; and to adopt such measures for 
vindicating the sovereignty of the state and the protection of its institutions 
as shall appear to them to be demanded." This convention met, first at 
Jefferson City, and afterward at St. Louis, and had a decided majority of 
Unionists — that is, of men opposed to secession; some because they 
believed in the doctrine of " Federal Nationality," as against the doctrine 
called "State Rights;" others because, like A. H. Stevens, of Georgia,, 
they saw with a clear eye that secession must inevitably result in the 
overthrow of slavery. And thus the Union men themselves were strongly 
divided into northern and southern sympathizers. The convention sat at 
St. Louis, without any important results, from March 9th to 22d, when it 
adjourned, subject to the call of its committee on federal relations. 

National events rushed on rapidl}^ to a crisis which would admit of no 
temporizing. In April, Fort Sumter was fired upon; President Lincoln 
called for 75,000 troops ; and men must now take sides for or against the 
national sovereignty of the lawfully constituted Federal authorities. Our 
legislature was in session; its measures and discussions were almost 
entirely of the "State Rights" type; and in a message to the legislature 
on May 3, 1861, Governor Jackson said the President's call for troops "is 
unconstitutional and illegal, tending toward a consolidated despotism. * * 
Our interest and sympathies are identical with those of the slave-holding 
states, and necessarily unite our destiny with theirs." While these 
influences were working in the central and western parts of the state, and 
organizations of " state guards " were being rapidly formed to resist the 
federal authority, Gen. Nathaniel Lyon and Col. F. P. Blair were actively 
enlisting men and organizing regiments in St. Louis and vicinity, to main- 
tain the federal authority. The most intense alarm and consternation 
prevailed throughout the state. Several minor conflicts occurred between 
state militia or "guards" and Union troops, all hinging upon the question 
of which power had the right of paramount sovereignty. The state 
troops were mostly under command of General Sterling Price, subordinate 
only to the governor of the state; while the federal troops were under 


command of General Lyon, by authority of the President of the United 

Governor Jackson finally tried to make terms with Gen. Lyon, that no 
federal troops should be stationed in or allowed to pass through the 
state. This was refused; and the governor then immediately issued a 
formal call, June 12, for 50,000 state militia. About April 20th, nearly 
two months before this, the " state guards " had seized the United States 
arsenal at Liberty, in Clay county, and taken its stores and arms for 
their own use. This was several weeks before the celebrated "Camp 
Jackson " affair. The wager of battle was now fairly joined in Missouri 
between different parties of her own citizens, although volunteers from 
other states soon began to pour in. The following is a chronological list 
of the more important actions and events: 

April 12^ i86i. — Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter, which was 
yielded up and evacuated on the 14th. 

April ij. — President Lincoln's proclamation, calling for 75,000 volun- 
teers to sustain the government, and calling a special session of congress. 


April /p.— Gov. Jackson wrote to David Walker, President of the 
Arkansas Convention, thus: "I have been from the beginning in favor of 
decided and prompt action on the part of the southern states, but the 
majority of the people of Missouri, up to the present time, have differed 
with me. " 

April 20. — The U. S. arsenal, at Liberty, in Clay county, was seized 
and garrisoned by about a hundred "state guards," and the arms and 
cannon were distributed to their friends throughout the county, with the 
concurrence of the governor.;}; 

April 22. — Governor Jackson officially resented the president's call for 
troops, and called an extra session of the legislature, to arm and equip 
state troops. State militia ordered to go into encampment on May .3, for 
one week. 

*It is not the purpose of this history to give a detailed narrative of events of the war 
lime; neither to discuss the right or the wrong of the views of either party in the conflict. 
We only give a brief mention of some of the most important incidents and leading actors, 
to show how and wherein the people of Missouri were themselves divided in opinion, 
what motives moved them, and what events stand out as of chief historic celebrity. 
Indeed, we would gladly skip this period of our state historyeutirely, if it were permissible 
in such a work. 

fThe events here given, in their chronological order, have been collated from more 
than thirty diflerent volumes containing difi'erent items or parts of Missouri's war history. 
The narratives, dates and statistics were found often conflicting; and we have endeavored 
to use those only which seemed to be the best authenticated, or the most probable under 
the circumstances — and to localize events as closely as possible by naming the towns, 
streams, counties, etc., where they occurred. 

|The governor had already (April 20th) seized the United States arsenal at Liberty, and 
had distributed among his friends the arms it contained. ^^—Dra/per's History of the Civil 
War, Vol. II, p. 228. 


April ^j, Night. — Capt. Lyon secretly removed the war stores in U. 
S. arsenal at St. Louis, by steamboat, over to Alton, Illinois. 

April 28. — Gov. Jackson wrote secretly to J. W. Tucker, Esq., of St. 
Louis: " I want a little time to arm the state, and I am assuming every 
responsibility to do it with all possible dispatch. * * * We should 
keep our own counsels. * * * Nothing should be said about the time 
or the manner in which Missouri should go out. That she ought to go, 
and will go at the proper time, I have no doubt. She ought to have 
gone last winter, when she could have seized the public arms and public 
property and defended herself. " * 

May J. — Legislature met. Governor Jackson denounced the presi- 
dent's call for troops as ^'- itnconstitutional and illegal.'''' Meanwnile Col. 
F. P. Blair, Jr., member of congress from the 1st district, of St. Louis, 
had enlisted one full regiment, and had four others in course of organiza- 
tion, within ten days from the issue of the president's call. 

May 10. — A body of "state guards," under command of Gen. D. M. 
Frost, acting under Governor Jackson's authority, had established a camp 
near St. Louis, called "Camp Jackson." Capt. Lyon, who had been 
since February in charge of the U. S. arsenal at St. Louis, with a few 
soldiers of the regular army (less than 500), discovered that the Camp 
Jackson men were receiving arms and ammunition b}'^ steamboats from 
the south, in boxes marked " marble. " Accordingly, on the morning of 
May 10th, he with his regulars, and Col. Blair with his Missouri volun- 
teers, surrounded, surprised and captured the camp, taking as prisoners 
of war 639 privates and 50 officers. The arms captured consisted of 20 
cannon, 1200 new rifles, several chests of muskets, and large quantities of 
shot, shell, cartridges, etc. 

May 12. — Gen. Wm. S. Harney took command of the Union forces in 
Missouri. Meanwhile the legislature had passed an act making every 
able-bodied man subject to military duty. All public revenues for 1860-61 
(about ip3,000,000) were authorized to be used by the governor for military 

Alay 21. — Gen. Harney made a truce or compromise of peace with 
Gen. Price, commander of the state troops. 

June I. — The president repudiated Gen. Harne3''s truce with Price; 
also removed him from his command and gave it to Gen. Lyon, who had 
on May 17th been appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers. 

'June /{.. — Governor Jackson issued a circular claiming the Harney- 
Price compact to be still in force. 

June II. — Gen. Price and Gov. Jackson sought a "peace conference" 
with Gen. Lyon and Col. Blair. The governor stipulated as a vital con- 

*See official address of the state convention, issued to the people July 31, 1861. 


dition of peace, that no Federal troops should be stationed in or pass 
through Missouri. The proposition was rejected. 

"June 12. — Gasconade railroad bridge burnt; also, Osage river bridge; 
and telegraph lines cut that connected with St. Louis. 

yune I J. — Governor Jackson issued a call for 50,000 state militia, to repel 
federal invasion; referred to the president as " the military despotism which 
has introduced itself at Washington;" and said to the people, "your first 
allegiance is due to your own state." He appointed ex-Governor Ster- 
ling Price as major general; and M. L. Clark, John B. Clark, Parsons, 
Slack, Harris, Rains, McBride, Stein and Jeft'. Thomson, as brigadier- 
generals. The state militia were called to rendezvous at Boonville and 
Lexington. The governor and other officers left Jefferson City for Boon- 
ville this day,* while at the same time General Lyon was embarking with 
1,500 men at St. Louis, to take and hold the state capital. 

June /J. — General Lyon arrived at Jefferson City. 

yune i6. — Re-embarked his troops for Boonville. 

yune ly. — Battle of Boonville. Colonel Marmaduke defeated. State 
troops retreated to Warsaw, with loss of fifty killed. Federal loss, two 

yune /c?- /p.— Colonel O'Kane, with 350 state militia, surprised in the 
night, a half-formed Union regiment at Cole Camp, in Benton county, under 
Capt. Cook. Pollard's " Southern History " says, in this affair the Union- 
ists lost 206 killed, a large number wounded, and over 100 taken prison- 
ers, beside 3G2 muskets captured; O'Kane lost 15 killed and 20 wounded. 

yuly J. — Governor Jackson and General Price were at Montevallo, in 
Vernon county, with (Pollard says) 3,600 state troops. 

y«^ 5-d.— Battle of Carthage (or Dry Fork), in Jasper county; union 
loss, 13 killed and 31 wounded; state troops, under Price and Jackson, 
lost about 300 killed and wounded. Gen. Seigel, the union commander, 
fell back sixty miles, to Springfield and joined Gen. Lyon. 

yuly S. — A small fight occurred at Bird's Point, in Mississippi county. 
Confederates lost 3 killed and !& wounded. Federal loss, if any, not reported. 

ynly 22. — The state convention, which had adjourned subject to the 
call of its committee on federal relations, re-convened at Jefferson City. 

yiily 2^. — Maj. Gen. Fremont arrived at St. Louis, as commander of 
the western department, which comprised Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, 
Kansas, and the territories westward. 

yuly JO. — State convention, by a vote of 56 to 25, declared the state 
offices and seats in legislature vacant, by reason of their occupants being 
engaged in treasonable and armed hostilities against the lawfully consti- 

" *The capture of Camp Jackson and the flight of the chief executive from the capital, 
was the occasion of a partial destruction of the Osage and Gasconade bridges [railroad], as 
well as those over Gray's creek, west of Jefferson City." — Annual report of state commis- 
sioner of statistics, 1866, p. 255. 


tuted federal authorities, and that all legislative and executive acts in pur 
suance of such treason or armed hostility, pretended to be done in the 
name and by authority of the state of Missouri, were mill and void. 
They elected to fill the state office vacancies, H. R. Gamble, governor; 
W. P. Hall, lieutenant governor; Mordecai Oliver, secretary of state; 
and appointed the first Monday of November as a day of general election. 

yuly ji. — Lieut. Governor Reynolds, whose office had been declared 
vacant by the state convention, issued a proclamation, dated at New Mad- 
rid, July 31, in which he said: "I return to the state, to accompan}- in 
my official capacity, one of the armies which the warrior statesman [Jef- 
ferson Davis], whose genius now presides over the affairs of our half of 
the Union, has prepared to advance against the common foe. * * * 
You behold the most warlike population on the globe, the people of the 
lower Mississippi valley, about to rush with their gleaming bowie-knives 
and unerring rifles, to aid us in driving out the abolitionists and their Hes- 
sion allies. * * The road to peace and internal security is only 
through union with the south. * "^ Rally to the stars and bars, 

in union with the glorious ensign of the grizzly bear."* 

August 2. — Battle of Dug Springs, in Lawrence count}'. General 
McCulloch, of Arkansas, in command of Confederates, marching to 
attack Springfield, was checked, and fell back to Sarcoxie; loss, 40 killed, 
44 wounded. General Lyon fell back to Springfield; loss, 8 killed, 30 

August 5. — Confederate troops under Col. Martin E. Green, attacked 
Missouri state militia, under Col. Moore, at Athens, in Clark county, and 
were defeated with a loss of 43 killed. 

August 6. — Governor Jackson, being now at Carthage, and just hear- 
ing of the action of the state convention, also issued a proclamation, de- 
claring the union between Missouri and the other states totally dissolved, 
and proclaiming the state of Missouri to be " a sovereign^ free and inde- 
pendent refublic^'' 

August 70.— Battle of Wilson's Creek. Gen. Lyon, Federal, had 
5,500 infantry, 400 cavalry, and IS cannon. Gen. McCulloch, Confeder- 
ate, says that his "efiective force was 5,300 infantry, 15 pieces of artillery, 
and 6,000 horsemen." (The Union officers imagined and reported more 
than double this number against them; one said 23,000, and another 
24,000.) The Confederates lost 421 killed, 1,317 wounded and 30 mis- 
sing. The Federals reported 223 killed, 721 wounded and 292 missing, 
and 5 cannon lost. Gen. Lyon was killed in this engagement. 

August i/f. — Federals evacuated Springfield and retreated to Rolla, but 

*Early in March the confederate congress had adopted the " stars and bars " as the flag 
of their confederacy. The state seal of Missouri has two grizzly bears among its emblems. 


were not pursued. Earthwork fortifications were this day commenced 
around St. Louis. 

August ji. — Gen. Fremont issued a general order proclaiming martial 
law in Missouri; the property of all persons who had taken up arms 
against the United States was declared to be confiscated, and '•'-their 
slaves to he free men!''' (President Lincoln at once annulled this last 

Se-ptember ij. — Siege of Lexington commenced by Gen. Price. His 
force has been variously estimated from 22,000 to 28,000, with 13 cannon. 
Col. Mulligan, Federal, had 2,780 troops, with six brass cannon, 
two howitzers, and forty rounds of ammunition. The same day, at 
Boonville, the Confederates, led by Col. Brown, attacked the Federal gar- 
rison in command of Col. Eppstein, and were repulsed with a loss of 12 
killed and 30 wounded; Federal loss, 1 killed and 4 wounded. 

September ly. — Battle of Blue Mills Landing, or Missouri Bottom, in 
Clay county. A body of Confederates, variously estimated at 600 to 1,000 
men, were on their way to join Gen. Price, at Lexington; and being pur- 
sued by a body of 700 Iowa and Missouri Unionist volunteers, they laid 
in ambush, and were attacked. The Federals lost 16 killed and 80 
wounded; the Confederates lost 10 killed and 60 wounded, repulsed their 
assailants, and then crossed over to Blue Mills, in Jackson county, on the 
south side of the Missouri, and marched on to Lexington. 

September i8-ig. — Main battle of Lexington. 

September 20. — Col. Mulligan surrendered. Gen. Price honorably rec- 
ognized the pluck and splendid heroism of his opponents, who were out 
of both provisions and ammunition, and for two days had had no water 
except the night dews which settled in their blankets and was wrung out 
into camp dishes in the morning. He released the privates on parole, but 
retained the officers as prisoners. Of the Federals there were 42 killed 
and 108 wounded. Gen. Price reported 25 killed and 72 wounded, from 
his regular muster rolls. But nearly half the men there with him were 
not formally enrolled as soldiers, and the losses among them could never 
be ascertained with any certainty, though known to be pretty large. 

September 21. — A fight occurred at Papinsville, in Bates county, in 
which, as reported, 17 Unionists were killed, and 40 Confederates killed 
and 100 captured. 

September 27. — Gen. Fremont left St. Louis for Jefferson City, in pur- 
suit of Price, with an army of 15,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, and 86 
pieces of artillery; his chief officers were Generals Hunter, Pope, Siegel, 
McKinstry and Asboth. But Price was too good a general to be caught 
at a disadvantage ; he however skillfully managed to lead the Federals on 
wild goose chases after him all over southern Missouri. 


October ij. — Secretary of War Cameron, and Adj't. Gen. Thomas, 

visited Fremont at Tipton. 

On the same day the Federal garrison at Lebanon, in LaClede county, 

was attacked unsuccessfully by Confederates, who lost 27 killed, 12 

wounded, and 36 taken prisoners. Federal loss, 1 killed and several 


October 14.. — On this day Fremont's army reported thus: 

1st division, Gen. Hunter, at Tipton 9,750 men 

2d " Gen Pope, at Georgetown 9,220 men 

3d " Gen. Siegel, at Sedalia 7,980 men 

4th " Gen. Asboth, at Tipton 6,451 men 

5th " Gen. McKinstr}^, at Syracuse 5,388 men 

Total 38,789 men 

They were all hunting for Gen. Price, to give him battle ; he was not 
yet ready for a pitched battle, but he worried the Federals a great deal by 
decoying them into many a long and fruitless march. 

About this time several small fights occurred in different parts of the 
state, but of which few particulars can be obtained. The " American 
Annual Cyclopedia," for 1861, gives the following statistics: Oct. 15, 
Big River bridge, Federal loss, 1 killed, 7 wounded, 52 missing; Confed- 
erate loss, 20 killed, 4 wounded. October 16, Bolivar Heights [in Polk 
county]. Federal loss, 7 killed; Confederate loss, 150 killed. Oct. 17, 
Pilot Knob, Federal loss, 1 killed, 10 wounded; Confederate loss, 36 
killed. Oct. 19, Big Harrison Creek, Federal loss, 2 killed, 14 wounded; 
Confederate loss, 14 killed, S missing. Oct. 23, West Liberty [in Putnam 
county]. Federal loss, 2 wounded; Confederate loss, 15 killed, 30 wounded.* 

October 16. — Recapture of Lexington by Major W^hite, releasing Union 
prisoners, including two colonels of Mulligan's brigade. 

October 21. — Battle of Fredericktown, in Madison county. Confeder- 
ate Col. Jeff Thompson was defeated with loss of 200 killed, and made a 
hasty retreat, leaving 60 of his dead behind him. Federal loss, 30 killed. 

October 24. — Battle of Springfield. Major Zagonyi, with 300 cavalry, 
known as " Fremont's Body Guard, " attacked an irregular force estima- 
ted at 1,200 foot and 400 horsemen, and defeated them, losing 84 of his 
men killed or wounded; 100 of his troops were Kentackians. The Con- 
federate loss was known to be considerable, but could never be fully ascer- 
tained; their dead were buried the next day, under a flag of truce. 

October 2^. — Gen. Siegel reached Springfield with his division. Fre- 
mont was concentrating his army at Springfield, to fortify and hold it as 

*Ia the greater number of battles in this state the Federals had the advantage of more 
artillery than the Confederates, and men better skilled in its use; and this is why the 
losses on the Confederate side so often seem out of proportion . 


the key to southwestern Missouri and northern Arkansas, where Price 
and McCulloch were operating. 

Hovember 2. — Fremont was removed from command and Gen. Hunter 
placed in his stead. 

IVovember 2. — A sharp fight occurred on Bee Creek, between Weston 
and Platte City, in Platte county; the Confederate loss is given as 13 killed 
and 30 missing; Federal loss not known. 

November 7. — Gen. Hunter evacuated Springfield and fell back to Rolla. 
This same da}^ the battle of Belmont occurred; Federal loss, 84 killed, 
388 wounded, and 285 taken prisoners. Pollard's "Southern History" 
says the Confederate loss in this battle was 632. But the National Hand- 
Book reports the Confederate losses as 261 killed, 427 wounded, and 278 

November 18. — Gen. H. W. Halleck arrived at St. Louis and took com- 
mand, in place of Gen. Hunter. 

November 21. — Gen. Halleck issued an order that no fugitive slaves should 
be permitted to enter the lines of any camp, nor of any forces on the march. 
(President Lincoln had some time before this annulled Gen. Fremont's 
order declaring certain slaves free.) 

Novefnber 27. — Gen. J. M. Schofield placed in command of Missouri 
Federal troops. 

November and Dece?nber. — During these months there occurred several 
irregular conflicts of no great importance, but still deemed worthy of cas- 
ual mention in Horace Greely's History of the War, because they served 
to show how the Missouri people were divided among themselves, and 
thereby suffered the more. The village of Warsaw was burned Nov. 19, 
and Platte City, Dec. 16, by guerillas; a small fight occurred at Salem 
Dec. 3, at Rogers' mill Dec. 7, and at or near Glasgow, Potosi, Lexing- 
ton, Mount Zion, and Sturgeon, on Dec. 28th. 

December j. — Col. Freeman with a regiment of Confederate cavalry, 
made a night attack on Federal troops under Col. Bowen, near Salem, in 
Dent county, and was defeated, with a loss of 16 killed, 20 wounded and 
10 prisoners. Federal loss, 3 killed, 8 wounded, 2 missing. Col. Free- 
man had suffered a sore defeat near Springer's mill, in the east part of 
the county, in August; but no further particulars could be obtained. 

December 15. — Gen. Pope captured 300 recruits and 70 wagons loaded 
with supplies, going from Lexington to join Gen. Price, who was then at 
Osceola with 8,000 men. 

December 18. — Col. J. C. Davis, of Pope's army, surprised a Confeder- 
ate camp at Milford, and captured 3 colonels, 17 captains, 1,300 soldiers, 
1,000 stand of arms, 1,000 horses, besides all their tents, baggage and 
supplies. Federal loss, 2 killed, 17 wounded. 


December 20. — By a concerted night attack, the Hannibal & St. Joe 
railroad was broken, and bridges destroyed for about a hundred miles.* 


March j. — Price and McCulloch, at Boston Mountain, Arkansas, were 
joined by Maj. Gen. Van Dorn, Confederate commander of the Trans- 
Mississippi department, and by Gen. Pike, with a brigade of Indians from 
the Indian Territory. This army now numbered about 20,000, all under 
Gen. Van Dorn. 

March y-8. — Battle of Pea Ridge. Although Pea Ridge is really in 
Arkansas (just over the line), the battle was fought by the Confederates 
to regain a foothold in Missouri, and it properly belongs to the history of 
Missouri military operations. The Federal forces under Gen. Curtis 
engaged in this battle were 10,.500 men and 49 cannon. Gen. Van Dorn's 
army is variously given by different southern authorities, all the way 
from 10,000 to 30,0U0. The Federal loss was 203 killed, 972 wounded, 176 
missing. Count Paris' history states that the Confederates "left more 
than one thousand men in killed and wounded upon that long-contested 
battle-field." The Confederate Generals McCulloch and Mcintosh were 
mortally wounded in this battle, and Gen. Buckner was captured. The 
Confederates lost 1,100 killed, 2,500 wounded, and 1,600 taken prisoners. 

August (5.— Battle of Kirksville. Col. Porter, with 2,000 or 3,000 Con- 
federates, mostly raw recruits who had been destroying bridges, was 
attacked by Col. McNeil with 1,000 cavalry and 6 cannon. Battle lasted 
four hours. Confederates retreated, with loss of 180 killed and 500 
wounded, and some wagon loads of arms and other supplies. Federal 
loss, 28 killed and 60 wounded. 

August JO. — Federals attacked 1,200 Confederates under Col. Poindex- 
ter while crossing the Chariton river. After a running fight of three or 
four da3's. Col. Poindexter's troops were all killed, captured or dispersed, 
and himself taken prisoner. 

August II. — Col. Hughes captured the Federal garrison of 312 men of 
the 7th Missouri cavalry, stationed at Independence. 

August i§. — Battle of Lone Jack, in Jackson county. Col. Coffey and 
Col. Hughes, with 4,500 men, attacked the Federals under Major Foster, 
wounding him, capturing his two cannon, and compelling him to retreat 
to Lexington. The victorious Confederates were in turn pursued by 

"*By order (>f Gen. Sterling Price, it [the North Missouri Railroad] was partially- 
destroyed in June and July, 1801 ; and on the 20th of December, 18G1, for a hundred miles, 
every bridge and culvert was broken down, and a perfect wreck made of everything that 
could be destroyed. In September and October, 1864, two trains of cars and seven depots 
were burned, and several engines injured." — Annval Report State Commissioner of Statis- 
tics, 186Q; p. 258. 


Stronger bodies of the National troops, and rapidly retreated toward 

September 2/f.. — Gen. Curtis placed in command of all Union troops in 

October i. — Battle of Newtonia, in Newton county. Gen. Salomon, of 
Wisconsin, was defeated by Confederate cavalry. Losses not known. 
Gen. Hindman was advancing from Arkansas with 1^,000 to 20,000 Con- 
federates, poorly armed. Gen. Schofield came up with 10,000 troops to 
attack him at Newtonia, but he retreated back into Arkansas, closely 
pursued b}' the Federals. 

December j. — Battle of Prairie Grove, Ark. This, being just over the 
line, was practically a Missouri battle; it was fought between the same 
armies which had been so long contending for the mastery in this state. 
Our own state Generals, Marmaduke, Parsons and Frost, were in com- 
mand, under Gen. Hindman. The Federal commanders were Generals 
Blunt and Herron. Federal loss, 495 killed, 600 wounded; the Confeder- 
ates lost 1,500 in killed and wounded, and suffered a defeat. 

EVENTS IN 1863. 

January 8. — Battle of Springfield. General Brown with 1,200 Mis- 
souri State militia, was attacked bv G^v\. Marmaduke with 1,870 Confed- 
erate troops. The battle lasted eight hours. Federal loss, 14 killed, 145 
wounded, 5 missing. Confederates lost, 41 killed and 160 wounded, 80 
of the latter being left as prisoners. 

'January ii. — Battle of Hartsville. Firmg commenced at 11 a. m., and 
continued until 4:30 p. :m. Confederates under Generals Marmaduke and 
Porter lost 300 killed and wounded, and 29 taken prisoners. Among the 
killed were Gen. McDonald and Col. Porter, besides six other officers. The 
Federals were under Col. Samuel Merrill, (afterward Governor of Iowa), 
and lost 7 killed, 64 wounded and 7 missing. The Confederates retreated 
back into Arkansas. 

March 28. — Steamboat " Sam. Gaty " captured by Confederates at 
Sibley's landing, near Independence. 

April 26. — The Federal garrison at Cape Girardeau under Gen. Mc- 
Neil was attacked by Gen. Marmaduke with 10,000 men, and a battle of 
five hours ensued, in which the assailants lost 60 killed and over 300 
wounded. The}^ retreated back into Arkansas, being pursued to the state 
line by Missouri militia, and a few more were killed or captured. 

May I J. — Gen. Schofield was placed in command in Missouri, succeed- 
ing Gen. Curtis. 

August ij. — Col. Coftey, Confederate, attacked the 6th Missouri cav- 
alry under Col. Catherwood, at Pineville, in McDonald county, and was 


repulsed, with loss of 200 killed, wounded and prisoners, besides his 
wagons, munitions and cattle. 

October I J. — Battle near Arrow Rock, Saline county. Confederates 
reported 2,500 in number, under Cols. Shelby and Cofley, were attacked 
by Missouri state militia under Gen. E. B. Brown, and defeated with a 
loss of 300 in killed, wounded and prisoners, besides all their artillery and 
baggage. Fight lasted five hours. Federal loss not known, though 
reported as " also large." 

EVENTS IN 1864. 

yanuavy 28. — Gen. Rosecrans arrived at St. Louis and took command 
of the Department of Missouri. 

June — .The Belgian Consul, who was state commander of the secret 
order of "American Knights, " or " Sons of Liberty, " was arrested, wuth 
forty of the most prominent members, and held as hostages, because proof 
had been discovered that they were plotting against the Federal authori- 

September 26. — Gen. Price, witii lu,000 men, attacked the Federal gar- 
rison at fronton (near Pilot Knob), in command of Gen. Thomas Ewinff, 
jr., with 1,200 men. After a da^-'s hard fighting the Federals spiked their 
fort guns and retreated in the night to RoUa, having lost 200 killed and 
wounded. The Confederates lost 1,500. 

October 7.— Battle or skirmish of Moreau creek, in Cole county, which 
Gen. Price crossed, and formed his army in line of battle about four miles 
long around Jefferson City. But finding the Federal garrison intrenched, 
he marched on west without attacking them. (The Federals had 6,700 
men there). 

October 22. — Gen. Pleasanton's Federal cavalry defeated Col. Fagan at 
Independence, capturing two cannon. 

October 23. — Battle on the Big Blue creek, in Jackson count)-, lasting 
from Y A. M., till 1 p. m. Confederates retreated southward. 

October 2^. — Battle on little Osage Creek in Vernon county. Gen. 
Price was defeated, the Federals under Gen. Pleasonton capturing eight 
cannon, and Generals Marmaduke and Cabell, besides five colonels and 
1,000 men, with all equipments, supplies, etc. The fighting had been 
almost continuous by some part of the troops, all along the march from 
Independence to the Little Osage; and reports at this point give the Fed- 
eral loss at 1,000 killed and wounded, and about 2,000 taken prisoners; 
Confederate loss, 900 killed, 3,800 wounded and prisoners, and ten cannon 
captured from them. 

October 28. — Gen. Price again made a stand at Newtonia, in Newton 
county, and had a sharp fight with the Federals under Gens. Blunt and Sa*-— 
born, but was defeated and escaped into Arkansas. And this w"'*^ ' ' 


last encounter that can be called a "battle" within the bounds of our state. 
The numbers engaged on either side, and their losses in this last fight are 
not reported. 


Under President Lincoln's first call, April 15, 1861, for 75,000 volun- 
teers, Missouri furnished 10,501 men; and she furnished a total of 108,773 
Federal or Union soldiers during the war. The total number of citizens 
of Missouri who took up arms on the Confederate side cannot be ascer- 

During the war the state issued its indebtedness called "Defense War- 
rants" and "Union Military Bonds," for equipping and maintaining the 
militia organizations of the state; the total amount was $7,876,575. All 
of the defense warrants and one-half of the Union military bonds were 
made receivable for state taxes; and a special fimd was created for the 
redemption of the balance. The United States paid to the state of Mis- 
souri a total of $6,440,323.95, to reimburse her for military expenses 


Notwithstanding the strenuous competition of other cities, the superior 
advantages of St. Louis for distribution, and a due regard for its own 
interests, compelled the government to make St, Louis the western base 
of supplies and transportation. During the war the transactions of the 
government at this point were very large. Gen. Parsons, chief of trans- 
portation in the Mississippi Valley, submits the following as an approxi- 
mate summary of the operations in his department from 1860 to 1865: 


Cannons and caissons 800 

Wagons , 13,000 

Cattle 80,000 

Horses and mules 250,000 

Troops 1,000,000 

Pounds of military stores 1,950,000,000 

Gen. Parsons thinks that full one-half of all the transportation employed 
by the government on the Mississippi and its tributaries was furnished b}- 
St. Louis. From September, 1861, to December 31, 1865, Gen. Haines, 
chief commissary of this department, expended at St. Louis for the pur- 
chase of subsistence stores, $50,700,000. And Gen. Myers, chief quar- 
^master of the department, disbursed for supplies, transportation, and 
airy u,^i expenses, $180,000,000. 



As a part of the war history of Missouri, the military hospitals of St. 
Louis claim at least a brief mention. After the battle of Wilson's Creek 
it became apparent that the government provision for hospitals was 
entirel}' inadequate to the emergency. A voluntary organization, called 
the Western Sanitary Commission, was formed, consisting of James E. 
Yeatman (now of the Merchant's National Bank), Rev. Wm. G. Eliot, D. 
D., (now Chancellor of Washington Universit}'), George Partridge, 
(recently Vice President of Trustees of State Blind Asylum), Carlos S. 
Greeley and John B. Johnson. Their purpose was to receive and distrib- 
ute hospital supplies furnished by the people, and in every practicable way 
aid and co-operate with the military authorities in the care of the sick and 
wounded. The first woman regularly mustered into the United States 
service as a hospital nurse, in Missouri, was Mrs. F. R. H. Reid, M. D., 
from Wisconsin, (now resides at Des Moines, Iowa). She was the 
woman coadjutor of U. S. Surgeon, Dr. Mills, in opening and starting the 
first large volunteer hospital, which was known as the Chestnut street 
hospital; and afterward she took the same part in the Fourth street hos- 
pital; and also with Dr. Melchior in the Marine hospital; also in a tem- 
porary post hospital at Sulphur Springs. 

To give an idea of the largeness of the hospital work, we quote from a 
circular printed at St. Louis, Nov. 22, 1861,* which says: "There are 
ten military hospitals in St. Louis alone, with a maximum capacity for 
3,500 patients. The number of patients varies every day, but on Wednes- 
day, November 20th, they reported patients under treatment as follows: 

House of Refuge hospital, [Sisters of Charity nurses] 475 

Fifth and Chestnut streets hospital, 464 

Good Samaritan hospital, [for measles,] . . 173 

Fourth street hospital, 328 

Jefferson barracks hospital 72 

Arsenal hospital, . 16 

Camp Benton hospital, 106 

Pacific hospital, [depot for the hospital cars] 30 

Duncan's Island hospital, [for small-pox: cases all convalescent,] .... 4 

Convalescent barracks, [known as Camp Benton,] 800 

Total, 2,468 

" ( This does not include the company, regiment and brigade hospitals, 
of which there are several.) The average mortality has been about four 
per cent. A hospital car, properly fitted up and manned, passes daily 
over the railroad to the interior, to bring in the sick and wounded. The 
arrangements for decent burial, registration of deaths, identification, etc.. 

* Prepared and published by H. A. Reid, Associate Member for Wisconsin of the U. S. 
Sanitary Commission. 


are very complete. The body of an}^ soldier who ma}'- die in any of the 
hospitals may be identified, and removed for other obsequies or bm-ial by 
relatives or friends. There are no hospital chaplains; but nurses are in- 
structed by the sanitary commission, that every patient who asks for it, 
will be visited by a clergyman of his own choice, at any hour." 

There were hospitals also at Jefiferson City, Rolla and Ironton at this 
time. This circular contained a classified list, prepared by Mrs. Reid, of 
over a hundred different articles needed for the care, comfort and welfare 
of the soldiers in hospital, beyond what the general government could 
furnish; the whole document was reprinted by state authority at Madison, 
Wisconsin, and widely circulated. In a letter dated St. Louis, Jan. 14, 
1862, Mr. Yeatman said: "Wisconsin has contributed most largely to- 
wards supplying comforts for the sick in camps and hospitals in this 
department, second to but one other state — Massachusetts. " 

There was a prison hospital for sick Confederate prisoners, to whom 
supplies were furnished from the stores of the sanitary commission, the 
same as to the Union soldiers; and wounded Confederates were cared for 
in the general hospitals the same as those of the Federal troops. The 
writer hereof was an eye-witness to this fact; and is glad to record it as a 
testimony of the true Christian spirit of the sanitary commission and the 
magnanimity of the Federal authorities. 


The civil authority of the state remained vested in the state conven- 
tion from July, 1861, until July, 1863. This provisional body held the 
following sessions: 

1861— Jefferson City, February 28 to March 4. 
St. Louis, March 6 to March 22. 
Jefferson City, July 22 to July 31. 
St. Louis, October 10 to October 18. 

1862— Jefferson City, June 2 to June 14. 

1863 — Jefferson City, June 15 to July 1, when it adjourned sine die. 

The course of affairs had now become so far settled and pacified that 
civil proceedings were again possible, and the regular fall elections were 
held this year, 1863. On the 13th of February, 1864, the general assem- 
bly convened, and passed an act to authorize the election of sixty-six 
members to a state convention, "to consider such amendments to the con- 
stitution of the state as might by it be deemed necessary for the emanci- 
pation of slaves;* to preserve in purity the elective franchise to loyal 
citizens, and for the promotion of the public good." 

This convention met in St. Louis, January 6, 1865; and on the 11th of 

* President Lincoln's emancipation proclamation, January 1, 1863, only applied to slaves 
■within such states or parts of states as were then controlled by the Confederate power. 


the same month it passed, by a vote of sixty ayes to four noes, an ordi- 
nance emancipating all slaves within the state, and providing that it 
should take effect immediatel}'-. The convention also framed a new con- 
stitution, in many respects quite different from the old one. The final 
vote in convention on the new instrument stood thirt3'--eight for, to thirteen 
against it. The convention adjourned April 10, sine die. In June the 
people voted on the new constitution, and the vote stood 43,670 for, to 
41,808 against it. 

The following are some of the most notable new features embodied in 
the organic law of the state, and will readily explain wh}'- there was such 
a large vote against its adoption: It established an oath of loyalty to the 
United States; and those who would not take the oath it excluded from 
the right to vote or hold any civil office whatever, or act as a teacher in 
any public school, or to solemnize marriage as a clergyman, or to practice 
law in any of the courts. It limited the amount of land which any church 
or religious society might hold to five acres of land in the country, or one 
acre in town or city; provided for taxing church property; and declared 
void any will bequeathing property to any clergyman, religious teacher 
or religious society as such. There was a section designed to prevent 
the state from giving public property, lands or bonds, to railroad compa- 
nies. It provided that after January 1, 1876, no one could become a law- 
ful voter who was not sufficiently educated to be able to read and write. 

July 1, 1865, the governor, Thomas C. Fletcher, made proclamation 
that the new constitution had been duly ratified by a lawful majority of 
the people, and was thenceforth the organic law of the slate. A few 
amendments have been since adopted; but in all important points it 
remains the same to this day. 




The geological history of Missouri commences at the very bottom of 
the scale, or, in what may be termed the fire-crust period of geologic 
time. (See chart on page 67). Dana's "Manual of Geology" is the 
great standard work all over the United States on this subject. In his 
chapter on Archasan Time he gives a map and brief sketch of our North 
American continent as it existed at that remote period, which was, 
according to a calculation made for the Royal Society of London in 1879,* 
about 600,000,000 years ago. And as this is where Missouri first comes 
to light, we quote Prof. Dana's account of the very meagre areas and 
points of our continent which stood alone above the primeval ocean that 
then enveloped the entire globe with its bubbling, seething, sputtering 
wavelets — an enormous caldron of boiling, steaming silicious lye, rather 
than water. Dana says: 

" The principal of the areas is The Great Northern^ nucleal to the con- 
tinent, lying mostly in British America, and having the shape of the letter 
V, one arm reaching northeastward to Labrador, and the other north- 
westward from Lake Superior to the Arctic. The region appears to 
have been for the most part out of water ever since the Archaean era.f 
To this area properly belong the Adirondack area, covering the larger 
part of northern New York, and a Michigan area south of Lake Supe- 
rior, each of which was probably an island in the continental sea before 
the Silurian age began. 

" Beside this nucleal area, there are border-mountain lines of Archaean 
rocks: a long Affalachian line, including the Highland Ridge of Dutch- 
ess county, New York, and New Jersey, and the Blue Ridge of Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia; a long Rocky Mountain series, embracing the 
Wind River mountains, the Laramie range and other summit ridges of 
the Rocky Mountains. In addition, in the eastern border region, there is 
an Atlantic coast range, consisting of areas in New Foundland, Nova 
Scotia and eastern New England. In the western border region, a 
Pacific coast range in Mexico; and several more or less isolated areas in 
the Mississi-ppi basin, west of the Mississippi, as in Missouri, Arkansas^ 
Texas, and the Black Hills of Dakota." — JOana's Manual^ p. 150. 

*See Popular Science ]\Ionthly, May, 1879, p. 137. 

fThe "Archaean era," as used by Prof. Dana, in 1874, (the date of his latest revision) 
included both the "Azoic Age," and "Age of Zooliths," as sliown on the chart, p. 67. Whoa 
Prof. Dana wrote, it was still an open question whether the "eozoon" was of animal or 
mineral origin ; but the highest authorities are now agreed that it was animal ; and Prof. 
Reid has, therefore, very properly given it a distinct place in his " Zoic Calendar." 




Including the Rock Scale of Geological Periods and tlie "Zoic Calendar of Creation." Compiled 
from the works of Agassiz, Lyell, Huxley, Hoeckel, Dana, LcConte, and other first rank authorities in 
Science at the present time. By HiKiM A. Reid, Secretary State Academy of Sciences at Dos Moines, 
Iowa. [Published by permission of the Author.] 

Explanation. — The side line 
a^ ilin "t'c shows what portions of 
fico ogic -.1 time are comprehended 
in til; terms "eozoic," " paleo- 
z )>c," etc. The first column 
shows thi; periods or "Ages" of 
geological time during which the 
dili' rent successive types of ani- 
mal life predominated, or were the 
highest types then in existence. 
And th jse two divisions form the 
"Zoic Calendar of Creation." 

The t'econd column shows the 
great general groupings of rock w hich are found the fossil 
remains of th'i corresponding ani- 
mal types named in the first col- 
umn.' But, at tne "Age of Rep- 
tiles" occurs a grand divergement, 
for it was during this age that an- 
imal life pushed out into its most 
wonderful developments; and 
there came into existence strange 
and marvelous forms of swimming 
reptiles, four-footed and two-fooi;- 
ed walking reptiles, and two-foot- 
ed and four-footed flying reptiles. 
Here also the true birds began to 
appear, though with reptilian pe- 
culiarities; and likewise the mar- 
supial animals, which are a tran- 
sitional type, between reptiles 
that produce their young by laying 
egKS and the true mammals, that 
bring forth their young well ma- 
tured and then suckle them. 

The third column shows the les- 
ser groupings of rock beds as clas- 
sified by our American geologists; 
but many minor subdivisions and 
local groups are omitted for want 
of space. At the top of this col- 
umn are shown the geological pe- 
riods of first appearance ol races 
Of man, so far as now authentica- 
ted by competent scientific au- 

The fourth column shows the 
number of feet in thickness of the 
different groups of rock layers as 
indicated by the braces. 

This Chart is the most compre- 
hensive and thorough in its de- 
tails, and yet the most systemati- 
cally and graphically presented to 
the eye, of anything in its line 
that has ever yet been published. 
Here is the whole story of geol- 
ogy and the ascent of life con- 
densed into the space of a few 
inches, yet so plainly set forth as 
to readily fix itself in the memory 
like an outline map. Scientific 
terras in newspapers and maga- 
zines often catch tlie reader at a 
disadvantage; but a reference to 
this chart will at once show the 
relative place or period in crea- 
tional progress to which the best 
author! zed geological terms apply. 
It. reaches, "like a Jacob's ladder, 
from the lowest inklings to the 
highest ideals of life on the earth, 
as taught by modern science and 
the Christian Bible. 




See Psalms 8:5 Lulte 50:36 
Mark }-2:i5 1 Cor.l5:44 
Heb.i>:2to9 Rev.e2:8,9 


Age OF 





Rude Agricul- 




Terrace Epoch. ^ 

Champlain Epoch. 


Feet Id 
thi c k DOES 
o f t h e 
group* of 
rock form- 






Age OF 



Cretaceous, y 



Age of 

Age OF 







Upper SilBrian. 






80O to 

3,000 to 

16,000 to 
I 14,570 





! 9,050 to 
I 14,400 






Lower Siinriafl, 


Canadian . 

: 6,000 to 




**Thi3 Age alone was 
probably longer in dura- 
tion than all subsequent 
eeolosical time." — Prof. 

Primordial Vegetaiioii 

Eozoon Mil. 

Graphite Beds. 


Copyriuht lS79::H.A.Rcid| 

eo - 






j ;.'0,000 
\ 30,000 

Metamorpliic Granites. 



' tJnstrati- 
I fied. . 

( 350,000,000 years in cooling 

down to 200"' F. at the sur" }. Depth 
face [Prpf. HKLsyiioiTz], a i unknown, 
temperature at which very 
low forms of vegetation can 
eiist. i 

, an acnuir.jd sci«ntiftc fact." -_, . - 

"The Miocene man of La Be.^iuce already kn»w the use of fire, and worked flint." — lb. p. 243. See aUo, Prof. 

• Soe Applelons' lutcrnatlonal Scientific 

* "The existence of Pliocene man in Tuscany la, then, in my opinion, 

Beries, Vol. XXVII, p. 151. "The Miocene man of La Be.^iuce already l , . • v c 

WincheU'a "Pre-Adamites," pp. 426-7-8 . " The human race in America is shown to be at lea,?t of as ancient a date as that of tho European 
Pliocene."— Prof. J, D.Whitney. Similar views ar« held by Profs. Leidy, Marsh, Copt, Morse, Wyman, and other scientists of highest r«pnte. 


Thus, then, with the very first emergence of drj^ land out of the heav- 
ily saturated and steaming mineral waters of the primeval ocean, we have 
Pilot Knob, Shepherd Mountain, and a few smaller peaks in their vicin- 
ity, forming an island in the vast expanse. The next nearest island was 
a similar one at the Black Hills, in Dakota. There is no reason as yet 
known fior believing that anv form of life, either animal or vegetable, had 
yet appeared in our Missouri region. The ocean water was still too hot, 
and still too powerfully surcharged with mineral salts, alkalis and acids 
to admit of any living tissues being formed; and the atmosphere was in 
like manner thickly loaded with deadliest acids in the form of vapors, 
which would partially condense as they arose, and fall upon the iron- 
headed islands to form a mineral crust, and then be broken and washed 
back into the sea. But this process being kept up and incessantly 
repeated for milHons of years (see Prof. Helmholtz's estimate at bottom 
of the chart), both sea and air became gradually purified of its excess of 
minerals and acids; and the water sufficiently cooled to admit of living 
tissues being formed: and meanwhile the condensing and crust-forming 
elements precipitated from the vapor-laden air or deposited directly from 
the bulk waters of the shoreless sea, were busily forming the solid earth. 
The different incrustations would each be a little different in their com- 
ponent elements; and then being broken up and mixed together and 
recombined, partly iti the form of rough fragments, partly in the form of 
dust or sand ground into tins state by mechanical attrition, partly in the 
form of fluidized or vaporized solutions, and partly in the form of molten 
masses produced directly by the earth's internal fires, the process of com- 
bining and recombining, with continual variation in the proportions, went 
on through the long, dreary, sunless and lifeless Azoic Age. 

But as soon as the great ocv^^an caldron got cooled down to about 200 
degrees Fahrenheit, it was then possible for a very low form of vegetation 
to exist; and although no fossil remains of the first existing forms of such 
vegetation have yet been found, or at least not conclusively identified as 
such, yet graphite or plumbago, the material from which our lead pencils 
are made, is found in connection with the transition rocks between the 
Azoic and the Zoolithian ages. Graphite is not a mineral at all, but is 
pure vegetable carbon, and is supposed to be the remnant carbon of these 
first and lowest forms of tough, leathery, flowerless sea-weeds. Some 
small deposits of graphite are reported to have been found in connection 
with the iron and metamorphic granites of our Pilot Knob island; and 
that would indicate the first organic forms that came into existence within 
the boundaries of what now we call the state of Missouri. Just think of 
it! All North America, except a dozen widely scattered spots or islands^ 
was covered with an ocean that spread its seamy expanse all around 
the globe ; no sunlight could penetrate the thick, dense cloud of vapors 


that filled the enveloping atmosphere; according to our English author 
before cited, this was 600,000,000 years ago, a period which the humau 
mind cannot grasp; but the Almighty Maker of worlds had even then 
commenced to make the state of Missouri and its living occupants. 

The earliest known forms of animal life, a kind of coral-making rhizo- 
pod (root-footed) called Eozoon Canadense, are not found in Missouri, but 
are found abundantly in what are called the Laurentian rocks, in Canada 
and elsewhere. (See chart). It is not to be supposed, however, that the 
enormous period called the " Age of Zooliths " passed, with forms of ani- 
mal life existing in Canada, but none in our iron island region, unless we 
assume that the mineral acidity of the waters coming in contact with this 
island was so intense as to require all that vast period for its purification 
sufficiently to permit the existence of the lowest and most structureless 
forms of protoplasmic matter known to science. Prof. Swallow says, in 
writing on the Physical Geography of Missouri, " below the magnesian 
limestone series we have a series of metamorphosed slates, which are 
doubtless older than the known fossiliferous strata; whether they belong to 
the Azoic, the Laurentian or Huronian, I am unable to say." 

The labors of our different state geologists have not discovered any 
fossil remains in Missouri lower down in the rock scale than what is called 
the " Lower Silurian " formations, which form the first half of the 
" Age of Invertebrates " in the zoic-calendar portion of Prof Reid's chart. 
The term " Invertebrates " includes all forms of animal life that do not 
have a back-bone, such as polyps, mollusks, worms, insects, crustaceans, 
infusoria, etc. By the time this age (Silurian) had commenced, our lone 
island had been joined by large areas northward, southwestward, eastward 
and northwestward, so that there began to be a continent; and several 
hundred species of animals and plants have been found fossil in the rocks 
of this period, but they are all marine species — none yet inhabiting the 
dry land. Our chart shows the Lower Silurian epoch sub-divided into 
Cambrian, Canadian and Trenton formations; but there are other local 
sub-divisions belonging to this period, the same as to all the other general 
periods named on the chart. The animals of this period were polyps or 
coral-makers; worms, mollusks, trilobites,asterias (star-fishes), all of strange 
forms and now extinct. The trilobite, some species of which are found in 
Missouri, was the first animal on the earth which had eyes, although 
there were likewise a great many eyeless species of them; but the fact 
that any of them had eyes during this age is considered by some scientists 
to prove that the atmosphere had by this time become sufficiently rarefied 
to let the sunlight penetrate clearly through it and strike the earth. On 
the other hand, others hold that this did not occur until after the atmos- 
phere had laid down its surcharge of carbonic acid and other gases, in the 
forms of limestone from animal life and coalbeds from vegetable life; that 


is, there was nothing which we would now consider as clear sunshine 
until the carboniferous period. At any rate, Prof. Dana says of the 
X.ower Silurian, "there was no green herbage over the exposed hills; 
and no sounds were in the air save those of lifeless nature, — the moving 
waters, the tempest and the earthquake." Having thus given the reader 
«ome idea of the beginnings of land and the beginnings of life in our old, 
old state, space will not permit us to linger with details upon the remain- 
ing geological periods. We have compiled the following table from vari- 
ous writings of our able state geologist. Prof. G. C. Swallow, of the State 


Igneous Rocks. — Granite, porphyry, syenite, greenstone, combined 
-with those wonderful beds of iron and copper which are found in the 
Pilot Knob region. 

Azoic Rocks. — Silicious and other slates, containing no remains of 
■organic life, though apparently of sedimentary and not of igneous origin. 

L.OWER Silurian— Feet thick. 

Hudson river group (8 local subdivisions) 220 

Trenton limestone 360 

Black-river and birds- eye limestone 75 

1st magnesian limestone 200 

Saccharoidal (sugar-like) sandstone 125 

2d magnesian limestone 230 

2d sandstone 115 

3d magnesian limestone 350 

3d sandstone 60 

4th magnesian limestone 300 

Total thickness of Silurian rocks 2035 

When the reader remembers that these were all formed successively 
by the slow process of the settling of sediment in water, he will get some 
idea of how it is that geology gives such astounding measurements of 

Upper Silurian — Feet thick. 

Lower Helderberg formation 350 

Niagara group 200 

Cape Girardeau limestone 60 

Total thickness 610 

history of the state of missouri. tl 

Devonian — 

{Chouteau limestone 85 

Vermicular sandstone and shales To 

Lithographic limestone 125 

Hamilton group 40 

Onondaga limestone (extremely variable). 
Oriskany sandstone (doubtful \ 

Carboniferous — 

Coal measures, consisting of strata of sandstones, limestones, 
shales, clays, marls, brown iron ores and coal 2,000 

In this formation there are from eight to ten good workable veins of 
coal; and the Missouri basin coal-bearing area is the largest in the world. 
It comprises the following: 

Square miles. 

In Missouri 27,000 

Nebraska 10,000 

Kansas 12,000 

Iowa 20,000 

Illinois. 30,000 

Total 99,000 

The Sub-Carboniferous in Missouri is subdivided into: 


Upper Archimedes limestone 200 

Ferruginous (irony) sandstone 195 

Middle Archimedes limestone 50 

St. Louis limestone 250 

Oolitic limestone 25 

Lower Archimedes limestone 350 

Encrinital limestone 500 

Total sub-carboniferous 1570 

Cretaceous. — The Triassic and Jurassic formations have not been found 
in this state; but Prof. Swallow has classed as probably belonging to the 
Cretaceous epoch, six different formations which comprise a total thick- 
ness of 158 feet. He says no fossils have been found to certainly identify 
these beds, but their geological horizon and lithological characters deter- 
mine their place in the scale. 

Tertiary. — The beautiful variegated sands and clays and shales and 
iron ores, which skirt the swamps of southeast Missouri along the bluffs 
from Commerce to the Chalk Bluffs in Arkansas, belong to this system. 
Quaternary. — In this Prof. Swallow includes what is separated under 


the name of "Recent" by Prof. Dana and others, as shown in the chart. 

The Quaternary of Missouri is subdivided by Prof. Swallow into — 

Alluvium 30 feet 

Bottom Prairie 35 " 

Bluff {Loess of other authors) 200 " 

Drift (altered drift, boulder beds, boulder clay) 165 " 

Total Quaternary formations. 420 " 

That brings the succession of geological formations consecutively from 
their beginning up to the present time; and now our own eyes behold 
every day the processes of nature going on very much the same as they 
have gone along through all the unthinkable lapse of time that has passed 
since Pilot Knob first pushed its brazen brow up above the strange deso- 
lation of waters when "darkness was upon the face of the deep." And 
now our next consideration must be, the present aspects of the land sur- 
face of our state, together with its streams, its woodlands and its wonder- 
ful mineral wealth and resources. 


In the extent, variety, and practical value of her stores of mineral 
wealth, Missouri is not excelled by any other state in the Union. In the 
fall of 1880 the New York Economist published an article on Missouri, 
in which it said: 

"The state of Missouri is one of the most remarkable pieces of this earth's 
surface. Surface indeed! Missouri goes far enough under the surface 
to furnish mankind with one hundred million tons of coal a year for thir- 
teen hundred years. Think of 20,887 square miles of coal beds — nearly 
half the state — and some of the beds nearly fifteen feet thick. With 
regard to iron, it is not necessary to penetrate the surface for that. They 
have iron in Missouri by the mountain. Pilot Knob, 581 feet high, and 
containing 360 acres, is a mass of iron; and Iron Mountain, about six 
miles distant from it, is 228 feet high, covers 5U0 acres, and is estimated 
in the last surveys, to contain 230,000,000 tons of ore, without counting 
the inexhaustible supply that may reasonabl}'^ be supposed to exist below 
the level. There is enough iron 13'ing about loose in Missouri for a 
double track of railroad across the continent. 

" The lead districts of Missouri include more than 6,000 square miles, 
and at least five hundred points where it can be profitably worked. In 
fifteen counties there is copper in rich abundance. There are large depos- 
its of zinc in the state. There is gold, also, which does not yet attract 
much attention, because of the dazzling stores of this precious metal farther 
west. In short, within one hundred miles of St. Louis the following met- 
als and minerals are found in quantities that will repay working: gold, 
iron, lead, zinc, copper, tin, silver, platina, nickel, emery, coal, limestone, 
granite, marble, pipe-clay, fire-clay, metallic paints, and salt." 

It can hardly be said that gold, silver, tin, platina or emery have been 


found in faying quantity as yet, althoufrh they are known to exist in some 
of our mining districts, in combinations with olher minerals. Our state 
board of immigration has published many well prepared and judicious 
papers on the various advantages and resources of our state, which care- 
fully avoid making any extravagant or overdrawn statements. They 
give the real facts as accurately as the}' could be ascertained up to 1879- 
SO, and form the most reliable body of knowledge on many matters of 
state interest, that is now accessible; and from this source we gather the 
more essential points. 

Coal. — The Missouri coal fields underlie an area of about 26,000 
square miles. The southern outcrop of the coal measures has been traced 
from the mouth of the Des Moines through the counties of Clark, Lewis, 
Shelby, Monroe, Audrain, Boone, Cooper, Pettis, Henry, St. Clair, Bates, 
Vernon and Barton, into the Indian Territory, and every county north- 
west of this line is known to contain more or less coal. Outside of the 
coal fields given above, coal rocks also exist in Ralls, Montgomery, War- 
ren, St. Charles, Callaway and St. Louis counties, and local or outlying 
deposits of bituminous and cannel coal are found in Moniteau, Cole, Mor- 
gan, Crawford, Lincoln and Callaway counties. 

The exposed coal in Missouri includes upper, middle and lower coal 
measures. The upper coal measures contain about four feet of coal, in 
two seams of about one foot each and other thin seams and streaks. The 
area of their exposure is about 8,400 square miles. 

The middle coal measures contain about seven feet of coal, including 
two workable seams, twenty-one and twenty-four inches thick, respect- 
ive!}', and one of one foot, which is worked under favorable circumstan- 
ces, and six thin seams. The exposure of the middle measures covers an 
area of over 2,000 square miles. 

The lower measures cover an area of about 15,000 square miles, and 
have five workable seams, varying in thickness from eighteen inches to 
four and a half feet, and thin seams of six to eleven inches. 

Iron. — It has been said by experts that Missouri has iron enough "to 
run a hundred furnaces for a thousand years;" and the ores are of every 
variety known to metallurgical science. Iron Mountain is the largest 
body of specular iron and the purest mass of ore in the world. It was 
forced up through the crust of the earth in a molten state during the 
Azoic Age of geology. The different ores of the state are classed as red 
hematite, red oxide, specular or glittering ore, brown hematite or limo- 
nite, hydrous oxide, magnetic ore, and spathic or spar-like ore (carbonate 
of iron). Many other names are used to indicate different combinations 
of iron with other minerals. Some of the iron deposits, instead of coming 
up in a fused mass from the bowels of the earth, as Pilot Knob, Shep- 


herd Mountain and Iron Mountain evidently did, were formed by the 
steam that attended those fiery upheavals, carrying its load of gaseous 
matter until it .condensed and settled down at different points, and gradu- 
ally cooled or crystalized. This would occur sometimes in water and 
sometimes in the air, thus producing the great variety of ferruginous or 
irony compositions which we now find and utilize. And this mineral 
steam method of depositing iron and other products from subterranean 
gases must have occurred in Missouri at diflerent periods of geologic 
time, and not all during the Azoic. The red ores are found in 21 coun- 
ties; the brown hematite or limonite iron ores extend over 94 counties, 
and in 31 of them it occurs in vast quantity. 

Shepherd Mountain is 660 feet high. The ore, which is magnetic and 
specular, contains a large percentage of pure iron. The hight of Pilot 
Knob above the Mississippi river is 1,118 feet. Its base, 581 fc^t from the 
summit, is 360 acres. The iron is known to extend 440 feet below the 
surface. The upper section of 141 feet is judged to contain 14,000,000 
tons of ore. The elevation of Iron Mountain is 228 feet, and the area of 
its base 500 acres. The solid contents of the cone are 230,000,000 tons. 
It is thought that every foot beneath the surface will yield 3,000,000 tons 
of ore. At the depth of 180 feet, an artesian auger is still penetrating 
solid ore. Dr. Litton thinks that these mountains contain enough iron 
above the surface to afibrd for two hundred years an annual supply of 
1,000,000 tons. The ore is almost exclusive!}' specular. It yields 56 per 
cent, of pure iron. The iron is strong, tough and fibrous. 

Profs. Schmidt and Pumpell3S in their very learned work on the iron 
ores of Michigan and Missouri, have classified the iron-bearing region of 
our state as follows: 

Eastern Ore-Region. — 1. Ore district along the Mississippi river. 2. 
Iron Mountain district. 3. Southeastern limonite district. 4. Franklin 
county district. 5. Scotia district. 

Central Ore-Region. — 1. Steel ville district. 2. Ore-district on the up- 
per Meramec and its tributaries. 3. Salem district. 4. Iron Ridge 
district. 5. St. James district. 6. Rolla district. 7. Middle Gasconade 
district. 8. Lower Gasconade district. 9. Callaway county district. 

Western Ore-Region. — 1. Lower Osage district. 2. Middle Osage 
district. 3. Upper Osage district. 

Southwestern Ore-Region. — 1. White River district. 2. Ozark county 

The same authorities have classified the various kinds of iron ores 
found in Missouri, thus: 


Strata of red hematite. 

Disturbed or drifted deposits of red 

Deposits of limonite on limestone. 
Disturbed or drifted deposits o£ 


Deposits of specular ore in por- 

Deposits of specular ore in sand- 

Disturbed deposits of specular ore. 

Drifted deposits of specular ore. 

Lead. — The annual lead product of Missouri is said now to exceed 
that of any other state or country; and it is conceded that its lead deposits 
are the richest in the world. The lead region all lies south of the Mis- 
souri river; the mineral is found chiefly in the magnesian limestone rocks, 
which are the great lead-bearing rocks of the world; but it is also found 
in ferruginous clays, in slates, in gravel beds, and in cherty masses in 
the clays. 

Mr. R. O. Thompson, mining engineer, of St. Louis, has written a 
sketch of the mode of origin of our lead and some other mineral deposits* 
which is plain, concise, and a clear statement of the teachings of science 
on this very interesting portion of Missouri's geological and mineralogical 
history. We quote: 

"The Azoic rocks in this region, when the great Silurian system began 
to be formed, were so many islands, their he<ids only elevated above the 
vast sedimentary sea. The beds upon which the limestones and sand- 
stones were deposited consisted of the weatherings of the Azoic rocks, 
which naturally sought the valle3^s and became a base for the sedimentary 
rock. This boundless sea held in solution lime, magnesia, alumina, man- 
ganese, lead, copper, cobalt, nickel, iron, and other mineral substances. 
In this chemical condition gases were evolved and the work of formation 
commenced. The two gases forming the great creative power, and aiding 
solidification, were carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen; the former 
seeking its affinity in lime and forming limestone; the sulphur in the latter 
naturally combining with the other metals, forming sulphates, or sulphur- 
ets. The work of deposition and solidification being in harmony, it is 
eas}^ to understand how those minerals exist in a disseminated condition 
in these rocks. The slates that we find so rich in galena, presenting the 
myriad forms of lingula, must also have been formed in the Silurian Age. 
The distribution among the magnesian limestones of these decomposing 
slates can be most easily accounted for. The decomposed feldspar pro- 
duced by the weathering of the porphyry became in its change a silicate 
of alumina, and the sulphur, combining with the lead, dissemin;ited the 
same in the slate as readily as in the limestone." 

The Missouri lead region has been divided or classified into five sub- 
districts, as follows: 

I. The Southeastern Lead District, embraces all or parts of Jefferson, 
Washington, Franklin, Crawford, Iron, St. Francois, St. Genevieve, 
Madison, Wayne, Reynolds, and Carter counties, with some mines in the 
western portion of Cape Girardeau county. Mining has been longest 
carried on in this district, and the aggregate of the production has been 
very great, although the work has been chiefly surface mining. Mine- 


La-Motte, in this district, was discovered in 1720, by Francis Renault and 
M. LaMotte, and has been worked more or less ever since. 

II. The Central Lead District^ comprises, as far as known, the coun- 
ties of Cole, Cooper, Moniteau, Morgan, Miller, Benton, Maries, Camden* 
and Osage. Much ot the mining done here, again, has been near the 
surface, the lead first being found in clays, in caves, and in masses in clay 
but a few inches below the surface. Shafts, however, sunl^ in the mag- 
nesian limestone, find rich deposits in lodes and pockets. 

III. The Southern Lead District^ comprises the counties of Pulaski, 
La Clede, Texas, Wright, Webster, Douglas, Ozark, and Christian. 

IV. The Western Lead District embraces Hickory, Dallas, Polk, St. 
Clair, Cedar, and Dade counties. Some rich deposits have been found 
in this district, especially in Hickory county. 

V. The Southzuestern Lead District comprises Jasper, Newton, Law- 
rence, Stone, Barry, and McDonald. Here ver}' extensive mining has 
been done, more especially in the two counties first named, which have, 
for the last few years, produced more than one-half of the pig-lead mined 
in the state. 

For several years past more than one-half the lead production .of the 
United States has been from Missouri mines. Besides the numerous 
smelting works supported by them, the manufacture of white lead, lead 
pipe, sheet lead, etc., contributes materially to the industries and com- 
merce of the state. 

Copper. — Several varieties of copper ore exist in Missouri mines. 
Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Benton, 
Maries, Greene, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds and 
Wright counties. Some of the mines in Shannon county are now profit- 
ably worked, and mines in Franklin county have yielded good results. 

Zinc. — Sulphuret, carbonate and silicate of zinc are found in nearly all 
the lead mines of southwestern Missouri; and zinc ores are also found in 
most of the counties along the Ozark range. What the lead miners call 
" black-jack," and throw away, is sulphuret of zinc. Newton and Jasper 
counties are rich in zinc ores; and Taney county has an extensive vein of 
calamine, or carbonate of zinc. 

Cobalt. — Valuable to produce the rich blue colors in glass and porce- 
lain, and for other purposes in the arts, is found in considerable quantities 
at Mine-La-Motte. 

Manganese. — Used in glass manufacture and the arts; it is found in 
St. Genevieve and other counties. 

Nickel. — Found in workable quantities at Mine-La-Motte. 



Missouri abounds in solid, durable materials for buildings; she has 
quarries of red and gray granites, and very fine limestones, sandstones 
and marbles. In Crawford, Washington and Franklin counties there are 
workable beds of " onyx marble," a stalagmite formation found in caves, 
and very rich and valuable for mantles, table-tops, vases, ornaments, etc. 
This marble is not found anywhere else in the United States, and has 
been imported from Algiers and Mexico, at great cost. As an illustration 
of the high repute abroad, and substantial home value ot Missouri 
products in the stone line, we give a case in point. 

The new state capitol at Des Moines, Iowa, which will cost $3,000,000, 
and is said to be the largest and finest public edifice in the United States 
outside of Washington city, is built mostly of materials from Missouri, 
except the rough masonry and brickwork. The Missouri stones and 
their cost is as follows : 

St. Genevieve buft' sandstone $ 147,289.83 

Carroll county blue hmestone 139,238.54 

Fourteen red granite columns, 18 feet, 4^ inches long, 2 

ft. 3 in. diameter, turned and polished at St. Louis.. . . 8,144.50 

Total paid b}- Iowa to Missouri on this one building. .$ 294,672.87 

Other examples of Missouri building stone will be of interest. The 
Archimedes limestone is used for the U. S. custom house in St. Louis. 
The encrinital limestone is used for the State University building, and 
court house at Columbia. The Trenton Hmestone is used in the court 
house at St. Louis. A stratum called " cotton rock" in the magnesian 
limestone formation, is used for the state house and court house at Jeffer- 
son City. Encrinital marble is found in Marion county, and other varie- 
ties occur in Cooper, Cape Girardeau, St. Louis, Iron and Ozark coun- 
ties. In the bluffs on the Niangua, a marble crops out twenty feet thick, 
which is a fine-grained, crystaline, silico-magnesian limestone, of a light 
drab color, slightly tinged or clouded with peach blossom. Some of the 
beautiful Ozark marbles have been used in ornamenting the national 
capitol at Washington. 

Lithographic limestone is found in Macon county. 


Kaolin, or decomposed feldspar, is a clay for making porcelain ware, 
and is found in and shipped from southeastern Missouri. Fine pottery 
clays are found in all the coal bearing region. North of the Missouri 
river many beds of best fire-clay are found, which is extensively manufac- 
tured at St. Louis into fire brick, gas retorts, metallurgists' crucibles, etc. 


Yellow and red ochres, ferruginous clays, and sulphate of baryta, all val- 
uable in the mannfacture of mineral and fire-proof paints, are found in 
great abundance all through the iron districts. Near St. Genevieve there 
is a bank of saccharoidal sand which is twenty feet in height, and miles 
in extent. The mass is inexhaustible. Two analyses give the following 

Silica 98.81 99.02 

Lime 0.92 0.98 

The sand is very friable, and nearly as white as snow. It is not oxy- 
dized or discolored by heat, and the glass made from it is clear and 
unstained. One firm in St. Louis has annually exported more than 3,500 
tons of this sand to the glass manufactories of Wheeling, Steubenville 
and Pittsburg. 



The state of Missouri (with the exception of the Pan-Handle, in the 
southeast corner, which extends 84 miles further south), Hes between the 
parallels 36 degrees 30 minutes and 40 degrees 30 minutes north latitude, 
and between longitudes 12 degrees 2 minutes, and IS degrees and 51 min- 
utes west from Washington. Its southern boundary line, extended east- 
ward, would pass along the southern boundaries of Tennessee and Vir- 
ginia. The line of the northern boundary, extended in the same direction, 
would pass north of the centers oE Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, and near the 
centers of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Extending these lines west- 
ward, they would embrace the entire state of Kansas, and a considerable 
portion of Nebraska on the north and of the Indian Territory south. 

The length of the state north and south is 282 miles; iis extreme width 
east and west, is 348 miles, and the average width, which is represented 
by a line drawn due west from St. Louis, is 235 miles. 

The area of the state is 65,350 square miles, or 41,824,000 acres. In 
size it is the eighth state in the Union, and is larger than any state east 
of or bordering upon the Mississippi, except Minnesota. It occupies 
almost the exact center of that portion of the United States lying between 
the Rocky Mountains and the Atlantic, and is midway between the 
British possessions on the north and the Gulf of Mexico south. 

The following list shows what other large cities of our own and 
foreign countries lie on the same latitude with the largest cities in our 


State: The latitude of 38 to 39 degrees north, embraces Annapolis, 
Maryland; Washington and Georgetown, D, C; Alexandria, Va.; Ports- 
mouth, Ohio; Lexington, Frankfort and Louisville, Ky.; Madison, New 
Albany and Evansville, Ind.; St. Louis and Jefferson City, Missouri; 
Sacramento and Vallejo, California; Yarkand, China; Tabreez, Persia; 
Smyrna, Turkey; Messina and Palermo, Sicily; Lisbon, Portugal. 

The latitude of 39 to 40 embraces the cities of Philadelphia, Dover, Wil- 
mington, Baltimore, York, Gettysburg, Columbus, Cincinnati, Indiana- 
polis, Terre Haute, Springfield, Quincy, Hannibal, Kansas City, St. 
Joseph, Leavenworth, Denver; Virginia City, Nevada; Marysville, Cali- 
fornia; Tientsin, Pekin and Kashgar, in China; Bokhara in Turkestan; 
Erzroom in Turkey; Valencia in Spain. 

The meridian of 90 to 91 degrees west longitude, takes in Grand 
Portage, Minnesota; Mineral Point, Wisconsin; also Dubuque, Davenport, 
Rock Island, Galesburg, St. Louis, Memphis, Vicksburg and New 

Missouri is half as large again as New York, and more than eight 
times the size of Massachusetts. It would make a score of German prin- 
cipalities. Larger than England and Wales, or Scotland and Ireland, it 
is equal to one-third of the area of France. , 


As explained in the chapter on geology, there occurred away back 
in the earliest geological ages, some subterranean force which pushed up 
through the crust of the earth, a series of knobs and irregular ridges and 
hills in a region extending from St. Genevieve, in a southwest direction, 
to Shannon and Texas counties, taking in some portions of Madison, St. 
Francois, Washington, Iron and Reynolds counties. After this, these 
knobs and ridges were islands in the ocean, which covered the rest of 
Missouri and adjoining states. On the bottom of this ocean the solid 
strata of limestone, sandstone, and other rocks, v/ere formed. In course 
of time the rest of the country was raised above the ocean, and the sur- 
face presented a broad, undulating plateau, from which projected the hills 
and ridges above named. The rains descended upon this plateau, and the 
waters collected into branches, creeks and rivers, and flowed away to the 
ocean, as now; and during the succeeding cycles, the channels and valleys 
of the streams were worn into the rocks as they now appear. These 
facts respecting the formation of our state, give some idea of its surface 
features. It may be described as a broad, undulating table-land or 
plateau, from which projects a series of hills and ridges extending from St. 
Genevieve to the- southwest, and into which the branches, creeks and 
rivers have worn their deep broad channels and valleys. In that portion 
of the state north of the Missouri river, the northwest part is the highest, 


and there is a general descent to the south and east, as shown by the 
course of the Missouri river and its north side tributaries. In the eastern 
part of this region there is a high dividing ridge vi^hich separates the 
small east-flowing tributaries of the Mississippi from those flowing south- 
ward into the Missouri; the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern railroad 
follows this highland from Warren and Montgomery counties to Coats- 
ville on the north line of the state, in Schuyler county; and railroad sur- 
veys show that in a straight line across the state, the Missouri river at the 
city of Weston, in Platte county, is 320 feet higher than the Mississippi at 

South of the Missouri the highest part is a main ridge extending from 
Jasper county through Lawrence, Webster, Wright, Texas, Dent, Iron, 
St. Francois and Perry counties, striking the Mississippi river at Grand 
Tower. This ridge constitutes what is called the Ozark range, which 
for three-fourths of its course across Missouri is not mountainous, or com- 
posed of peaks, but is an elevated plateau of broad, level, arable land, and 
divides the northward flowing tributaries of the Missouri from the waters 
which flow southward into the lower Mississippi. It is a part of that 
great chain of ridge elevations which begins with Long's Peak, about fifty 
miles northwest of Denver, in Colorado; crosses the state of Kansas 
between the Kansas and Arkansas rivers; crosses Missouri through the 
counties above mentioned; passes into Illinois at Grand Tower and thence 
into Kentucky opposite Golconda; and is finally merged into the Cumber- 
land Mountains. This ridge probably formed the southern shore of that 
vast inland sea into which the upper Missouri and Platte rivers emptied 
their muddy waters for a whole geological age, and deposited over the 
states of Iowa, Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska, their sediment from the 
Cretaceous and Tertiary beds of the mountain regions in Dakota, Montana, 
Wyoming, etc., and the "Bad Lands" of northwestern Nebraska. This 
great sea or lake had its chiefs outlet at Grand Tower,* where for 
thousands of years its waters plunged over the rocky limestone ledges 
and flowed oft' to the Gulf of Mexico, which then extended nearly or quite 
up to the mouth of the Ohio river at Cairo. But as it gradually wore 
down the rocks of this southern high ridge barrier, of course the channel 
through this narrow pass became gradually deeper and deeper, and as 
gradually drained oft' the mighty lake, leaving four great states covered 
chiefly with a kind of sediment which Prof. Swallow has termed " bluff 

* Dr. Sliumard in his report on a geological section from St. Louis to Commerce,— p. 151, 
says: "The Grand Tower rises from the bed of the Mississippi, an isolated mass of rock, 
of a truncated-conical shape, crowned at the top with stunted cedars, and situated about 
fifty yards from the Missouri shore. It is eighty-five feet high, and four hundred yards 
in circumference at the base. During high water, the current rushes around its base with 
great velocity. * * About half a mile below the Tower, near the middle of the river, is 
a huge mass of chert. * In the next two miles the Missouri shore is bounded by hills 
from 75 to 200 feet in altitude." It is rocky and blufiy for six miles or more along here, 
some of the elevations reaching 330 feet. 



deposit," though called by other writers loess. At Grand Tower, where 
the Mississippi has worn for itself this narrow gorge or pass through the 
rocks, the current rushes and roars and tumbles along at such a mill-flume 
rate, that the passage b}- boats either up or down stream, is difficult and 
dangerous.* And it was here that the river pirates had their stronghold 
in the early days of keel-boat traffic between St. Louis and New Orleans. 
They permitted no traders to pass this point without paying such tribute 
as they chose to levy; and upon the least show of resistance, they would 
rob, murder and plunder without remedy. If the human history of this 
place could be written, it would be full of blood-curdling incidents, and 
deeds of violence by rude and murderous men. 

The following table of elevations above tide water in the Gulf of Mex- 
ico will give a general idea of the heights reached by this southern 
upland region: 

Granby, Newton county, (farthest southwest) 1,030 feet. 

Marshfield, in Webster county, 96 miles from the west line 

of the state 1,462 " 

Ohio City, opposite mouth of the Ohio river 272 " 

New Madrid, 30 miles farther south 247 " 

St. Louis directrix, (or register) 372 " 

Base of Pilot Knob 909 " 

Top of Pilot Knob 1,490 " 

It will thus be seen that the top of Pilot Knob, at the eastern end of 
our south border highlands, is only twenty-eight feet higher than Marsh- 
field, near the western end. 


The Mississippi river bounds the state on the east for a distance of more 
than ,500 miles. The Missouri washes the western boundary of the state 
from the northwest corner southwardly, some 2.50 miles, to the mouth of 
the Kansas, whence it takes a course south of east, through the heart of 
the state to its junction with the Mississippi, a distance of nearly 400 
miles, presenting a river front from these two majestic streams of 1,550 
miles. Besides these miiihtv streams, are manv smaller rivers, more or 
less navigable for steamboats and barges. On the south, or the right 

*A small work published at Davenport, Iowa, in 1856, describes this place as "a gorge 
where the river has in some remote geological age burst through a limestone mountain 
ridge, making a dangerous rocky pass, and washing the cliflF into strange, fantastic forms." 
And a western poet nearly 30 years ago. thus described the spot: 

" Here Nature sports with Art in rocky tovpers, 
Quarried by tin; wave, or lilts in Doric state 
Abraded pillars to the corniced cliff; 
And through sharp angles, narrows, flume and gorge, 
The wildered waters, plunging, roar and foam — 
n Scylla and Charybdis of no mythic tale." 


bank of the Missouri, the Gasconade, Osage and La Mine are navigable; 
on the Osage, steamboats make regular trips as high as Warsaw, and 
barges and keel-boats may pass as high as the state Hne. On the left 
bank of the Missouri, the Platte, Chariton and Grand rivers are naviga- 
ble for keel-boats and barges; and small steamers have made a few trips 
on their waters. The other important streams of the state are the Des 
Moines, Salt, Meramec, St. Francis and White rivers, all of which on 
rare occasions have been navigated by steamers. There are large num- 
bers of smaller streams called rivers and creeks. 

There are places in all our streams, except the Mississippi and Missouri, 
where they might be dammed and made to drive the machinery of mills 
and factories. Rock beds to support dams and make them permanent 
are to be found in many localities on the Osage, Niangua, Pomme du 
Terre, Sac, Spring river, Big river. Castor, Bourbeuse, Gasconade, St. 
Francis, Current, White, Grand, La Mine, Meramec, etc. No country is 
better supplied with bold springs of pure water. Many of them are 
remarkable for their size and volume. 

There is, on the whole, no state in the Union better supplied with an 
abundance of wholesome, living water for stock and domestic uses; and 
it abounds in springs, splendidly situated for dairy business, with water at 
a uniform temperature below 60 degrees Fahrenheit. There are no 
lakes in the state except a few small ones in the extreme southeastern 


Mineral Springs occur in every part of the state. There are excellent 
salt springs in Cooper, SaHne, Howard and adjoining counties. Sulphur 
springs that have become known as places of summer resort, are: The 
Chouteau springs in Cooper county ; Monagan springs in St. Clair county; 
Elk springs in Pike county ; Cheltenham springs in St. Louis county. 
And Prof. Swallow says there are sulphur springs in half the counties of 
the state. Sweet springs, on Blackwater creek, are what are called chaly- 
beate waters, containing some of the salts of iron; and there are a few 
others of this class. Petroleum or tar springs occur in Carroll, Ray, 
Randolph, Cass, Lafayette, Bates, Vernon, and other counties, and fur- 
nish a good lubricating oil in large quantities. In the south part of the 
State there are numerous fresh water springs of such great flowage as to 
be utilized for water power. One called Bryce's spring, on the Niangua 
river, which runs through Dallas, Hickory and Camden counties, dischar- 
ges 10,927,872 cubic feet of water per day, drives a large flouring mill, 
and flows away a river 42 yards wide. This is the largest one, of these 
big springs. The temperature of its water is steadily at 60 degrees Fahr- 
enheit, and the flowage uniform throughout the year. 



As late as 1830 the greater part of Missouri was still marked on com- 
mon school geography maps as part of the great American desert; and in 
1820, even onr own great statesman, Thomas H. Benton, had written: 
"After you get 40 or 50 miles from the Mississippi, arid plains set in and 
the country is uninhabitable except upon the borders of the rivers and 
creeks." But our present knowledge of Missouri's climate, soils and prod- 
ucts show how widely mistaken our wisest people were on this subject 
in those early days. 

Prof. Swallow, Dean, of the State Agricultural College at Columbia 
(State University), has given the soils of the state a classification adapted 
to the popular understanding, by u^ing names that everybody can read 
and know what they mean, instead of technical scientific terms known 
only to a few who have had a college education. And as this history is 
designed for the masses of the people, and to a large extent tor the farm- 
ers, we give a condensed statement of Prof. Swallow's classification. 

Those known as hackbcrry lands are first in fertility and productiveness. 
Upon these lands also grow elm, wild cherry, honey locust, hickory, white, 
black, burr and chestnut oaks, black and white walnut, mulberry, linden, 
ash, poplar, catalpa, sassafras and maple. The prairie soils of about the 
same quality, if not identical, are known as crow foot lands, so called from 
a species of weed found upon them, and these two soils generally join each 
other where the timber and prairie lands meet. Both rest upon a bed of 
fine silicious marls. They cover more than seven million acres of land. 
On this soil white oaks have been found twenty-nine feet in circumference 
and one hundred feet high; linden twenty-three feet in circumference and 
quite as lofty; the burr oak and sycamore grow still larger. Prairie 
grasses, on the crowfoot lands, grow very rank and tall, and by the old 
settlers were said to entirely conceal herds of cattle from the view. 

The elm lands, are scarcely inferior to the hackberry lands, and pos- 
sess very nearly the same growth of other timber. The soil has about the 
same properties, except that the sand is finer and the clay more abundant 
The same quality of soil appears in the prairie known as the resin-weed 

Next in order are hickory lands, with a growth of white and shellbark 
hickor}^, black, scarlet and laurel oaks, sugar maple, persimmon and the 
haw, red-bud and crab-apple trees of smaller growth. In some portions 
of the state the tulip tree, beech and black gum grow on lands of the same 
quality. Large areas of prairie in the northeast and the southwest have 
soils of nearly the same quahty, called mulatto soils. There is also a soil 
lying upon the red clays of southern Missouri similar to the above. These 
hickory lands and those described as assimilating to them, are highly 


esteemed by the farmers for the culture of corn, wheat and other cereals. 
They are admirably adapted to the cultivation of fruits, and their blue 
grass pastures are equal to any in the state. Their area may be fairly 
estimated at six millions of acres. 

The magncsian limestone soils extend from Callaway county south to 
the Arkansas line, and from JefTerson west to Polk county, an area of 
about ten millions of acres. These soils are dark, warm, light and ver}'' 
productive. They produce black and white walnut, black gum, white 
and wahoo elms, sugar maple, honey locust, mulberry, chestnut, post, lau- 
rel, black, scarlet and Spanish oaks, persimmon, blue ash, and many trees 
of smaller growth. They cover all the country underlaid by the magne- 
sian limestone series, but are inconvenient for ordinary tillage when they 
occupy the hillsides or narrow valleys. Among the most fertile soils in 
the state, they produce fine crops of almost all the staples; and thrifty and 
productive fruit trees and grape vines evince their extraordinary adapta- 
tion and fitness to the culture of the grape and other fruits. 

On the ridges, where the lighter materials of the soil have been washed 
away, or were originally wanting, white oak lands are to be found, the 
oaks accompanied by shellbark and black hickory, and trees and shrubs 
of smaller growth. While the surface soil is not so rich as the hickory 
lands, the sub-soil is quite as good, and the land ma}' be greatly improved 
by turning the sub-soil to the surface. These produce superior wheat, 
good corn, and a very fine quality of tobacco. On these lands fruits are 
abundant and a sure crop. They embrace about ©ne and a half million 
of acres. 

Post oak lands have about the same growth as the white oak lands, 
and produce good crops of the staples of the country, and yield the best 
tobacco in the West. Fruits of all kinds excel on this soil. These lands 
require deep culture. 

The blackjack lands occupy the high flint ridges underlaid with horn- 
stone and sandstone, and under these conditions are considered the poor- 
est in the state, except for pastures and vineyards. The presence, how- 
ever, of blackjack on other lands does not indicate thin or poor lands. 

Pine lands are extensive, embracing about two millions of acres. The 
pines (^-pinis mitis, yellow pine), grow to great size, and furnish immense 
supplies of marketable lumber. They are accompanied by heavy growths 
of oak, which takes the country as successor to the pine. The soil is 
sandy and is adapted to small grains and grasses. 

Bisecting the state by a line drawn from the city of Hannibal, on the 
Mississippi river, to its southwest corner, the half lying to the north and 
west of this line may be described as the prairie region of the state, with 
the rare advantage that every county is bountifully suppHed with timber 
and with rivers and smaller streams of water. That which lies east and 


south of the bisecting line is the timbered or forest section, in which are 
found numerous prairies of greater or less extent. 

The prairie lands are again divided into bottom and upland prairies. 
The bottom prairies closely resemble in soil the river bottoms. In a cer- 
tain sense, the formation is identical; each came from accretions, one from 
the rivers and the other from the higher or upland prairies. The marl 
formation is the foundation of both and in both it is deeply buried under 
the modern alluvium. 

The celebrated and eloquent orator, Henry Ward Beecher, paid the fol- 
lowing brilHant tribute to our grand state: 

"The breadth of land from the Red River country of the far North, 
stretching to the Gulf of Mexico, including Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, 
Iowa, Missouri, Kansas and Texas is one of the most wonderful agricultural 
spectacles of the globe! It is one of the few facts that are unthinkable! 
In this ocean of land, and at nearly its centre, stands the iMPERrAL state 
OF Missouri. Even a Kansas man admits that in natural qualifications it 
leads all the rest, and is the crown and glory of the Union ! It has bound- 
less treasures of coal, iron, lead and other minerals; lands richer there 
cannot be, nor finer streams; its forests are more equally distributed all 
over the state than in any other; its climate, wholesome and delightful, 
blends the temperature of the northern lakes and the great southern gulf." 

Horace Greely said: "Missouri possesses the resources and capacities 
of a nation within the boundaries of a State." 


Animals. — Missouri has been the feeding ground for vast herds of the 
choicest of the large game animals up to the present generation. Old 
hunters and trappers, still living, tell marvelous stories of their exploits 
with the gun. As civilization and population advanced westward their 
numbers decreased, yet Missouri is still furnishing a very large proportion 
of the game for the markets of all the large cities of the United States. 
Even London receives large shipments, every winter, from St. Louis. 
From October 1st to February 1st, of every year, there is not an express 
car arriving in St. Louis which does not bring large consignments of 
game. The quantity is enormous, and far beyond the knowledge of 
every one except those engaged in the trade, or whose duties bring them 
in contact with the facts. 

Elk, bufialo, antelope and bear formerly abounded in this state, but 
are now nearly or quite driven entirely beyond our borders. Red deer 
are still plentiful in some parts of the state. In fact, the Ozark Moun- 
tains and the swamp lands of southeast Missouri constitute a great deer 
park and game preserve, and will continue to do so until immigration 
crowds out the game. It is a notorious fact, that venison sells as cheaply 
as good beef in St. Louis markets, during the winter season. 


The rabbit, as it is popularly called here, is a species of hare, and is 
about the average size of the domestic cat. They are so numerous in 
Missouri as to be considered a pest; are found in ever}^ field and forest 
in the state. Squirrels are very numerous, especially in the swampy and 
hilly regions. The two principal varieties are the grey squirrel and the 
red fox-squirrel. One of these varieties is to be found in every clump of 
timbered land in the state. 

Birds. — Wild turkeys, the finest game birds in the world, abound in the 
same region. Prairie chickens, or pinnated grouse, are abundant in all 
the prairie regions ot' the state, and are shipped from St. Louis to eastern 
markets by hundreds of barrels during the fall months; but the game 
•laws of the state strictly prohibit their being killed or trapped during the 
breeding season. Quails, or Virginia partridge, or "Bob-Whites," are 
found everywhere, so common that partridge pie, or " quail on toast," is 
no great rarity in thrifty farm houses. 

Wild ducks, wild geese, snipe, plover and several species of the rail 
frequent Missouri during their annual migrations north and south. Dur- 
ing March, April ;ind May the migratory birds pass through Missouri, 
going north to their nesting and brooding places, probably near the 
Arctic circle. In October, November and December they return, on 
their journey southward to spend the winter. There ■ is no state in the 
great Mississippi basin more frequented by these migratory game birds 
than Missouri. 

Fishes. — The early settlers found the rivers and lakes teeming with 
many fine varieties of game and food fishes, and there is still a bountiful 
supply. Black bass, perch, catfish, buflalo fish, suckers and pike consti- 
tute the leading varieties of native fishes. Black bass of several varieties 
inhabit every stream of considerable size in the state, and every lake con- 
tains them. It is the best game fish in the state. The perch family is 
represented by several dozen species; and perch of several kinds are 
found in every bod}^ of water in the state, which does not actually dry up 
in the summer time. The catfish of Missouri are not only numerous, but 
famous the world over. There are at least a dozen species in the waters 
of this state. The yellow catfish grows to great size, often reaching a 
weight of 175 pounds; the black catfish, maximum weight about 45 
pounds; blue or forked-tail catfish, reaching 150 pounds and upwards in 
weight; the channel catfish, weighing from one to fifteen pounds, and the 
yellow mud catfish, often weighing as high as 100 pounds. The sucker 
family includes the buftalo fish, chub, sucker and red horse. The first of 
these is highly prized, abundant, and grows to a maximum weight of 40 
pounds. The last named is very abundant during certain seasons of the 
year, and valuable; they weigh from 6 ounces to 8 pounds. Pike of sev- 


eral species are found throughout Missouri, and rank- with black bass as 
game fish; they are found in the clearer and rapid streams. 

The above lists constitute the leading fishes of the state, but by no means 
all, as there are many minor species. 

The state board of fish commissioners receives $3,000 annually from 
the state, to defray expenses of propagating desirable kinds of food fishes, 
that are not found native in the state. In 1878 Mr. Reid distributed 100,- 
000 fry of the California salmon, in the state. In May and June, 1879, 
the commission distributed 250,000 shad fry in the rivers of southeast, 
south and southwest Missouri, and planted 5,000 young trout in the 
springs and sources of the same rivers. Later they have planted 100,- 
000 fry of the California salmon in the same sections of the state. In 1880 
two or three hundred thousand fry of German carp were planted. All 
the waters of JNIissouri are adapted to this fish, more especially the lakes 
and sluggish streams. The carp can be as easily cultivated as pigs or 
turkeys, and it is hoped that in a few years all the streams of the state 
will be stocked with them. 


For nearly forty years Dr. George Engelmann, of St. Louis, kept sys- 
tematic records of the meteorology of St. Louis and vicinity; and by 
compiling similar records kept during long or short periods, by other per- 
sons in different parts of the state, he has been able to report pretty cor- 
rectl}' the dates and weather-facts which go to furnish a comprehensive 
estimate of the general nature of the climate, at each season of the vear, 
in different parts of the state. The following facts of great practical 
interest and value are gathered from the doctor's work : 

Our winters, taken in the usual sense, from the first of December to 
the last of February, have in the city an average temperature of 33.3 
degrees, and may be estimated for the surrounding country at 32 degrees; 
but they vary in different seasons between 25 degrees (winter of 1855-G 
and 1872-3) and 40 degrees (winter 1844-5). Our summers (from June 
1st to August 31st) have in the city a mean temperature of 76.8 degrees, 
and are calculated to reach in the country 75 degrees, ranging between 
the coolest summer, 71.5 degrees mean temperature (1835, 1839 and 
1848), and the warmest of 80 degrees mean temperature, (1838, 1850 and 
especially 1854). 

The last frosts in spring occur between March 13th and May 2d, on 
an average about April 5th, and the earliest autumnal frosts between 
October 4th and November 26th, on an average about October 27th; the 


period between these two terms extends in different years from 184 to 
252 days, on an average 205 days. In the southeast part of the state 
these hmits of the freezing point will, of course, be much wider apart, 
and in the northwest they are narrowed down considerably. Our spring 
opens in March, though in some favored seasons vegetation breaks 
through its wintry bounds already in the latter part of February, while 
in a few very late springs it cannot be said to have fairly commenced 
before the middle of April. ^•' * - We find the first in bloom is the 
alder and the hazel; next — not rarely retarded by intervening cold spells — 
the soft or silver leaf maple; our common white elm blooms a fevv'' days 
after this, between February 34th and April 15th, on an average, March 
19th. During the next following days, roses, syringas, gooseberries and 
many other bushes, and the weeping willows, show their young leaves. 
About two weeks after, the elm — between March 18th and April 25th, 
on an average about April 3d — the peach trees open their first blossoms, 
and are, one week later, in full bloom. Plum and pear trees and sweet 
cherries blossom about the same time, or a few days later, and then sour 
cherries and the glory of our rich woods, the red buds, get in bloom. 
Between March 21st and May 1st, (mean, April 14th) the early apple 
trees begin to bloom, and between March 28th and May 10th, (mean, 
April 20th) they may be said to be in full bloom. 

The maturit}^ and harvest of winter wheat immediately succeeds the 
catalpa bloom, between June 10th and July 1st, usually about June 20th. 
The mean summer temperature varies but little throughout the state. In 
the summer of 1873 the mean temperature in the southeast was found 
only one-half degree higher than that of the northeast, and the difference 
between St. Louis and the west was even less. Winter temperatures, 
however, show a wide range. The mean temperature of the southeast- 
ern part of the state is 2^ to 3 degrees higher than at St. Louis, and 
^i degrees higher than in the northeastern angle, and the mean tem- 
perature of Leavenworth, and the adjacent parts of Missouri, is fully 2 
degrees less than that of the region about St. Louis. 

In connection with our winter temperature it must be mentioned that 
the Mississippi at St. Louis freezes over about once in four or five 
years, partly, no doubt, in consequence of the heavy ice floating down 
from the north; and it then remains closed for one or two, or even four 
or six weeks, sometimes passable for the heaviest teams. Our river has 
been known to close as early as the first week in December, and in 
other years, to be open as late as the last week in February,while the run- 
ning ice may impede or interrupt navigation between the end of Novem- 
ber and the end of February, sometimes as low down as the southeast 
corner of the state ; the river is said, however, never to freeze over below 
Cape Girardeau. The Missouri river is sometimes closed in the latter 



part of November, and has been known to remain firmly bridged over 
into the first week of March. 

The dimate of Missouri is, on the whole, a dry one, with strong evap- 
oration, and an atmosphere but rarely overloaded with moisture. 

Clear or nearly clear daj's 

Partially clear and variable days 

Days when the sun remains ooscured. . . 

\Viater| Spring 
30" " 



Summer I Autumn 




Wlaole Yr. 



Our summer rains mostly descend with great abundance, and in a com- 
paratively short time, so that the average (13 inches) of summer rain falls 
in 70 hours, distributed over twenty-four days, while the 7 inches of win- 
ter rain (and snow) descend in 160 hours and on 22 days. The days on 
which it rains vary between 68 and 115 in the year. On the average we 
have 92 days in the year on which it rains. Our rains last from a frac- 
tion of an hour to a few hours, and very rarely extend through the 24 

Snow is rather scarce in our climate, and rarely continually covers the 
ground for more than a few days or a week. In some years, it amounted, 
when melted to 5^ inches; in others to only one-half inch; the aver- 
age is about 2-^ inches. 

The atmospherical pressure (indicated by the stage of the barometer) is 
with us, in summer, more uniform and regular than on the Atlantic coast, 
while in winter it fluctuates considerably, and often very rapidly. The 
average barometrical pressure is highest in January, falls till May, and 
gradually rises again until January; it is most variable from November to 
March, and least so from June to August. 


Authentic reports to the Health Board of St. Louis is have shown that 
the annual sickness rate of the city of St. Louis about seventeen and a half 
days to each member of the population. Dr. Boardman, of Boston, has 
ascertained the sickness rate of the city of Boston to be about twenty- 
four days of annual sickness to each individual. The general correctness 
of these conclusions are further substantiated by army statistics. Dr. 
Play fair, of England, after careful inquiry, computed the ratio of one 
death to twenty-eight cases of sickness in a mixed population. 

The state of Massachusetts has for many years had a state board of 
Health, by whom sanitary improvements have been dihgently and scien 
tifically prosecuted, under state authority; and the annual death-rate has 
thereby been somewhat reduced. In 1870 Massachusetts had a popula- 
tion of 1,457,351 and there were during the same period 25,859 deaths 
from aU causes. A mortahty equal to 1.77 per cent of the population. At 


the same time Missouri had a population of 1,721,295, and there were 
during that year 27,982 deaths from all causes. A mortality rate equiva- 
lent to 1.63 per cent, of the population. It thus appears, if the calculation 
is made and the relative proportion between the populations and the death 
rates of the two states maintained, that vital security is greater in Mis- 
souri, as compared with Massachusetts, to an extent represented bv 
the annual saving of 2,474 lives. But this is not all. The authorities on 
vital statistics estimate that two persons are constantly sick for every one 
that dies; and Dr. Jarvis shows, from the experience of health-assurance 
companies in this country, that on an average each person loses from 19 
to 20 days per year by sickness. Then we have this result: Two 
persons sick to one death, equal 4,948, multiplied by 20, gives 98,960 days 
per year less of sickness in Missouri than in Massachusetts, in proportion 
to population. Then reckon the amount of care and anxiety and suffering 
and the loss of time, and cost for nursing and medicines and doctor's bills — 
and you will begin to get some idea of what these figures really mean, in 
favor of our state, with its dry, salubrious climate, in comparison with 
Massachusetts, the only other state for which the figures were at hand 
to make the comparison. 


The Missouri state board of agriculture was created a body corporate 
by statute, in 1877, and it was provided that the governor, the state sup- 
erintendent of schools, the president of the state university and the 
dean of the state agricultural college, should be ex-officio members of 
the board. The officers of the secretary and treasurer are required to be 
at the agricultural college, at Columbia, in Boone county; and the annual 
meetings are to be held there, on the first Wednesday of November in 
each year. The presidents or duly authorized delegates of county 
agricultural societies, are rightful members of the state board, "for delib- 
eration and consultation as to the wants, prospects and condition of the 
agricultural interests of the state, to receive the reports of district and 
county societies, and to fill by elections all vacancies in the board." 

The law further provides that, " It shall be the duty of all agricultural 
and horticultural societies, organized and estabhshed in accordance with 
the laws of this state, to make a full report of their transactions to the 
Missouri state board of agriculture, at each annual meeting thereof." 

The state board is required " to make an annual report to the general 
assembly of the state, embracing the proceedings of the board for the 
past year, and an abstract of the reports and proceedings of the several 
agricultural and horticultural societies, as well as a general view of the 
condition of agriculture and horticulture throughout the state, accom- 
panied by such recommendations, including especially such a system of 


public instruction upon those subjects as may be deemed interesting and 
useful." Provision is then made for printing fourteen thousand copies 
(two thousand in the German language), for distribution to all who will use 


First of all the crops grown in the state, in amount and value, is Indian 
corn. There is not a county in the state in which it is not successfully 
and profitably grown. The broad alluvial bottoms along our great rivers 
yield immense crops of this valuable cereal, and our fertile prairies are 
but little, if any, behind them in their yield. 

Next in importance among the cereals is wheat., which grows and yields 
well in every part of the state. Except in a few northern counties, spring 
wheat is but httle grown, the main attention being bestowed upon the 
winter varieties, which are especially a favorite crop upon the loess and 
clay loams, and upon the oak uplands of the state. The well known fact 
that the best flour to stand transportation and exposure in hot and humid 
climates, is made from wheat grow^n toward the southern border of the 
wheat zone, has made Missouri iiour a favorite for shipment to South 
American markets. Flour made in Missouri, from Missouri wheat, won 
the Medal of Merit 2i\. the World's Exposition, at Vienna, in 1873. The 
average yield and the certainty of the wheat crop in Missouri, give the 
state a high rank among the states producing this cereal. 

Oats grow and yield well in the state, producing heavy straw, plump 
and heavy grains; but the crop does not figure very largely in our 
markets, being mainh' grown for home consumption. 

Tobacco., of two or three varieties, growls well, and Missouri tobacco 
enjoys a fine reputation for excellence. The state embraces some of the 
best tobacco lands in the country. It is a staple in nearly every county in 
the state, and some of the counties make it a leading crop. Missouri 
ranks sixth in its production. 

Cotton, except in small patches for home use, is raised only in the 
southern counties of the state. Stoddard, Scott, New Madrid, Pemiscot, 
Dunklin, Mississippi and Lawrence, all raise more or less for shipment, 
and, in some of the counties named, it is an important crop. 

Potatoes grow well, and on most of our soils yield large crops. They 
are of fine quality generally. 

Sweet Potatoes grow upon our sandy soils to great size and excellence, 
and our farmers raise a great abundance for home use, and the city 
markets are always well supplied. 

Sorghum., and other varieties of the Chinese sugar cane, are exten- 
sively grown, and many thousands of gallons of S3'rup are annually made 
for home use. Recent improvements in manufacturing sugar from these 


syrups bid fair to increase the value and importance of this branch of 

Broom Corn is extensively grown in Missouri, and the brush being 
longer and finer than that grown in the eastern states, commands a much 
better price in market. 

Buckwheat^ Castor Beans, White Beans, Peas and Ho-ps, are all success- 
fully grown and made profitable crops. 

Garden Vegetables are produced in great profusion and variety, and 
the more arid regions of western Kansas and New Mexico, and the 
mining districts of Colorado, afford an ever-increasing market for these 
and other agricultural products from our state. Watermelons, musk- 
melons, etc., grow to great perfection, and are shipped in large quantities 
from some portions of the state to cities farther north. 

The U. S. forestry statistics of 1875, give Missouri 21,707,220 acres of 
land in farms; 20,110,786 acres not in farms; of wood land in farms there 
were 8,965,229 acres, and the total woodlands in the state was reported 
as 19,623,619 acres. 

There is a curious bit of agricultural history which illustrates the rapid 
development of the western country, and at the same time shows, by 
the inevitable logic of events already transpired, the magnificent position 
of Missouri as the greatest wheat center on the globe. In 1849 the cen- 
ter of the wheat product of the United States was the meridian of 81 ° 
west of Greenwich, passing north and south through the eastern border 
counties of Ohio. In 1859 that line had moved westward a little more than 
two degrees of longitude, and passed through the eastern border counties 
of Indiana, the city of Fort Wayne being on the line. In 1869 the wheat 
center had moved not quite two degrees further west, and was that year 
a few miles west of Chicago and Milwaukee; and the center of our 
National corn crop was on the saTie line at this time. In 1ST7 this line 
had moved still further west, and was now represented by a line drawn 
on a map of the United States from Marquette, on Lake Superior, down 
through JanesviUe, Wisconsin, and through Mendota, LaSalle, Vandalia 
and Cairo, in Illinois. The corn center will not move much if any further 
west; but the wheat center, by reason of the rapid development of this 
crop in Minnesota, Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas, is now, in 1881, as far 
west as St. Louis; and it will not be likely to migrate further than Jefier- 
son City at any time in the future, because there is no important wheat- 
growing territory further west still unoccupied. The new settlements 
westward must be chiefly by mining and manufacturing peoples, hence^ 
consumers rather than producers of the great cereal crops. 

The conclusion of the whole matter, then, is that St. Louis is now, and 
will for several decades continue to be, practically on the center line of 
the aggregate product of wheat and corn in the United States, propor- 


tioned from east to west limits of the national domain. And this fact 
assures Missom-i of pre-eminent commercial rank among the grand sister- 
hood of states. 

The following table shows the number of pounds weight which con- 
stitute a lawful bushel in Missouri, of the different articles named, as 
established in 1879: 

No. lbs. No. lbs. 

Articles. per bu. Articles. per bu. 

Wheat 60 Orchard Grass 14 

Corn, shelled 56 Buckwheat 52 

Corn in ear 70 Onions 57 

Corn Meal 50 Top Onion Sets 28 

Rye 56 Peas, whole, dry 60 

Oats 32 Split Peas 60 

Barley 48 Dried Apples 24 

Irish Potatoes 60 Dried Peaches 33 

Sweet Potatoes 56 Malt 38 

Beans, White 60 Salt 50 

Castor Beans 46 Coal 80 

Bran 20 Peanuts, dry Southern 22 

Clover Seed 60 Cotton Seed 33 

Timothy Seed 45 Parsnips 44 

Hungarian Seed 48 Common Turnips , 42 

Hemp Seed 44 Carrots 50 

Flaxseed 56 Rutabagas 50 

Millet Seed 50 Green Peas, unshelled 56 

Red-top Seed or Herd's Grass 14 Green Beans, unshelled 56 

Osage Orange Seed 36 Green Apples 48 

Sorghum Seed 42 Green Peaches 48 

Kentucky Blue Grass Seed ... 14 Green Pears 48 

The standard bushel for coke and charcoal is to contain 2,680 cubic 
inches; apple barrels, length, 28|- inches; chines, f of an inch at ends; 
diameter of head, 17J inches; inside diameter at the center of the barrel, 
20-|- inches. 


The state horticultural societ}' was organized in January, 1859, and 
has kept up its annual meetings in spite of all difficulties. Each congres- 
sional district of the state is classed as a separate horticultural district, and 
is represented in the society by a vice-president, who is expected to keep 
himself posted on the interests of this industry in his district, and make 
report (or procure some one to do it), at the annual meeting. The officers 
of this society for 1880, were: President, Hon. Norman J. Colman, St. 
Louis; Vice Presidents: 1st congressional district, H. Michel, St. Louis; 
2d, Dr. C. W. Spaulding, Cliff Cave; 3d, J. Rhodes, Bridgeton; 4th, 
H. D. Wilson, Cape Girardeau; 5th, W. S. Jewett, Crystal City; 6th, M. 


S. Roundtree, Springfield; 7th, E. Brown, Sedalia; 8th, Z. S. Ragan, 
Independence; 9th, J. Madinger, St. Joseph; 10th, W. H. Miller, Chili- 
cothe; 11th, G. Husmann, Columbia; 12th, J. Hawkins, Hannibal; 13th, 
W. Stark, Louisiana. 

Apples. — All the standard varieties of the temperate zone are raised 
in their highest perfection in the state of Missouri; but in such a large 
area of country as our state comprises, and with such a great variety of 
soils, and other conditions, each different kind has its locality of best suc- 
cess. It is therefore not possible to indicate what varieties are best for 
the state ; each district will have its favorites. At the national exhibit, in 
1878, Missouri showed one hundred and forty plates of apples. Distin- 
guished pomologists assert that ten counties in north Missouri can show 
apples in as great variety and perfection as any ten other states in the 

Perhaps no better proof can be given of the general excellence of 
Missouri fruits than the fact that at the meeting of the American pomo- 
logical society, in September, 1878, medals were awarded to Missouri for 
the best displays of apples, pears and wines, and also one for the best 
general display of fruits. These honors were gained in competition with 
every state in the union, represented by their choicest fruits, and at an 
exhibition held at Rochester, New York, which had long been regarded 
as the very center of the fruit growing interests of the country. The 
fruits exhibited on that occasion were from different parts of the state. 
St. Joseph, Independence, Morrison, Columbia, Hermann, St. Louis count}'^, 
Boone county, and other districts were represented, and shared the hon- 
ors of our great victory. 

The varieties that appear to have received most favor at the meeting 
of our state agricultural society, in 1880, were Ben Davis, Winesap, 
Jonathan, Dominie, Rawle's Janet, Milam, Northern Spy, Carthouse, 
Newtown Pippin, Summer Pippin, Red June, Early Harvest, Red 
Astrachan, Late Summer, Dutchess of Oldenburg, Early Ptnnock, St. 
Lawrence, Maiden Blush, Rambo, Grimes' Golden, Limber Twig, Little 

Peaches. — The southeastern portion of the state, along the line of the 
Iron Mountain railroad, and the western portion, where the marly deposits 
are so rich and extensive, are pre-eminently the peach districts, and in 
these regions the peach seems almost indigenous, never failing to produce 
abundant crops; and yet fruit-growers in these districts say that they are 
never able to supply the demand, Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado taking 
all from the western region, and St. Louis having to draw upon other states 
for her supplies. Peaches may be relied upon as a profitable crop in all 
that part of the state south of the Missouri river, and, indeed, are largely 
grown much farther north, St. Joseph exporting large amounts. 


In some localities the trees have occasionally been winter-killed, when not 
in suitable soil or not sheltered ; but, on the whole, Missouri may fairly be set 
down as a peach-growing state. Mr. R. Lynn, of Rockport, in the 
northwest part of the state, says he has raised three good paying crops 
of peaches in seven years, the first crop being the third year from plant- 
ing; his best crop was in 1878. 

Pears. — Pears do well throughout the state, especially in the region 
of Clay, Jackson and Cass counties. The trees attain a great size and 
age — a diameter of from twelve to fifteen inches is common; and there 
are trees a short distance south of St. Louis over two hundred years old, 
and still bearing full crops. The pear, although the most luscious fruit 
grown in northern latitudes, is also one of the most difficult to raise suc- 
cessfully — hence it is a matter of reasonable pride and gratification that 
this fruit has done so well in our state. At the national pomological 
exhibition, of 1878, there were from this state: From the Missouri Val- 
le}'' horticultural societ\^, Kansas City, twenty varieties of pears; from 
Jacob Rhodes, Bridgeton, nine varieties; from J. Madinger, St. Joseph, 
six varieties; from W. Stark, Louisiana, two varieties. Some of the 
finest specimens at the exhibition were grown near St. Louis, on ii-'^cks of 
the white thorn. 

Grapes. — For several years the chief fruit-growing interest r- c: •<> e 
seemed to center on the grape — at least, it was more discussed ana advo- 
cated in fashionable circles, than all the other fruits put together. The 
anti-prohibition sentiment rallied around the grape-growing industry for 
the manufacture of native wines, as the great panacea for all the ills and 
horrors of intemperance. But aside from any matter of sentiment in the 
case, it does seem as though we excel all other states of the Union in the 
variety and richness of our grapes, both of native and cultivated varieties. 

From Prof. Swallow's report on the country along the lines of the. 
southwestern branch of the Missouri Pacific railroad, published in 1859, 
we learn that seven different native grapes have been found in Missouri. 
1. KzV/s Zai5;7/sc«, commonly called "fox grape." The Isabella, Catawba, 
Schuylkill and Bland's seedling, are cultivated and popular varieties derived 
from this wild grape. 2. Vitis Aestivalis^ or " summer grape." This 
is found in all parts of the state. 3. Vitis Cordifolia; winter grape, or 
"frost grape " as it is more commonly called. 4. Vitis Riparia^ or "river 
grape," grows along streams and is quite large. 5. Vitis Vulpina; called 
also Muscadine. It grows mostly in the south part of the state, and is a 
large fine fruit. The cultivated grape called Scuppernong is derived from 
this wild variety. 6. Vitis Bipintiata; found in Cape Girardeau and 
Pemiscot counties. 7. Vitis Indivisa; found in central and western 



There are few or no grasses that are peculiar to Missouri; and fortu- 
nately SO, for there is no permanent advantage in being adapted to pecu- 
liar crops any more than in being a peculiar people. The great blessings 
of life are universal and widespread. It results that all the valuable 
members of this great and beneficial family of plants are adapted to and 
capable of being introduced and cultivated in this state. Flint, in his 
standard work on grasses, says: "Whoever has blue grass has the basis 
of all agricultural prosperity, and that man, if he have not the finest 
horses, cattle and sheep, has no one to blame but himself. Others, in 
other circumstances, may do well. He can hardly avoid doing well if he 
will try." 

Blue grass is indigenous in Missouri. When the timber is removed it 
springs up spontaneously on the land, and, when the prairie is reclaimed, 
it soon takes possession and supersedes all other grasses. This famous 
grass is the foundation on which the mighty stock industry of Kentucky* 
has been built, and has given a world-renowned reputation to its fine 
blood horses, cattle and sheep. The combing-wool sheep and the fine 
mutton breeds have obtained a national reputation for wool and mutton in 
that state, and their usefulness has but begun. What blue grass has done 
for Kentucky, it is now doing for Missouri. An acre of this grass is 
worth an acre of corn. 

Recent experience has proved that alfalfa or lucerne, that most fatten- 
ing of all grasses, grows luxuriantly in this region, yielding each year 
three or four good crops of hay. 


As early as 1867, our state board of agriculture reported destruction by 
grasshoppers (the Rocky Mountain locust,) in the western part of the 
state the previous fall; and also, that there had been visitations more or 
less injurious in former years. But their greatest and most grievous 
invasion occurred in the fall of 1874, when 33 counties of western Mis- 
souri suffered from their ruthless ravages. Our state entomologist. Prof. 
C. V. Riley, made such a thorough, diligent and masterful study of their 
origin and habits,andthecauses, methods and consequences of their migra- 
tions, that he became the standard authority on grasshoppers all over the 
civilized world. In 1876 the government appointed a special commission 
of entomologists to investigate the character and movements of these 
pests, and report for the benefit of the whole infested region, which com- 
prised the country west of St. Paul, Minnesota, Jefferson City, Missouri, 
and Galveston, Texas, ranging from the Gulf of Mexico on the south, to 

* "Kentucky blue grass," (so-called), is not native to that state : it is the same as_ the En- 
glish spear grass, the New England June grass, or meadow grass— or, in botanical lan- 
guage, 'poa pratensia. 


Lake Winnipeg and Manitoba in the British possessions northward, and 
as far west as the headquarters of the Columbia river. The most prom- 
inent scientists on this commission were our own Prof. Riley, and Prof. 
Samuel Aughey, of the state university of Nebraska. 

The results of this United States commission were little if anything 
more than a tedious elaboration of what Prof. Riley had presented in 
three annual reports as state entomologist of Missouri. No new points 
of any special importance were discovered concerning them. The devel- 
opment of this subject, therefore, belongs to the history of what Missouri 
has done for science, for agriculture and for the public weal. In his 
seventh annual report to our state board of agriculture, 1S75, Prof. Riley 
says : 

"There is some difference of opinion as to the precise natural habitat and 
breeding places of these insects, but the facts all indicate that it is by 
nature a denizen of high altitudes, breeding in the valleys, parks and 
plateaus of the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado, and especially of 
Montana, Wyoming and British America. Prof. Cyrus Thomas, who 
has had an excellent opportunity of studying it, through his connection 
with Playden's geological survey of tlie territories, reports it as occurring 
from Texas to British America, and from the Mississippi westward to the 
Sierra Nevada range. But in all this vast extent of country, and espe- 
cially in the more southern latitudes, there is ever}* reason to believe that 
it breeds only on the higher mountain elevations, and where the atmos- 
phere is very dry and attenuated, and the soil, seldom, if ever, gets soaked 
with moisture. Prof. Thomas found it most numerous in all stages of 
growth, along the higher valleys and canyons of Colorado, tracing it up 
above the perennial snows, where the insects must have hatched, as it 
was found in the adolescent staffe. In crossing the mountains in Col- 
orado, it often gets chilled in passing snows, and thus perishes in 
immense numbers, where bears delight to feast upon it. My own behef 
is that the insect is at home in the higher altitudes of Utah, Idaho, Col- 
orado, Wj^oming, Montana, northwest Dakota, and British x\merica. It 
breeds in all this region, but particularly on the vast hot and dry plains 
and plateaus of the last named territories, and on the plains west of the 
mountains; its range being bounded, perhaps, on the east by that of the 
buffalo grass. 

" Mr. Wm. N. Byers, of Denver, Colorado, shows that they hatch in 
immense quantities in the valleys of the three forks of the Missouri river 
and along the Yellowstone, and how they move on from there, when 
fledged, in a southeast direction, at about ten miles a day. The swarms 
of 1867 were traced, as he states, from their hatching grounds in west 
Dakota, and Montana, along the east flank of the P.ocky Mountains, in 
the valleys and plains of the Black Hills, and between them and the main 
Rock}^ Mountain range. It all this immense stretch of country, as is well 
known, there are immense tracts of barren, almost desert land, while 
other tracts for hundreds of miles bear only a scanty vegetation, the short 
buffalo grass of the more fertile prairies giving way now to a more luxu- 
riant vegetation along the water courses, now to the sage bush and a few 
cacti. Another physical peculiarity is found in the fact that while the 


spring on these immense plains often opens as early, even away up into 
British America, as it does with us in the latitude of St. Louis, yet the veg- 
etation is often dried and actually burned out before the first of July, so 
that not a green thing is to be found. Our Rocky Mountain locust, 
therefore, hatching out in untold myriads in the hot sandy plains, five or 
six thousand feet above the level of the sea, will often perish in immense 
numbers if the scant vegetation of its native home dries up before it 
acquires wings; but if the season is propitious, and the insect becomes 
fledged before its food supplies is exhausted, the newly acquired wings 
prove its salvation. It may also become periodically so prodigiously mul- 
tiplied in its native breeding place, that, even in favorable seasons, every- 
thing green is devoured by the time it becomes winged. 

" In either case, prompted by that most exigent law of hunger — spurred 
on for very life — it rises in immense clouds in the air to seek for fresh 
pastures where it may stay its ravenous appetite. Borne along by pre- 
vailing winds that sweep over these immense treeless plains from the north- 
west, often at the rate of fifty or sixty miles an hour, the darkening locust 
clouds are soon carried into the more moist and fertile country to the 
southeast, where, with sharpened appetites, they fall upon the crops like 
a plague and a blight. 

" Many of the more feeble or of the more recently fledged perish, no 
doubt, on he way, but the main army succeeds, with favorable wind, 
in bridging over the parched country which offers no nourishment. The 
hotter and dryer the season, and the greater the extent of the drouth, the 
earlier will they be prompted to migrate, and the farther will they push 
on to the east and south. 

" The comparatively sudden change from the attenuated and dry atmos- 
phere of five to eight thousand feet or more above the sea level, to the 
more humid and dense atmosphere of one thousand feet below that level, 
does not agree with them. The first generation hatched in this low coun- 
try is unhealthy, and the few that attain maturity do not breed, but 
become intestate and go to the dogs. At least such is the case in our own 
state and the whole of the Mississippi valley proper. As we go west or 
northwest and approach nearer and nearer the insect's native home, the 
power to propagate itself and become localized, becomes, of course, greater 
and greater, until at last we reach the country where it is found per- 
petually. Thus in the western parts of Kansas and Nebraska the pro- 
geny from the mountain swarms may multiply to the second or even third 
generation, and wing their way in more local and feeble bevies to the 
country east and south. Yet eventually they vanish from off the face of 
the earth, unless fortunate enough to be carried back by favorable winds 
to the high and dry country where they flourish. 

" That they often instinctively seek to return to their native haunts is 
proven by the fact that they are often seen fi3ang earl;f in the season in a 
northwesterly direction. As a rule, however, the wind which saved the 
first comers from starvation by bearing them away from their native 
home, keeps them and their issue to the east and south, and thus, in the 
end proves their destruction. For in the Mississippi valley they are 
doomed, sooner or later. There is nothing more certain than that the 
insect is not autochthonous in west Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, 
or even Minnesota, and that when forced to migrate from its native home, 
from the causes already mentioned, it no longer thrives in this country." 


February 23, 1877, our «tate legislature passed a law providing for 
the payment of a bounty erf one dollar per bushel in March, fifty cents 
per bushel in iVpril, and twenty-five cents per bushel in May, for grass- 
hoppers; and five dollars per bushel for their eggs at anytime. Nebraska 
did still better, by making every road supervisor in the state a grasshop- 
per policeman, and giving him authority to call out every man from six- 
teen to sixty years old, to spend two days killing young grasshoppers 
from the time they begin to hatch in the spring. 

All the grasshopper states now have some sort of protective laws; and 
if another invasion occurs, by concerted and organized effort the amount 
of damage suffered can be reduced to a small per cent as compared with 
our last " plague of the locusts." 


It is not certainly known just what modes of navigation were used by 
the prehistoric mound-builders, although we have some relics of their 
time, or possibl}^ of a still earlier race, which are deemed to show that 
they made wooden dug-outs or troughs, by burning them into a sort of 
boat-like shape and condition. And it is supposed that, prior to this they 
lashed together logs or fragments of drift-wood, and made rude rafts 
upon which they could cross rivers or float down, but of course could 
not return with them. Some remains have been found in northwestern 
Iowa* which are supposed to prove that men used wooden dug-out boats 
during the age when Missouri, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska were the 
bottom of a vast inland sea or lake, into which the Missouri and l^latte 
rivers emptied their muddy waters and deposited what Prof. Swallow 
calls the "bluff formation" over these states; and Prof. Whitney found 
in California undisputable proof of man's existence there a whole geolog- 
ical age prior to the period when the great fresh water Missouri sea 
existed, (see note to chart, on page 67); hence the fact that raft and dug- 
out navigation was in use among the islands and shallows of this immense 
mud-lake or inland sea, seems not improbable. 

However, the modern Indians, before the white man appeared in these 
western wilds, had the art of making light and elegant canoes of birch 
bark, and could manage them in the water with wonderful skill. They 
made long journeys in them, both up and down stream; and when they 
wanted to go from one stream to another these canoes were so light that 
two men could carry one on their shoulders and march twenty or twenty- 
five miles a day with it if necessary. But they were too light and frail 
for the freighting service of the white man's commerce. 

* Reported to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, at its St. Louis 
meeting, in August, 1878, by W. J. McGee, geologist, of Farley, Iowa. 


The European explorers of this new world .utilized the Indian canoes 
as far as practicable, often making considerable voyages in them; some- 
times two were lashed together by means of coupling poles laid across 
on top of them, thus making a boat with two hulls. This rig could not 
be upset, and was easy to tow or paddle, besides making a sort of over- 
deck on which to carry baggage. But the thin, frail material was too 
easily punctured to be safe, and boats made of plank were ahvays in 
demand. At first the boats were built in the " scow " fashion, with full 
width flat bottom and full width sled-runner bow. But they soon learned 
that in order to make any headway going up stream they must adopt the 
keel bottom and water-cutter prow style; and for more than a hundred 
years the traffic of all our navigable western rivers w^as carried on mainly 
by means of what were called keel-boats. The manner of propelling 
them up stream we have described elsewhere. 


The Missouri river was first opened to commerce and geography by 
Lewis and Clarke, who were commissioned by President Jefferson, in 
1803, to explore it. Tiiey lelt St. Louis May 14, 1804. The outfit con- 
sisted of twenty-six men; one keel-boat fifty-five feet long, drawing three 
feet of water, and provided wdth one large square sail and twenty-two 
oars. Also, two open boats, one of six, and one of seven oars. May 16th 
they were at St. Charles ; on the 2.5th they reached LaCharrette, a small 
village sixty-five miles above the mouth of the river, not far from where 
Marthasville, in Warren county, is now located, and which was the last 
white settlement up the river. June 1st they reached the mouth of the 
Osage river, which was so called because the Osage tribe of Indians 
dwelt along its course. June 26th, they reached the mouth of the Kansas 
river, where Kansas City now flourishes in all her glory, and remained 
here two days for rest and repairs. The Kansas tribe of Indians had two 
villages in this vicinity. July 8th they were at the mouth of the Nodawa, 
where now^ is the village of Amazonia, in Andrew county; and on the 11th 
they landed at the mouth of the Nemaha river. On the 14th they passed 
the mouth of the Nishnabotna river, and noted that it was only 300 yards 
distant from the Missouri at a point twelve miles above its moiith. 

This was their last point within the boundaries of the present state of 
Missouri. St. Louis was then the territorial capital of the whole region 
the}^ w^ere to explore through to the mouth of the Columbia river on the 
Pacific coast. This was one of the great exploring adventures of the 
world's history, and its narrative is full of romantic and thrilling interest, 
but space forbids its presentation here. The party followed up the entire 
length of the Missouri river, then down the Columbia to the Pacific 
ocean, reaching that point November 14th, 1805. Here they wintered; 
and on March 23d, 1806, they started on their return trip by the same 


route, arriving at St. Louis September 23d, at 12 o'clock — not a man 
missing from the party that first started out; and the people of St. JLouis 
gave them an enthusiastic ovation. 


Steam came at last, and revolutionized the business of navigation and 
commerce throughout the world. The first steamboat that ever lashed 
the Missouri shore with its waves, or made our river hills and forests echo 
back her pulsating pufis, was the " General Pike," fi-om Louisville, which 
landed at St. Louis, August 2, l&lT. Such boats had passed a few times 
up and down the whole length of the Ohio river, and between Louisville 
and New Orleans, before this, so that the people of St. Louis had heard 
about them from the keel-boat navigators. They were therefore over- 
joyed when the first one landed at the foot of their main business street, 
and thus placed them for the first time in steam communication with the 
rest of the civilized world. The event was celebrated with the most 
enthusiastic manifestations of delight by the ringing of bells, firing of 
guns, floating of flags and streamers, building of bonfires, etc. The 
second one, the "Constitution," arrived October 2; and from that onward 
the arrival of steamboats became a very commonplace affair. 

The first boat that ever entered the Missouri river was the "Independ- 
ence," commanded by Captain Nelson. She left St. Louis May 15, 1819, 
and on the 28th arrived at Franklin, a flourishing young city that stood 
on the north bank of the Missouri river, opposite where Boonville is now 
located. There was a U. S. land office at Franklin, and it was the 
metropolis of the up-Missouri region, or as it was then called, the 
"Boone's Lick Country."* When this first steamboat arrived the citi- 
zens got up a grand reception and public dinner in honor of the captain 
and crew. The boat proceeded up as far as the mouth of the Chariton 
river, where there was then a small village called Chariton, but from that 
point turned back, picking up freight for St. Louis and Louisville at the 
settlements as she passed down. The town site of Old Franklin was 
long ago all washed away, and the Missouri river now flows over the 
very spot where then were going on all the industries of a busy, thriving, 
populous young city. 

The second steamboat to enter the Missouri river (and what is given in 
most histories as the first) was in connection with Major S. H. Long's U. 
S. explormg expedition, and occurred June 21, 1819, not quite a month 
after the trip of the " Independence." Major Long's fleet consisted of 
four steamboats, the " Western Engineer," " Expedition," " Thomas Jef- 
ferson " and " R. M. Johnson," together with nine keel-boats. The 
"Jefferson," however, was wrecked and lost a few days after. The 

*Daniel Boone had first explored this region and discovered some rich salt springs, and 
two of his sons manufactured salt and shipped it from Franklin for several years. 


"Western Engineer" was a double stern wheel boat, and had projecting 
from her bow a figure-head representing a huge open-jawed, red-mouthed, 
forked-ton gued serpent, and out of this hideous orifice the puffs of steam 
escaped from the engines. The men on board had many a hearty laugh 
from watching the Indians on shore. When the strange monster came 
in sight, rolling out smoke and sparks from its chimney like a fiery mane, 
and puffing great mouthfiils of steam from its wide open jaws, they 
would look an instant, then yell, and run like deer to hide away firom 
their terrible visitor. They thought it was the Spirit of Evil, the very 
devil himself, coming to devour them. But their ideas and their actions 
were not a whit more foolish than those of the sailors on the Hudson 
river, who leaped from their vessels and swam ashore to hide, when Ful- 
ton's first steamboat came puffing and glaring and smoking and splashing 
toward them, hke a wheezy demon broke loose from the bottomless pit. 
Major Long was engaged five years in exploring all the region between 
the Mississippi river' and the Rocky Mountains which is drained by the 
Missouri and its tributaries; and his steamboats were certainly the first 
that ever passed up the Missouri to any great distance. Long's Peak, in 
Colorado, 14,272 feet high, was named after him. 

From this time forward the commerce and travel by steamboats to and 
from St. Louis grew rapidly into enormous proportions, and small towns 
sprung up in quick succession on every stream where a boat with paddle 
wheels could make its way. For half a century steamboating was the 
most economical and expeditious mode of commerce in vogue for inland 
traffic; and Missouri, with her whole eastern boundary washed by the 
" Father of Waters," and the equally large and navigable " Big Muddy " 
meandering entirely across her territory from east to west, and for nearly 
two hundred miles along • her northwestern border, became an imperial 
center of the steamboating interest and industry. 

About 1880 the art of constructing iron-railed traffic-ways, with steam- 
propelled carriages upon them, began to be developed in our eastern 
states. But it was not until 1855 that these new devices for quick transit 
■ began to affect the steamboating interests of Missouri. (The first rail- 
roads to St. Louis were opened in that year ; the railroad history of the 
state will be found in another place.) Then commenced the memorable 
struggle of the western steamboat interests, with headquarters at St. 
Louis, to prevent any railroad bridge from being built across the Missis- 
sippi, Missouri or Ohio rivers. They held that such structures would 
inevitably be an artificial obstruction to the free and safe navigation of 
these great natural highways. But it was evident enough to clear- 
thinking people that the steamboat business must decline if railroads 
were permitted to cross the great rivers without the expense of breaking 
bulk, and this was the "true inwardness" of the anti-railroad bridge 


combiriation. The issue was made against the first railroad bridge that 
ever spanned the Mississippi, the one at Rock Island, Illinois. In a long 
course of controversy and litigation the railroads came out ahead, and 
steamboating gradually declined, both in the freight and passenger trafBc, 
to less than half its former proportions. 

However, the tables have been turned again; and now, in 1881, 

has suddenly leaped forth to break the threatening power of monopoly 
which the great east and west railroad lines for a while enjoyed. 

The first step in the historic progress of this grand revolution in the 
commercial relations and connections of the entire Mississippi and Mis- 
souri valley regions, was the successful construction of the jetties at the 
mouth of the Mississippi river by Capt. James B. Eads, a worthy and 
distinguished citizen of St. Louis. This great enterprise was undertaken 
by Capt. Eads under an act of congress approved March 3d, 1875. It 
required him to obtain a channel 20 feet deep and 200 feet wide at the 
bottom, within thirty months from the passage of the act, upon which a 
payment of $500,000 would be made; and upon obtaining channels of two 
feet additional depth, with correspondingly increased widths at bottom, 
until a depth of 30 feet and a width at bottom of 350 feet was secured, 
payments of $500,000 were to be made, with additional payments for 
maintenance of channel. The total cost to the government of a channel 
30 feet deep by 350 feet wide would be $5,250,000. Capt. Eads was also 
to receive $100,000 per year for twenty years, to keep the works in repair 
and maintain the channel. 

Before the jetty works were commenced, there existed an immense bar 
of sand or silt, with a depth of only eight feet of water over it, between 
the deep water of the Mississippi and the navigable water of the Gulf. 
But at the close of the year there was a wide and ample channel of 23^ 
feet; and for the greater portion of the distance between the jetties, over 
this same bar, there was a channel from 28 to 35 feet deep. The scheme 
has been so entirely successful that it has attained a world-wide celebrity 
and commercial importance, owing to the fact that the largest class of 
sea-going vessels can now be towed in and out of the Mississippi river 
without risk or difficulty; and it is this achievement by our honored fellow- 
citizen which has made possible the success of the grain-barge system of 
shipments from St. Louis direct to Europe, that is now revolutionizing the 
entire trade and commerce of the major half of the United States. The 
following facts will serve to show what has already been accomplished in 
this direction. 

The total shipments of grain by the barge lines from St. Louis to New 
Orleans in the month of March 1881, was 2,348,093 bushels. 

The St. Louis RepihUcan of April 2d, 1881, stated: 


" There were started from St. Louis yesterday about eighty trains of 
grain to New Orleans, or what amounts to the same thing, three different 
barge companies started tows down the river with 567,000 bushels of 
grain. This amount would have filled about 1,200 railway cars, and 
would have taken eighty trains of fifteen cars or sixty trains of twenty 
cars each to transport. All this grain was put into fifteen barges, and a 
matter of 2,600 tons of miscellaneous freight besides. All these three 
tow-boats started down the river with a freight list that would have filled 
between thirteen and fourteen hundred railway cars, and will be delivered 
to New Orleans in from five to nine days. 

"The exact statement of the cost of transportation of flour from St. 
Louis via New Orleans to Liverpool and to Boston, per barrel, is ninety 
cents freight and four cents drayage to boat at levee at St. Louis, or ninety- 
four cents to Liverpool, while the freight per barrel to Boston by rail, in 
car-loads of one hundred and twenty-five barrels, from East St. Louis, is 
ninety-one cents, or from St. Louis (eight cents transfer across the bridge 
added,) ninety-nine cents, or five cents less to Liverpool by river and 
ocean, than by rail to Boston. This rate to Liverpool via New Orleans 
was negotiated March 30 by the St. Louis, New Orleans and Foreign 
Dispatch Company." 

George H. Morgan, Esq., secretary of the St. Louis "Merchant's 
Exchange," furnished the writer of this history with the following state- 
ment of grain shipments by barge line from St. Louis to New Orleans: 
1881. Wheat. Corn. Oats. Rye. 

February 232,248 126,770 22,423 

March 796,710 1,541,505 25,162 

April 819,038 1,312,432 24,916 

Total 1,847,996 2,980,707 50,078 22,423 

Thus it will be seen that the tide has fairly turned; that St. Louis is now 
practically a commercial seaport, and will, within the next twelve months, 
become the greatest grain-shipping city on the American continent. 


The earliest account of any movement in this state with regard to rail- 
roads is to the effect that on the 20th of April, 1835, a railroad convention 
was held in St. Louis, and resolutions were adopted in favor of building 
two railroads — one from St. Louis to Fayette, in Howard county; and the 
other one southward to Iron Mountain, Pilot Knob, etc."^ The reason for 
projecting a railroad from St. Louis into the great iron region is obvious 
enough; but why they should at that early day have thought of building 
more than one hundred and fifty miles of railroad to reach a town that 
was only twelve miles from Old Franklin, on the banks of the Missouri 
river, is an unsolved mystery. It indicates, at least, that those " early 

*The first steam railroad in this country was the Baltimore and Susquehanna line, in 
1830; though horse railroads had been used before, especially at coal mines and marble 
quarries, and in two cases engines had been used on such roads. 


fathers" were not under the control of an}- narrow or shallow views con- 
cerning the practical value of railroads, or the future grandeur of St. 
Louis as the central point for all trans-Mississippi traffic. In this first 
railroad convention ever held west of the Allegheny Mountains there 
were sixty-four delegates in attendance, representing eleven counties; but 
practically nothing ever came of their deliberations. 

In ISiO a State Board of Internal Improvement was created, and it 
made a survey for a railroad from St. Louis to the Iron Mountain, by the 
wa}^ of Big River. February 7th, 1849, Col. Thomas H. Benton, sena- 
tor from Missouri, introduced into the U. S. senate a bill to provide for 
the location and construction of a central national road from the Pacific 
ocean to the Mississippi river, to be an iron railway where practicable, 
and the rest a wagon way. February 20th, same year, a public meeting 
was held in St. Louis, which petitioned the legislature for a charter and 
right-of-way for a railway across the state from St. Louis to the western 
boundary; and on the 12th of March this charter was granted. 

Next a meeting was held which called a national convention at St. 
Lduis to consider the project of a national Pacific railway across the 
continent. This convention was held October 15, 16, 17, 18, 1849. Fif- 
teen states were represented; the grand project was warmly commended, 
and a strong memorial sent to Congress asking the public authorities to 
take some action in the matter. 

Such was the beginning of definite moves toward a trans-continental 

The Missouri Pacific was the first railroad commenced and first finished 
in the State. Incorporated March 12, 1849; authorized capital $10,000,- 
000; opened to Cheltenham, March 23, 1852; amount of state aid, 
$7,000,000; St. Louis county aid $700,000; land sold, 127,209 acres; 
entire length from St. Louis to Kansas City, 382 miles; total cost, $14,- 

The successive stages of its construction were: Chartered, March 12, 
1859; first ground broken, by Mayor Kennett of St. Louis, July 4, 1851; 
road opened to Cheltenham, Dec. 23, 1852; to Kirkwood in May, and to 
Franklin July 23, 1853; completed to Washington, February 11, 1855; to 
Hermann, August 7, the same year;* and to Jefferson City, March 12, 1856; 
completed to California in Moniteau county, May, 14, 1858; to Tipton, 
July 26, same year; and to Syracuse, August, 1, 1859; opened to Otter- 

*November 1, 1855, a large excursion train left St. Louis to celebrate the opening of the 
railroad through to Medora station, about twenty miles beyond Hermann. It was a long 
train filled with business men of ths city and their families, and the occasion was one ot 
great festivity and rejoicing. But while the train was crossing the Gasconade river the 
bridge gave way, and plunged cars, bridge and people in one mixed and horrible wreck 
into the gulf of waters fifty feet down. The president and chief engineer of the road, and 
30 prominent citizens of St. Louis were killed, while scores of others were more or less 
injured. It was the first and the most terrible railroad accident that has ever occurred in 
the state. 


ville, August 24, 1860; to Smithton, November 1, same year; and to 
Sedaliain February 1861. Here it stopped during the first two years of 
the war. But Pettis county voted $75,000 to aid it, and Jackson county 
$200,000. Commenced running trains to Dresden, May 10, 1863; to 
Warrensburg, July 3, 1864; in 1865 the road was opened to Holden, May 
28 ; to Pleasant Hill, July 19; to Independence, September 19. Meanwhile 
work had been going on from Kansas City westward, the two gangs of 
workmen meeting at Independence; and on this 19th day of September, 
1865, the last rail was laid and the last spike driven, which connected 
Missouri's two principal cities with iron bands unbroken from east to west 
line of the noble commonwealth. On the next day, the president of the road 
Mr. Daniel R. Garrison, left Kansas City at 3 a. m., and arrived in St. Louis 
at 5 p. M., thus making the first through trip over the completed line. 

There is now not a county north of the Missouri river which has not 
one or more railroads within its limits; and of the seventy counties south 
of the Missouri, only 22 have no railroad reaching them. However, new 
roads and branches are being built each year, so that within a few years 
every county will be provided with good railroad facilities. 

January 1, 1880, there were, in round numbers, 3,600 miles of railroad 
in operation in the state, embraced in about fifty different main lines and 
branches, allowned by thirty-five different corporations, and operated by 
twenty-five different companies, as shown in the following table: 

Atchison, Topeka and Sante Fe 22 Missouri Pacific 375 

Burlington and Southwestern 64 Quincy, Missouri and Pacific 75 

■Cherry Valley 6 St. Joseph and Des Moines 45 

Chicago and Alton 264 St. Louis, Hannibal and Keokuk 48 

Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific 1693^ St. Louis, Iron Mount'n and Southr'n 380 

Crystal City 4 St. Louis, Keokuk and Northwestern 1321^ 

Hannibal and St. Joseph 2913^ St. Louis, Salem and Little Rock 45 

Kansas City and Eastern 43 St. Louis and San Francisco 3633^ 

Kansas City, Ft. Scott and Gulf 8 Springfield and Western Missouri . . 20 

Kansas City, St. Joe and Council Biffs 198 Union Railway and Transit Company 1 

Little River Valley and Arkansas. .. . 27 Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific 655 

Missouri, Iowa and Nebraska 70 West End Narrow Guage 16 

Missouri, Kansas and Texas 284 

Total 3,607 


There are within the state 15,208 miles of postal routes, of which 
10,426 miles are by stage and horseback, 575 miles by steamboat, and 
4,207 miles by railroad, the whole involving a cost for the year 1878-9 of 
$768,904. There are 1,700 post towns — but four states in the union have 
a greater number. These are all offices of registration, where letters and 
parcels can be registered for transmission through the males to all 
parts of this and foreign countries. In 200 of these post-offices, money- 
orders may be purchased, payable at all similar offices in the United 
States, and a portion of them issue orders drawn on Great Britain^ France, 
Germany, Italy, Switzerland, etc. 


There are in the state 562 telegraph stations, whence messages can be 

sent all over the telegraph world; 2,423 miles of line and 6,000 miles of 



The following statistics of the capital employed in manufacturing indus- 
tries, and the amount of production, is collated from careful estimates 
made in 1876, the latest at hand, although it is well known that great 
increase of these industries has been made since that date. These esti- 
mates showed that the state then contained 14,245 manufacturing estab- 
lishments, using 1,965 steam engines, representing 58,101 horse-power, 
465 water wheels, equaling 7,972 horse-power, and employing 80,000 
hands. The capital employed in manufacturing was about $100,000,- 
000; the material used in 1876 amounted to about $140,000,000; the 
wages paid were $40,000,000, and the products put upon the market 
were over $250,000,000. Outside of St. Louis the leading manufacturing 
counties of the state are Jackson, about $2,000,000 ; Buchanan, $7,000,- 
000; St. Charles, $4,500,000; Marion, $3,500,000; Franklin, $3,000,000; 
Greene, $1,500,000; Cape Girardeau, $1,500,000; Platte, Boone and 
Lafayette, upwards of $1,000,000 each, followed by several counties 
nearly reaching the last sum. 

The products of the different lines of manufacturing interests are, 

approximately, as follows:* 

Flouring Mills $30,000,000 Furniture $5,000,000 

Carpentering 20.000,000 Paints and painting 4,500,000 

Meat Packing 20,000,000 Carriages and Wagons 4,500,000 

Iron and Castings 15,000,000 Bricks 4,500,000 

Tobacco 14,000.000 Marble, Stone-work and Masonry. 4,000,000 

Clothing 11,000,000 Bakery Products 4,000,000 

Liquors 10,000,000 Tin. Copper and Sheet Iron 4,000,000 

Lumber 10,000,000 Sash, Doors and Blinds 3.250,000 

Bags and Bagging 7,000,060 Cooperage 3,000,000 

Saddlery 7,000,000 Blacksmithing 3,000,000 

Oil 6,000,000 Bridge Building 2,500,000 

Machinery , 6,000,000 Patent Medicines 2,500,000 

Printing and Publishing 5,500,000 Soap and Candles 2,500,000 

Molasses 5,000,000 Agricultural Implements 2,000,000 

Boots and Shoes 5,000,000 Plumbing and Gas-fitting 2,000,000 

Of the manufacturing in Missouri, more than three-fourths is done in 
St. Louis, which produced, in 1879, about $275,000,000 of manufactured 
articles. The city has, for some years past, ranked as the third in the 
United States in the amount of her manufactures, leaving a wide gap 
between her and Chicago and Boston, each of which cities manufactures 
a little more than one-half as much in amount as St. Louis, and leaves a 
doubt as to which of them is entitled to rank as the fourth manufactur- 
ing city. 

Flour. — In St. Louis there are twenty-four flouring mills, having a 
daily productive capacity of 11,000 barrels. The total amount of flour 
received and manufactured by the dealers and millers of St. Louis, in 


1879, was 4,154,757 barrels, of which over 3,000,000 were exported. They 
also made 425,963 barrels of corn meal and 28,595 barrels of hominy and 
grits. Of their exports, 619,103 barrels were sent to European nations 
and to South America. 

Cotton. — There are in the city two mills, which consume from 15,000 
to 20,000 bales annually. To supply the manufactured cotton goods 
annually sold in St. Louis will require mills of ten times the capacity of 
those now in operation. 


SL Louis is the commercial metropolis not only of the state of Missouri 
but also of the Mississippi and Missouri valley regions of country; and 
the history of Missouri is to a very large extent the history of St. Louis. 
There is so much concerning this imperial city embodied in other parts of 
this work that little need be added here. 

St. Louis is situated upon the west bank of the Mississippi, at an altitude 
of four hundred feet above the level of the sea. It is far above the highest 
floods that ever swell the Father of Waters. Its latitude is 38 deg., 37 
min., 28 sec, north, and its longitude 90 deg., ^15 min., 16 sec, west. It is 
twenty miles below the mouth of the Missouri, and 200 above the conflu- 
ence of the Ohio. It is 744 miles below the falls of St. Anthony, and 
1194 miles above New Orleans. Its location very nearly bisects the 
direct distance of 1,400 miles between Superior City and the Balize. It 
is the geographical center of a valley which embraces 1,200,000 square 
miles. In its course of 3,200 miles the Mississippi borders upon Missouri 
470 miles. Of the 3,000 miles of the Missouri, 500 lie within the limits 
of oui" own state, and St. Louis is mistress of more than 16,500 miles of 
river navigation. 

The Missouri Gazette^ the first newspaper, was establised in 1808, by 
Joseph Charless, and subsequently merged in the present Missouri 
Republican. The town was incorporated in 1809, and a board of trustees 
elected to conduct the municipal government. In 1812 the territory of 
Missouri was designated, and a legislative assembly authorized. The 
Missouri Bank was incorporated in 1814. The first steamboat arrived at 
the foot of Market street in the year 1815, followed soon b}'- others. 
In 1819 the first steamer ascended the Missouri, and the first through 
boat from New Orleans arrived, having occupied twenty-seven days in 
the trip. In 1821 a city directory was issued. The facts stated in this 
volume show that the town was then an important and thriving one. In 
1825 Lafayette visited the city and received a grand public ovatfon. This 
year the United States arsenal and Jefferson barracks were established. 


In 1827 there were hardly a dozen German families in St. Louis, where 
now there are as many thousands of them. In 1830 the population was 
6,654. In 1835 the first railroad convention was held. [See page 106.] 
In 1837 the population was 16,187, and 184 steamboats were engaged in 
the commerce of the city. The decade between 1840 and 1850 saw 
increased advancement in all kinds of industry, and in architectural 
growth. We find that in 1840 there were manufactured 19,075 barrels 
of flour, 18,656 barrels of whisky, and 1,075 barrels of beef inspected, 
and other branches of business had correspondingly increased. In 1846, 
the now extensive Mercantile Library was founded. The close of the 
decade, 1849, brought upon the city the double misfortune of fire and 
pestilence. On May 19th, the principal business section was swept away 
by a conflagration originating in a steamboat at the levee; and, during 
the summer of the same year, the population was scourged by cholera. 
In 1851, the.first railroad enterprise — the building of the Missouri Pacific 
— was inaugurated, and quickly followed by others. [See page 105.] 
The decennial increase of population has been as follows: 

Year. Pop. Year. Pop. Year. Pop. 

1799 925 1830 5,862 1860 160,733 

1810 1,400 1840 16,469 1870 310,864 

1820 4,928 1850 74,439 1880 350,522 

During 1880 St. Louis received 1,703,874 barrels of flour; manufactured 
2,077,625 barrels; and shipped 3,292,803 barrels. Of this amount 975,970 
barrels were shipped in sacks to England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Hol- 
land, France, Belgium, Germany, Brazil, Cuba and Mexico. During the 
same year St. Louis shipped 11,313,879 bushels of wheat; and of this 
amount 5,913,272 bushels went to foreign countries via New Orleans, 
while the rest went eastward by rail. The receipts of corn were 22,298,- 
077 bushels; shipments, 17,571,322 bushels, of which 9,804,392 went by 
barges to New Orleans for foreign ports, 3,157,684 to the south for con- 
sumption, and 4 591,944 eastward by rail or Ohio river. The receipts of 
cotton were 496,570 bales, and shipments 478,219 bales. 

During the packing season of 1879-80, there were 927,793 hogs packed. 

The shipments of coffee reached $5,000,000, and that of sugar $8,500,000. 

The above principal items are gleaned from the commercial pantheon 

of statistics published in January, 1881, by the Merchants' Exchange of 

St. Louis. 

Kansas City. — In 1724 the Kansas tribe of Indians had their chief town 
a few miles below the mouth of the Kansas river, and M. DeBourgmont, 
the French commandant of this region, held a grand peace council with 
different tribes gathered at this place for the purpose, on July 3d of that 
year. 'T'his is the earliest historic record of white men in the vicinity of 
where Kansas City now stands. In 1808 the U . S. government established 


a fort and Indian agency here, calling it Fort Osage, which was not 
abandoned until 1825, when the Indian title to a certain strip of country 
here was extinguished. In 1821 Francis G. Chouteau established a trad- 
ing post on the Missouri river about three miles below the site of Kansas 
City, but a flood in the spring of 1826 swept away everything he had, and 
he then settled six miles up the Kansas river. 

The original town plat of Kansas City consisted of 40 acres, and was 
laid out in 1839. In 1816 some additional ground was laid off, and a 
public sale of lots netted $7,000, averaging $200 per lot. 

The first charter was procured in the winter of 1852-.3, and in the 
spring of 1853 was organized the first municipal government. The first 
established newspaper made its appearance in 1854, with the title of the 
" Kansas City Enterprise," now known as the " Kansas City Journal." 
During the years 1855-6-7, the border troubles very visibly affected the 
prosperity of the city, so that business in those years did not exceed, all 
told, the sum of $2,000,000; but at the close of the struggle, in 1857, busi- 
ness began to revive, and it was then stated, in the St. Louis "Intelligen- 
cer," that she had the largest trade of any city of her size in the world. 
This may be distinguished as the great steamboat era. It was estimated 
that, in the year 1857, one hundred and twenty-five boats discharged at the 
Kansas City levee over twentv-five million pounds of merchandise. In 
May of this year, also, the steamboats were employed to carry the United 
States mail, and in 1858 the first telegraph pole in Jackson county was 

The first bank established in Kansas City was a branch of the Mechan- 
ics' Bank, of St. Louis, organized May 1, 1859, and the second was a 
branch of the Union Bank, organized in July of the same year. The first 
jobbing dry goods house opened in Jul}-, 1857. The first city loan for 
local improvement was made in 1855, amounting to $10,000, all taken at 
home, and expended in improving and widening the levee; and, in 1858, 
another loan of $100,000 for street improvements. Only in the matter of 
railroads was Kansas City seriously affected by the panic of 1857; gov- 
ernment moneys, immigration over the border, and the New Mexican 
trade tiding her safely over the sea of financial excitement and prostra- 
tion. She had also become, even as early as the year 1854, a noted mart 
for the purchase and sale of live stock, the immense freighting across the 
plains inviting trade in this direction, and in the annual reviews of the 
papers it is said that, in 1857, the receipts for that year, in mules and cattle, 
were estimated at $200,000, and also that, in 1858, about 20,000 head of 
stock cattle were driven here from Texas and the Indian territor}-. In 
1857 over six hundred freighting wagons left Kansas City with loads for 
Santa Fe, New Mexico. 
The principal railroads centering at Kansas City are, the Hannibal & 


St. Joseph railroad, the Kansas Pacific railroad, the Kansas City, Law- 
rence & Southern railroad, the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf railroad, 
the Chicago & Alton railroad, the Atchison & Nebraska railroad, the 
Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs railroad, the Missouri Pacific 
railway, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railvvay, the Wabash, St. Louis 
& Pacific railway, the Atchison, Topeka & Sante Fe railroad, the Kansas 
City & Eastern railroad, (narrow gauge). The Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe railroad has extended its road to Albuquerque, New Mexico, 
and to Guyamas, on the Pacific coast; to San Francisco, California, and 
is building to the Cit}'^ of Mexico. 

The elevator storage capacity in the city January 1, 1881, was 1,500,- 
000 bushels. In 1879 about 1,600 new buildings were erected, costing 
$1,500,000. The U. S. postoffice and custom house building cost $200,- 

000. The union depot building cost $300,000. The Kansas City stock 
yards rank as second only to those of Chicago in the extent and com- 
pleteness of their faciHties for the cattle trade. 

The population of Kansas City, by U. S. census in June, 1880, was 
62,977 Taxable wealth, $13,378,950. Cost of new buildings erected 
during the year 1880, $2,200,000^ 

SL yoseph. In 1803 Joseph Robidon, a French fur trader, located 
here, and continued to occupy his place and trade with the Indians for r.3 
years. Up to 1843 the place contained only two log cabins, and a small 
flouring mill on Black Snake creek. In June, 1843, Mr. Robidoux 
received his title from the government to 160 acres of land, and laid out 
the city, which was called St. Joseph in his honor, and not, as is commonly 
supposed, in honor of the Saint Joseph of the church calendar. January 

1, 1846, the town had 600 inhabitants, having been incorporated as a vil- 
lage February 26, 1845, with Joseph Robidoux as president of the board 
of trustees. The first city charter was obtained February 22, 1851, but it 
has been many times amended. The population was : In 1850, 3,460 ; in 1860, 
8,932; in 1870, 19,625; in 1880, 32,461. 

St. Joseph is situated on the east bank of the Missouri, 545 miles from 
its mouth, 2,000 miles from the great falls, nearly 1,300 miles below the 
mouth of the Yellowstone, 310 miles from St. Louis by railroad, with 
which it is connected by three different lines, and 565 miles from St. Louis 
by river; but it is only 180 miles on an air line from the Mississippi river. 
The latitude of St. Joseph is 39 degrees 47 minutes north, and the same 
parallel passes through Indianapolis, and within less than four miles of 
Denver, Colorado, Springfield, Illinois, and the famous Mason and Dixon's 
line, separating Maryland and Pennsylvania, reaching the Atlantic coast 
half way from Cape May to New York City, and the Pacific, two degrees 

♦These statistics are gathered mostly from the able annual reports of W. H. Miller, Esq., 
■who has been secretary of the Kansas City Board of Trade continuously since 1873. 


north of San Francisco, near Cape Mendicino. A straight Hne drawn on 
the map from Augusta, the capital of Maine, to San Diego in California, 
passes through Detroit, Chicago, and St. Joseph, and this last city is just 
half way from end to end of this line 

St. Joseph has an altitude of about 1,030 feet above the sea, which is 
200 feet higher than St. Paul, 400 feet higher than Chicago, and nearly 
600 feet higher than St. Louis. The city is romantically and beautifully 
situated, the business portion lying in a huge basin on a great bend in the 
Missouri river, while the residence part of the cit}^ clambers up the 
mound-shaped hills, which rise on all sides like a vast amphitheater. 

The wholesale and retail trade is figured above $40,000,000 annually, 
while it is said that there are no fewer than eight commercial houses which 
have a cash capital of $1,000,000 each. It is stated on reliable authority, 
that there is handled at this point 1.5,000,000 bushels of corn, 5,000,000 of 
wheat, 250,000 rye, and 500,000 barley, per annum. The stock yards cover 
seven acres, and belong to a stock company. There are received at the 
yards 120,000 to 150,000 hogs per annum, and 10,000 to 12,000 cattle. 
The figures do not include direct shipments to several large packing 
houses, which will increase the number of hogs to 300,000. There are 
four packing houses in the city — one having a capacity of 15,000 hogs 
per day. 

The railroad lines which connect St. Joseph with the rest of the busi- 
ness world are the Hannibal & St. Joseph, the pioneer road of the state, 
extending east across the entire state to Hannibal and Quincyon the Miss- 
issippi river; the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific, forming a direct line to St. 
Louis; the St. Joseph & Western, extending across the great iron bridge, 
through Kansas and Nebraska, to a junction at Grand Island with the 
Union Pacific, of which it is really a part; the Missouri Pacific, another 
connecting line with St. Louis; the Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council 
Bluffs, extending souih to Kansas City and north to Omaha, with its 
Nodaway Valley branch, extending through the Nodaway valley, and its 
Chicago branch, making connection with the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy; the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe; the St. Joseph & Des 
Moines, now owned and operated by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy; 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, and the Atchison & Nebraska. 



We^ ike people of the United States, in order to form a more -perfect union^ 
establish jttstice, insure domestic tranquillity , -provide for the common 
defense, -prornote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty 
to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitu- 
tion for the United States of America. 


Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a 
congress of the United States, which shall consist of a senate and house 
of representatives. 

Sec. 2. The house of representatives shall be composed of members 
chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the 
electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of 
the most numerous branch of the state legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in 
which he shall be chosen. . 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the sev- 
eral states which may be included within this Union, according to their 
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole 
number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of 
years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. 
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the congress of the United States, and within every subsequent 
term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The num- 
ber of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirt}^ thousand, but 
each state shall have at least one representative; and until such enumer- 
ation shall be made the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose 
three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, 
Connecticut five, New York six. New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, 
Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten. North CaroHna five, and 
Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the exec- 
utive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 

The house of representatives shall choose their speaker and other 
ofiicers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3. The senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof for six years; 
and each senator shall have one vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first 
election, they "'..all be divided as equally as may be into three classes. 
The seats 'I the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expira- 
tion of tiie second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth 
year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one- 
third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resig- 
nation or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the 
executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next 
meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 

No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age of 
thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who 


shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall 
be chosen. 

The vice-president of the United States shall be president of the senate, 
but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. 

The senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president -pro 
tem^pore, in the absence of the vice-president, or when he shall exercise 
the office of president of the United States. 

The senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When 
sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the 
president of the United States is tried, the chief-juslice shall preside. 
And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds 
of the members present. 

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjo}- any office of 
honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the party convicted 
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and 
punishment according to law. 

Sec. 4. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for senators 
and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature 
thereof; but the congress may at an}' time by' law make or alter such 
regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators. 

The congress shall assemble at least once in every 3^ear,-and such meet- 
ing shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law 
appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the ekction, returns, and 
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute 
a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from daj;- to 
day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members 
in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. 

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its mem- 
bers for disc>rderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds,, 
expel a member. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to 
time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, 
require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on 
any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered 
on the journal. 

Neither house, during the session of congress, shall, without the consent 
of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place 
than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation 
for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury 
of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and 
breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at 
the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from 
the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be 
questioned in any other place. 

No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall 
have been increased during such time; and no person holding any office 
under the United States shall be a member of either house during his 
continuance in office. 


Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of 
representatives; but the senate ma}^ propose or concur with amendments 
as on other bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives and 
the senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the president of 
the United States; if he approve he shall sign it; but if not he shall 
return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have origi- 
nated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and pro- 
ceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that 
house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objec- 
tions, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and 
if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all 
such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays,, 
and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered 
on the journal of each house respectiveh^ If any bill shall not be returned 
by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted), after it shall have 
been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he 
had signed it, unless the congress, by their adjournment, pievents its 
return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the senate 
and house of representatives may be necessary (except on a question of 
adjournment), shall be presented to the president of the United States, 
and before the same shall take effect shall be approved b}- him, or, being 
disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of the senate and 
house of representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed 
in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The congress shall have power- 
To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts, 
and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United 
States; but aH duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout 
the United States; 

To borrovV money on the credit of the United States ; 

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
states, and with the Indian tribes; 

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the 
subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof and of foreign coin, and fix 
the standard of weights and measures; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and cur- 
rent coin of the Uni*- .d States ; ' 

To establish p'^^c offices and post roads; 

To promote tne progress of sciences and useful arts, by securing, for 
limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respec- 
tive writings and discoveries; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court; 

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas; 
and offenses against the law of nations ; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal and make rules 
concerning captures on land and water; 

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use 
shall be for a longer term than two years; 

To provide and maintain a navy; 

To make rules for government and regulation of the land and naval forces ; 


To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, 
suppress insurrections, and repel invasions; 

To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for 
governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
United States, reserving to the states respectively the appointment of the 
officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline 
prescribed by congress; 

To exercise legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not 
exceeding ten miles square) as may by cession of particular states, and 
the acceptance of congress, become the seat of the government of the 
United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by 
the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for 
the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful 
buildings; and 

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying 
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this 
constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department 
or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the 
states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by 
the congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but 
a tax of duty may be irnposed on such importation, not exceeding ten 
dollars for each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless 
when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it. 

No bill of attainder or ex -post facto law shall be passed. 

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to 
the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. 

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or rev- 
enue to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels 
bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in 

No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of 
appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the 
receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from 
time to time. 

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no per- 
son holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the 
consent of the congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title 
of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign state. 

Sec. 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; 
grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bifis of credit; 
make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; 
pass any bill of attainder, ex fost facto law, or law impairing the obliga- 
tion of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No state shall, without the consent of the congress, lay any imposts or 
duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary 
for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and 
imposts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the 
treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the 
revision and control of the congress. 

No state shall, without the consent of congress, lay any duty on tonnage, 


keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement 
or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in 
war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit 
of delay. 


Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a president of the 
United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of 
four years, and, together with the vice-president chosen for the same term, 
be elected as follows : 

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may 
direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of senators and 
representatives to which the state may be entitled in the congress; but no 
senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit 
under the United States shall be appointed an elector. 

[*The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot 
for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the 
same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons 
voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign, 
and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of government of the United 
States, directed to the president of the senate. The president of the sen- 
ate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of representatives, open 
all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person hav- 
ing the greatest number of votes shall be the president, if such number be 
a majority of the whole number of electors appointed: and if there be 
more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of 
votes, then the house of representatives shall immediately choose by bal- 
lot, one of them for president ; and if no person have a majority, then from 
the five highest on the list the said house shall in like manner choose the 
president. But, in choosing the president, the vote shall be taken by states, 
the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this 
purpose shall consist of a member, or members, from two-thirds of the 
states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In 
every case, after the choice of the president, the person having the great- 
est number of votes of the electors shall be the vice-president. But if 
there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the senate shall 
choose from them, by br Jot, the vice-president.] 

The congress may rjtermine the time of choosing the electors, and the 
day on which they •" nail give their votes, which day shall be the same 
throughout the Ur\ed States. 

No person except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United 
States at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be eligible to 
the office of president; neither shall any person be eligible to that office 
who sha-11 not have attained the age of thirtj^-five years, and been fourteen 
years a resident within the United States. 

In case of the removal of the president from office, or of his death, res- 
ignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, 
the same shall devolve on the vice-president, and the congress may by law 
provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of 
the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall then act as 

*This clause between brackets has beea superseded and annulled by the twelfth amend- 


president, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be 
removed, or a president shall be elected. 

The president sliall, at stated times, receive for his services a compen- 
sation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period 
for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive during that 
period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. 

Before he enters upon the execution of his office he shall take the fol- 
lowing oath, or affirmation: 

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office 
•of president of tlie United States, and will, to the best of my ability, pre- 
serve, protect, and defend the constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2. The president shall be commander-in-chief of the army and 
navy of the United ^States, and of the militia of the several states, when 
called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the 
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive depart- 
ments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, 
and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against 
the United States, except in cases of impeachment. 

He shall have power, bv and with the advice and consent of the senate, 
to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators present concur; and 
he shall nominate,* and by and with the advice of the senate, shall appoint 
embassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme 
court, and all other officers of the United States whose appointments are 
not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law; 
but the congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers 
as they think proper in the president alone, in the courts of law, or in the 
heads of departments. 

The president shall have power to till up all vacancies that may happen 
during the recess of the senate, by granting commissions which shall 
expire at the end of their next session. 

Sec. 3. He shall, from time to time, give to the congr'ess information 
of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such 
measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraor- 
dinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of 
disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he 
may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive 
embassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States. 

Sec. 4. The president, vice-president and all civil officers of the United 
States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, 
treason, brilDery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 


Section 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in 
one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the congress may from 
time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their office during good behavior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, 
arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties 
made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting 


embassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty 
and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to which the United States shall 
be a party; to controversies between two or more states; between a state 
and citizens of another state; between citizens of different states; between 
citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states; 
and between a state or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or 

In all cases affecting embassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, 
and those in which a state shall be a party, the supreme court shall have 
original jurisdiction. 

In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have 
appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and 
under such regulations as the congress shall make. 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury ; 
and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have 
been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall 
be at such place or places as the congress may by law have directed. 

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying 
war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and 
comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony 
of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. 

The congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, 
but no attamder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, 
except during the life of the person attainted. 


Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the 
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And 
the congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such 
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof 

Sec. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and 
immunities of citizens in the several states. 

A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who 
shall flee from justice and be found in another state, shall, on demand of 
the executive authority of th t state from which he fled, be delivered up, to 
be removed to the state jurisdiction of the crime. 

No person held to servi*^ s or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, 
escaping into another, s^ all, in consequence of any law or regulation 
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered 
up on claim of the part}^ to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3. New states may be admitted by congress into this Union; but 
no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any 
other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more 
states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the 
states concerned, as well as of the congress. 

The congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules 
and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to 
the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as 
to prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular state. 

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union 
a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against 
invasion, and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when 
the legislature can not be convened), against domestic violence. 




The congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it neces- 
sary, shall propose amendments to this constitution, or, on the application 
of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states shall call a conven- 
tion for proposing amendments, which, in either case shall be valid to all 
intents and purposes as part of this constitution, when ratified by the leg- 
islatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three- 
fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be pro- 
posed by the congress. Provided, that no amendment which may be 
made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any 
manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first 
article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal 
suffrage in the senate. 


All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption 
of this constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this 
constitution as under the confederation. 

This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be 
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the 
land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in 
the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of 
the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both 
of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or 
affirmation to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be 
required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United 


The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for 
the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the 

Done in convention by tiie unanimous consent of tlie states pi-esent, the seventeenth day of 
September, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and 
of the independence of the United States of America, the twelfth. In witness whereof we 
have hereunto subscribed our names. 


President, and Deputy from Virginia. 

New Hampshire. 
John Langdon, 
Nicholas GrLMAN. 

Nathaniel Gokham, 
RuFDs King. 

Wm. Samoel Johnson, 
RoQEK Sherman. 

New York. 
Alexander Hamilton. 

New Jersey. 
WiL. Livingston, 
Wm. Patterson, 
David Brearley, 
Jona. Dayton. 

George Reed, 
John Dickinson, 
Jacob Broom, 
Gunning Bedford, Jr., 
Richard Bassett. 

Ja^ies M'Henry, 
Danl. Carroll, 
Dan. op St. Thos. Jenifer. 

John Blair, 
Jambs Madison, Jr. 

North Carolina. 
Wm. Blount. 
Hu. Williamson, 
Richard Dobbs Spaight. 

B. Franklin, 
RoBT. Morris, 
Thos. Fitzsimons, 
James Wilson, 
Thos. Mifflin, 
Geohge Clymer, 


Gouv. Morris. 

South Carolina. 
J. Rutledge, 
Charles Pinckney, 
Chas. Cotesworth Pinckney 
Pierce Butler. 


Wm. Few, 
Abb. Baldwin. 


amendments to the constitution. 121 

Articles in Addition to and Amendatory of the Constitution 
OF THE United States of America. 

Proposed by Congress and Ratified bv the Legislatures of the several 
States pursuant to theffth article of the original Constitution. 


Concrress shall make no law respecting an establishment of rehgion,or 
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, 
or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to 
petition the government for a redress of grievances. 


A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, 
'the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 


No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without 
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be pre- 
scribed by law. 


The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, 
and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be vio- 
lated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by 
oath or affirmation, and particular!}' describing the place to be searched 
and the persons or things to be seized. 


No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a pi ^sentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in 
cases arising in the L nd or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual 
service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject 
for the same offense, to >e twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall 
be compelled, in any criL^inal case, to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor 
shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 


In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy 
and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the 
crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously 
ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the 
accusation ; to be confronted w ith the witnesses against him ; to have com- 
pulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assist- 
ance of counsel for his defense. 


In suits at common law, where tlie value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact 
tried by a jur}^ shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United 
States than according to the rules of the common law. 



Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor 
cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 


The enumeration, in the constitution, of certain rights, shall not be con- 
strued to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 


The powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution, nor 
prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to 
the people. 


The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend 
to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the 
United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any 
foreign state. 


Sec 1. The electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot 
for president and vice-president, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhab- 
itant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots 
the person to be voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the person 
voted for as vice-president, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons 
voted for as president, and of all persons voted for as vice-president, and 
of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and 
transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government of the United States, 
directed to the president of the senate. The president of the senate shall, 
in presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certifi- 
cates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the great- 
est number of votes for president shall be the president, if such number 
be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person 
have such majoritj', then from the persons having the highest numbers not 
exceeding three on the list of those voted for as president, the house of 
representatives shall choose immediately, b}'^ ballot, the president. But in 
choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representa- 
tives from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall con- 
sist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority 
of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the house of rep- 
resentatives shall not choose a president whenever the right of choice 
shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, 
then the vice-president shall act as president, as in the case of the death or 
other constitutional disability of the president. The person having the 
greatest number of votes as vice-president shall be the vice-president, if 
such number be the majority of the whole number of electors appointed 
and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on 
the list the senate shall choose the vice-president; a quorum for that pur- 
pose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a 
majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no 
person constitutionally ineligible to the office of president shall be eligible 
to that of vice-president of the United States. 



Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a pun- 
ishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their juris- 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropri- 
ate legislation. 


Section 1. _ All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and of 
the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law 
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United 
States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
the equal protection of the law. 

Sec 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states 
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of per- 
sons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed ; but when the right to vote 
at any election for the choice of electors for president and vice-president 
of the United States, representatives in congress, the executive and judi- 
cial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied 
to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of 
age and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged except for 
participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein 
shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens 
shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age 
in such state. 

Sec 3. Nc person shall be a senator or representative in congress, or 
elector of prf sident and vice-president, or hold any office, civil or military, 
under the U lited States, or under any state, who, having previously taken 
an oath as a member of congress, or as an officer of the United States, or 
as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer 
of any state to support the constitution of the United States, shall have 
engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or 
comfort to the enemies thereof. But congress mav, by a vote of two- 
thirds of each house, remove such disability. 

Sec 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States author- 
ized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and boun- 
ties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be 
questioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or 
pay any debt or obligation incurred in the aid of insurrection or rebellion 
against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of 
any slave ; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal 
and void. 

Sec 5. The congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate 
legislation, the provisions of this article. 


Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any state, on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Sec 2. The congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 

Constitution of the State of Missouri, 


NOVEMBER 30, 1875. 


We, the people of Missouri, with profound reverence for the Supreme 
Ruler of the Universe, and grateful for his goodness, do, for the better 
government of the state, establish this constitution. 


Section 1. The boundaries of the state as heretofore established by- 
law, are hereby ratified and confirmed. The state shall have concurrent 
jurisdiction on the river Mississippi, and every other river bordering on the 
state, so far as the said rivers shall form a common boundary to this state 
and any other state or states; and the river Mississippi and the navigable 
rivers and waters leading to the same, shall be common highways, and 
forever free to the citizens of this state and of the United States, without 
any tax, duty, import or toll therefor, imposed by this state. 


In order to assert our rights, acknowledge our duties, and proclaim the 
principles on which our government is founded, we declare: 

Section 1. That all political power is vested in, and derived from the 
people; that all government of right originates from the people, is founded 
upon their will onlv, and is instituted solely for the good of the whole. 

Sec 2. That the people of this state have the inherent, sole and e.xclu- 
sive right to regulate the internal government and police thereof, and to 
alter and abolish their constitution and form of government whenever 
they may deem it necessary to their safety and happiness: Provided^ 
Such change be not repugnant to the constitution of the United States. 

Sec. 3. That Missouri is a free and independent state, subject only to 
the constitution of the United States; and as the preservation of the 
states and the maintenance of their governments, are necessary to an 
indestructible Union, and were intended to co-exist with it, the- legislature 
is not authorized to adopt, njor will the people of this state ever assent to 
any amendment or change of the constitution of the United States which 
may in any wise impair the right of local self-government belonging to 
the people of this state. 

Sec. 4. That all constitutional government is intended to promote the 
general welfare of the people ; that all persons have a natural right to life, 
liberty and the enjoyment of the gains of their own industry; that to give 
security to these things is the principal office of government, and that 
when government does not confer this security, it fails of its chief design. 

Sec. 5. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship 
Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience; that no 


person can, on account of his religious opinions, be rendered ineligible to 
anv office of trust or protit under this state, nor be disqualified from testi- 
fying, or from serving as a juror; that no human authority can control or 
interfere with the rights of conscience; that no person ought, by any law, 
to be molested in his person or estate, on account of his religious persua- 
sion or profession; but the libert}^ of conscience hereby secured, shall not 
be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, nor to justify practices 
inconsistent with the good order, peace or safety of this state, or with the 
rights of others. 

Sec. G. That no person can be compelled to erect, support or attend 
any place or system of worship, or to maintain or support any priest, min- 
ister, preacher or teacher of any sect, church, creed or denomination of re- 
ligion; but if any person shall voluntarily make a contract for any such 
object, he shall be held to the performance of the same. 

Sec. 7. That no money shall ever be taken from the public treasury, 
directly or indirectly, in aid of an}- church, sect or denomination of religion, 
or in aid of an}^ priest, preacher, minister or teacher thereof, as such; and 
that no preference shall be given to, nor any discrimination made against 
any church, sect or creed of religion, or any form of religious faith or wor- 

Sec. 8. That no religious corporation can be established in this state, 
except such as may be created under a general law for the purpose only 
of holding the title to such real estate as may be prescribed by law for 
church edifices, parsonages and cemeteries. 

Sec. 9. Tl at all elections shall be free and open ; and no power, civil 
or militar}', s'lall at any time interfere to prevent the free exercise of the 
right of suf age. 

Sec. 10 The courts of justice shall be open to every person, and cer- 
tain remeily afTorded for every injury to person, propert}^ or character, 
and that right and justice should be administered without sale, denial or 

Sec. 11. That the people shall be secure in their persons, papers, 
homes and effects, from unreasonable searches and seizures; and no war- 
rant to search any place, or seize any person or thing, shall issue without 
describing the place to be searched, or the person or thing to be seized, as 
nearly as may be; nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affir- 
mation reduced to wa-iting. 

Sec. 12. That no person shall, for felony, be proceeded against crimi- 
nally otherwise than by indictment, except in cases arising in the land or 
naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or pub- 
lic danger; in all other cases, offenses shall be prosecuted criminally by in- 
dictment or information as concurrent remedies. 

Sec. lo. That treason against the state can consist only in levying 
war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort; 
that no person can be convicted of treason, unless on the testimon}^ of two 
witnesses to the same overt act, or on his confession in open court; that 
no person can be attainted of treason or felony by the general assembly; 
that no conviction can work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate; 
that the estates of such persons as may destroy their own lives shall 
descend or vest as in cases of natural death; and when any person shall 
be killed by casualty, there shall be no forfeiture by reason thereof. 

Sec. 14. That no law shall be passed impairing the freedom of speech; 


that every person shall be free to say, write or publish whatever he will 
on any subject, being responsible for all abuse of that liberty; and that in 
all suits and prosecutions for libel, the truth thereof may be given in evi- 
dence, and the jury, under the direction of the court, shall determine the 
law and the fact. 

Sec. 15. That no ex ^ost facto law, nor law impairing the obligation 
of contracts, or retrospective in its operation, or making any irrevocable 
grant of special privileges or immunities, can be passed by the general 

Sec. 16. That imprisonment for debt shall not be allowed, except for 
the nonpayment of fines and penalties imposed for violation of law. 

Sec. 17. That the right of no citizen to keep and bear arms in defense 
of his home, person and property, or in aid of the civil power, when thereto 
legally summoned, shall be called in question; but nothing herein con- 
tained is intended to justify the practice of wearing concealed weapons. 

Sec. 18. That no person elected or appointed to any office or employ- 
ment of trust or profit under the laws of this state, or any ordinance of 
any municipality in this state, shall hold such office without personally 
devoting his time to the performance of the duties to the same belonging. 

Sec. 19. That no person who is now, or may hereafter become a col- 
lector or receiver of public money, or assistant or deputy of such collector 
or receiver, shall be eligible to any office of trust or profit in the state of 
Missouri under the laws thereof, or of any municipality therein, until he 
shall have accounted for and paid over all the public money for which he 
may be accountable. 

Sec. 20. That no private property can be taken for private use with or 
without compensation, unless by the consent of the owner, except for pri- 
vate ways of necessity, and except for drains and ditches across the lands 
of others for agricultural and sanitary purposes, in such manner as may be 
prescribed by law ; and that whenever an attempt is made to take private 
property for a use alleged to be public, the question whether the contem- 
plated use be really public shall be a judicial question, and as such, judi- 
cially determined, without regard to any legislative assertion that the use 
is public. 

Sec. 21. That private property shall not be taken or damaged for pub- 
lic use without just compensation. Such compensation shall be ascer- 
tained by a jury or board of commissioners of not less than three free- 
holders, in such manner as may be prescribed by law; and until the same 
shall be paid to the owner, or into court for the owner, the property shall 
not be disturbed, or the proprietary rights of the owner therein divested. 
The fee of land taken for railroad tracts without consent of the owner 
thereof, shall remain in such owner, subject to the use for which it is 

Sec. 22. In criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the right to 
appear and defend, in person, and by counsel; to demand the nature and 
cause of the accusation; to meet the witnesses against him face to face; to 
have process to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and a 
speedy, public trial by an .impartial jury of the county. 

Sec. 23. That no person shall be compelled to testify against himself 
in a criminal cause, nor shall any person, after being once acquitted by a 
jury, be again, for the same offense, put in jeopardy of life or liberty; but 
if the jury to which the question of his guilt or innocence is submitted 


fail to render a verdict, the court before which the trial is had may, in its 
discretion, discharge the jury and commit or bail the prisoner for trial at 
the next term of court, or if the state of business will permit, at the same 
term ; and if judgment be arrested after a verdict of guilty on a defective 
indictment, or if judgment on a verdict of guilty be reversed for error in 
law, nothing herein contained shall prevent a new trial of the prisoner on 
a proper indictment, or according to correct principles of law. 

Sec. 24. That all persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, ex- 
cept for capital offenses, when the proof is evident or the presumption great. 

Sec. 25. That excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines 
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted. 

Sec. 26. That the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall never 
be suspended. 

Sec. 27. That the military shall always be in strict subordination to 
the civil power; that no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any 
house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, except in the 
manner prescribed by law. 

Sec. 28. The right of trial by jury, as heretofore enjoyed, shall remain 
inviolate; but a jury for the trial of criminal or civil cases, in courts not of 
record, may consist of less than twelve men, as may be prescribed by law. 
Hereafter, a grand jury shall consist of twelve men, any nine of whom 
concurring may ^.nd an indictment or a true bill. 

Sec. 29. Th at the people have the right peaceably to assemble for 
their common ^ood, and to apply to those invested with the powers of gov- 
ernment for ' ^dress of grievances by petition or remonstrance. 

Sec. 30. That no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property 
without due process of law. 

Sec. 31. That there cannot be in this state either slavery or involun- 
tary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall 
have been duly convicted. 

Sec. 32. The enumeration in this constitution of certain rights shall 
not be construed to deny, impair, or disparage others retained by the 


The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct depart- 
ments — the legislative, executive, and judicial — each of which shall be con- 
fided to a separate magistracy and no person, or collection of persons, 
charged with the exercise of powers properly belonging to one of those 
departments, shall exercise any power properly belonging to either of the 
others, except in the instances in this constitution expressly directed or 


Section 1. The legislative power, subject to the limitations herein 
contained, shall be vested in a senate and house of representatives, to be 
styled " The General Assembly of the State of Missouri." 

representation and apportionment. 

Sec. 2. The house of representatives shall consist of members to be 
chosen every second year by the qualified voters of the several counties, 
and apportioned in the following manner: The ratio of representation shall 
be ascertained at each apportioning session of the general assembly, by 


dividing the whole number gf inhabitants of the state, as ascertained by 
the last decennial census of the United States, by the number two hun- 
dred. Each county having one ratio, or less, shall be entitled to one rep- 
resentative; each county having two and a half times said ratio, shall be 
entitled to two representatives; each county having four times said ratio, 
shall be entitled to three representatives; each county having six times 
such ratio, shall be entitled to four representatives, and so on above that 
number, giving one additional member for every two and a half additional 

Sec. 3. When any county shall be entitled to more than one repre- 
sentative, the county court shall cause such county to be subdivided into 
districts of compact and contiguous territory, corresponding in number to 
the representatives to which such county is entitled, and in population as 
nearly equal as may be, in each of which the qualitied voters shall elect 
one representative, who shall be a resident of such district: Provided^ 
That when any county shall be entitled to more than ten representatives, 
the circuit court shall cause such county to be subdivided into districts, so 
as to give each district not less than two, nor more than four representa- 
tives, who shall be residents of such district; the population of the districts to 
be proportioned to the number of representatives to be elected therefrom. 

Sec. 4. No persoi shall be a member of the house of representatives 
who shall not have attained the age of twenty-four years, who shall not be 
a male citizen of the United States, who shall not have been a qualified 
voter of this state two years, and an inhabitant of the county or district 
which he may be chosen to represent, one year next before the day of his 
election, if such county or district shall have been so long established, but 
if not, then of the county or district from which the same shall have been 
taken, and who shall not have paid a state and county tax within one year 
next preceding the election. 

Sec. 5. The senate shall consist of thirty-four members, to be chosen 
by the qualified voters of their respective districts for four years. For the 
election of senators the state shall be divided into convenient districts, as 
nearly equal in population as may be, the same to be ascertained by the 
last decennial census taken by the United States. 

Sec. 6. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained the 
age of thirty years, who shall not be a male citizen of the United States, 
who shall not have been a qualified voter of this state three years, and an 
inhabitant of the district which he may be chosen to represent one year 
next before the day of his election, if such district shall have been so long 
established; but if not, then of the district or districts from which the same 
shall have been taken, and who shall not have paid a state and county tax 
within one year next preceding the election. When any count}- shall be 
entitled to rnore tlian one senator, the circuit court shall cause such county 
to be subdivided into districts of compact and contiguous territory, and of 
population as nearly equal as may be, corresponding in number with the 
senators to which such county may be entitled; and in each of these one 
senator, who shall be a resident of such district, shall be elected by the 
qualified voters thereof. 

Sec. 7. Senators and representatives shall be chosen according to the 
rule of apportionment established in this constitution, until the next decen- 
nial census by the United States shall have been taken and the result 
thereof as to this state ascertained, when the apportionment shall be revised 


and adjusted on the basis of that census, and every ten 3'ears there- 
after upon the basis of the United States census; or if such census be not 
taken, or is delayed, then on the basis of a state census; such apportion- 
ment to be made at the first session of the general assembl}' after each 
such census: Provided^ That if at an}- time, or from any cause, the general 
assembly shall fail or refuse to district the state for senators, as required 
in this section, it shall be the duty of the governor, secretary of state, and 
attorney-general, within thirty days after the adjournment of the general 
assembly on which such duty devolved, to perform said duty, and to file in 
the office of the secretary of state a full statement of the districts formed 
by them, including the names of the counties embraced in each district, 
and the numbers thereof; said statement to be signed by them, and 
attested by the great seal of the state, and upon the proclamation of the 
governor, the same shall be as binding and effectual as if done by the 
general assembly. 

Sec. 8. Until an apportionment of representatives can be made, in 
accordance with the provisions of this article, the house of representa- 
tives shall consist of orj hundred and forty-three members, which shall be 
divided among the se- era! counties of the state, as follows: The county of 
St. Louis shall have seventeen; the county of Jackson four; the county of 
Buchanan three; ' aq. counties of Franklin, Greene, Johnson, Lafayette, 
Macon, Marion, ^ ike, and Saline, each two, and each of the other coun- 
ties in the state, one. 

Sec. 9. Senatorial and representative districts may be altered, from 
time to time, as public convenience may require. When any senatorial 
district shall be composed of two or more counties, they shall be contigu- 
ous; such districts to be as compact as may be, and in the formation of 
the same no county shall be divided. 

Sec. 10. The first election of senators and representatives, under this 
constitution, shall be held at the general election in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-six, when the whole number of representa- 
tives, and the senators from the districts having odd numbers, who shall 
compose the first class, shall be chosen; and in one thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy-eight, the senators from the districts having even num- 
bers, who shall compose the second class, and so on at each succeeding 
general election, half the senators provided for by this constitution shall 
be chosen. 

Sec. 11. Until the state shall be divided into senatorial districts, in 
accordance with the provisions of this article, said districts shall be con- 
stituted and numbered as follows: 

The First District shall be composed of the counties of Andrew, Holt, 
Nodaway and Atchison. 

Second District — The counties of Buchanan, DeKalb, Gentry and 

Thkd District — The counties of Clay, Clinton and Platte. 

Fourth District -The counties of Caldwell, Ray, Daviess and Harrison. 

Fifth District— The counties of Livingston, Grundy, Mercer and Carroll. 

Sixth District — The counties of Linn, Sullivan, Putnam and Chariton. 

Seventh District — The counties of Randolph, Howard and Monroe.- 

Eighth District— The counties of Adair, Macon and Schuyler. 

Ninth District — The counties of Audrain, Boone and Callaway. 


Tenth District — The counties of St. Charles and Warren. 

Eleventh District — The counties of Pike, Lincoln and Montgomery. 

Twelfth District — The counties of Lewis, Clark, Scotland and Knox. 

Thirteenth District — The counties of Marion, Shelby and Ralls. 

Fourteenth District — The counties of Bates, Cass and Henry. 

Fifteenth District — The county of Jackson. 

Sixteenth District — The counties of Vernon, Barton, Jasper, Newton 
and McDonald. 

Seventeenth District — The counties of Lafayette and Johnson. 

Eighteenth District — The counties of Greene, Lawrence, Barry, Stone 
and Christian. 

Nineteenth District — The counties of Saline, Pettis and Benton. 

Twentieth District — The counties of Polk, Hickory, Dallas, Dade,. 
Cedar and St. Clair. 

Twenty-first District — The counties of Laclede, Webster, Wright, 
Texas, Douglas, Taney, Ozark and Howell. 

Twenty-second District — The counties of Phelps, Miller, Maries, Cam- 
den, Pulaski, Crawford and Dent. 

Twenty-third District — The counties of Cape Girardeau, Mississippi, 
New Madrid, Pemiscot, Dunklin, Stoddard and Scott. 

Twenty-fourth District — The counties of Iron, Madison, Bollinger,. 
Wayne, Butler, Reynolds, Carter, Ripley, Oregon and Shannon. 

Twenty-fifth District — The counties of Franklin, Gasconade and Osage. 

Twenty-sixth District — The counties of Washington, Jefferson, St. 
Francois, Ste. Genevieve and Perry. 

Twenty-eighth District — The counties of Cooper, Moniteau, Morgan 
and Cole. 

St. Louis county shall be divided into seven districts, numbered respec- 
tively, as follows: 

Twenty-seventh, Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth, Thirty-first, Thirty-second, 
Thirty-third and Thirt3^-fourth. 

Sec. 12. No senator or representative shall, during the term for which 
he shall have been elected, be appointed to any office under this state, or 
any municipality thereof; and no member of congress or person holding 
any lucrative office under the United States, or this state, or any munici- 
pality thereof, (militia offices, justices of the peace and notaries public 
excepted,) shall be eligible to either house of the general assembly, or remain 
a member thereof, after having accepted any such office or seat in either 
house of congress. 

Sec. 13. If any senator or representative remove his residence from 
the district or county for which he was elected, his office shall thereby be 

Sec. 14. Writs of election to fill such vacancies as mav occur in either 
house of the general assembly, shall be issued by the governor. 

Sec. 15. Every senator and representative elect, before entering upon 
the duties of his office, shall take and subscribe the following oath or affirm- 
ation: "I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will support the constitution 
of the United States and of the state of Missouri, and faithfully perform 
the duties of my office, and that I will not knowingly receive, directly or 
indirectly, any money or other valuable thing, for the performance or 
non-performance of an}'^ act or duty pertaining to m}^ office, other than the 
compensation allowed by law." The oath shall be administered in the 


halls of their respective houses, to the members thereof, by some judge of 
the supreme court, or the circuit court, or the county court of Cole 
county, or after the organization, b}- the presiding officer of either house, 
and shall be filed in the office of the secretary of state. x\ny member of 
either house refusing to take said oath or affirmation, shall be deemed to 
have thereby vacated his office, and any member convicted of having vio- 
lated his oath or affirmation, shall be deemed guilty of perjury, and be 
forever thereafter disqualified from holding any office of trust or profit in 
this state. 

Sec. 16. The members of the general assembly shall severally receive 
from the public treasury such compensation for their services as may, 
from time to time, be provided by law, not to exceed five dollars per day 
for the first seventy da3^s of each session, and after that not to exceed one 
dollar per day for the remainder of the session, except the first session held 
under this constitution, and during revising sessions, when they may re- 
ceive five dollars per day for jne hundred and twenty days, and one dollar 
per day for the remainder c'. such sessions. In addition to per diem, the 
members shall be entitled ' j receive traveling expenses or mileage, for any 
regular and extra session not greater than now provided by law; but no 
member shall be entitled to traveling expenses or mileage for any extra 
session that may be called within one day after an adjournment of a regu- 
lar session. Committees of either house, or joint committees of both 
houses, appointed to examine the institutions of the state, other than those 
at the seat of government, may receive their actual expenses, necessarily 
incurred while in the performance of such duty; the items of such ex- 
penses to be returned to the chairman of such committee, and by him cer- 
tified to the state auditor, before the same, or any part thereof, can be 
paid. Each member may receive at each regular session an additional sum 
of thirty dollars, which shall be in full for all stationery used in his official 
capacity, and all postage, and all other incidental expenses and perquisites; 
and no allowance or emoluments, for any purpose whatever, shall be made 
to, or received by the members, or any member of either house, or for their 
use, out of the contingent fund or otherwise, except as herein expressly 
provided; and no allowance or emolument, for any purpose whatever, 
shall ever be paid to any officer, agent, servant or emplo3'e of either 
house of the general assembly, or of any committee thereof, except such 
per diem as may be provided for by law, not to exceed five dollars. ^ 

Sec. 17. Each house shall appoint its own officers; shall be sole judge 
of the qualifications, election and returns of its own members; may deter- 
mine the rules of its own proceedings, except as herein provided ; may 
arrest and punish by fine not exceeding three hundred dollars, or imprison- 
ment in a county jail not exceeding ten days, or both, any person, not a 
member, who shall be guilty of disrespect to the house by any disorderly or 
contemptuous behavior in its presence during its sessions; may punish its 
members for disorderly conduct; and with the concurrence of two-thirds 
of all members elect, may expel a member; but no member shall be ex- 
pelled a second time for the same cause. 

Sec. 18. A majority of the whole number ot members of each house 
shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may ad- 
journ from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent rnembers 
in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. 


Sec. 19. The sessions of each house shall be held with open doors, 
except in cases which may require secrecy. 

Sec. 20. The general assembly elected in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-six shall meet on the first Wednesday after the 
first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven; and 
thereafter the general assembly shall meet in regular session once only in 
every two years; and such meeting shall be on the first Wednesday after 
the first day of January next after the elections of the members thereof. 

Sec 21. Every adjournment or recess taken by the general assembly 
for more than three days, shall have the effect of and be an adjournment 
sine die. 

Sec. 22. Every adjournment or recess taken by the general assembly 
for three days or less, shall be construed as not interrupting the session at 
which they are had or taken, but as continuing the session for all the pur- 
poses mentioned in section sixteen of this article. 

Sec 23. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn 
for more than two days at any one time, nor to any other place than that 
in which the two houses maybe sitting. 

legislative proceedings. 

Sec 24. The style of the laws of this state shall be : " Be it enacted 
by the General Assembly of the State of Missouri^ as follows .•" 

Sec 25. No law shall be passed, except by bill, and no bill shall be so 
amended in its passage through either house, as to change its original 

Sec 26. Bills may originate in either house, and may be amended or 
rejected by the other; and every bill shall be read on three different days 
in each house. 

Sec 27. No bill shall be considered for final passage unless the same 
has been reported upon by a committee and printed for the use of the 

Sec 28. No bill (except general appropriation bills, which may em- 
brace the various subjects and accounts for and on account of which moneys 
are appropriated, and except bills passed under the third subdivision of 
section forty-four of this article) shall contain more than one subject, which 
shall be clearly expressed in its title. 

Sec 29. All amendments adopted by either house to a bill pendino- 
and originating in the same, shall be incorporated with the bill bv engross- 
ment, and the bill as thus engrossed, shall be printed for the iise of the 
members before its final passage. The engrossing and printing shall be 
under the supervision of a committee, whose report to the house shall set 
forth, in writing, that they find the bill truly engrossed, and that the 
printed copy furnished to the members is correct. 

Sec 30. If a bill passed by either house be returned thereto, amended 
by the other, the house to which the same is returned shall cause the 
amendment or amendments so received to be printed under the same super- 
vision as provided in the next preceding section, for the use of the mem- 
bers before final action on such amendments. 

Sec. 31. No bill shall become a law, unless on its final passage the 
vote be taken by yeas and nays, the names of the members voting for and 
against the same be entered on the journal, and a majority of the members 
elected to each house be recorded thereon as voting in its favor. 


Sec. 32. No amendment to bills by one house shall be concurred in 
by the other, except by a vote of a majority of the members elected thereto 
taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those voting for and against 
recorded upon the journal thereof; and reports of committees of confer- 
ence shall be adopted in either house only by the vote of a majority of the 
members elected thereto, taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those 
voting recorded upon the journal. 

Sec. 33. No act shall be revived or re-enacted by mere reference to 
the title thereof, but the same shall be set forth at length, as if it were an 
original act. 

Sec. 34. No act shall be amended by providing that designated words 
thereof be stricken out, or that designate d words be inserted, or that desig- 
nated words be stricken out and othe.s inserted in lieu thereof; but the 
words to be stricken out, or the wor ^s to be inserted, or the words to be 
stricken out and those inserted in 1:' ju thereof, together with the act or 
section amended, shall be set forth in full, as amended. 

Sec 35. When a bill is put upon its final passage in either house, and, 
failing to pass, a rnotion is made to reconsider the vote by which it was 
defeated, the vote upon such motion to reconsider shall be immediately 
taken, and the subject finally disposed of before the house proceeds to any 
other business. 

Sec. 36. No law passed by the general assembly, except the general 
appropriation act, shall take effect or go into force until ninety days after 
the adjournment of the session at which it was enacted, unless in case of 
an emergency, (which emergency must be expressed in the preamble or in 
the body of the act), the general assembly shall, by a vote of two-thirds 
of all the members elected to each house, otherwise direct; said vote to be 
taken by yeas and nays, and entered upon the journal. 

Sec 37. No bill shall become a law until the same shall have been 
signed by the presiding officer of each of the two houses, in open session; 
and before such officer shall affix his signature to any bill, he shall suspend 
all other business, declare that such bill will now be read, and that, if no 
objections be made, he will sign the same, to the end that it may become a 
law. The bill shall then be read at length, and if no objections be made, 
he shall, in presence of the house, in open session, and before any other 
business is entertained, affix his signature, which fact shall be noted on the 
journal, and the bill immediately sent to the other house. When it reaches 
the other house the presiding officer thereof shall immediately suspend all 
other business, announce the reception of the bill, and the same proceedings 
shall thereupon be observed, in every respect, as in the house in which it 
was first signed. If in either house any member shall object that any sub- 
stitution, omission, or insertion has occurred, so that the bill proposed to be 
signed is not the same in substance and form as when considered and 
passed by the house, or that any particular clause of this article of the 
constitution has been violated in its passage, such objection shall be passed 
upon by the house, and if sustained, the presiding officer shall withhold his 
signature; but if such objection shall not be sustained, then any five mem- 
bers may embody the same, over their signatures, in a written protest, 
under oath, against the signing of the bill. Such protest, when offered in 
the house, shall be noted upon the journal, and the original shall be an- 
nexed to the bill to be considered by the governor in connection therewith. 

Sec. 38. When the bill has been signed, as provided for in the preced- 


inn- section, it shall be the duty of the secretary of the senate, if the bill 
orTcrinated in the senate, and of the chief clerk of the house of representa- 
tives, if the bill originated in the house, to present the same in person, on 
the same day on which it was signed as aforesaid, to the governor, 
and enter the fact upon the journal. Every bill presented to the governor, 
and returned within ten days to the house in which the same originated, 
with the approval of the governor, shall become a law, unless it be in vio- 
lation of some provision of this constitution. 

Skc. 39. Every bill presented as aforesaid, but returned without the 
approval of the governor, and with his objections thereto, shall stand as 
reconsidered in the house to which it is returned. The house shall cause 
the objections of the governor to be entered at large upon the journal, and 
proceed, at its convenience, to consider the question pending, which shall 
be in this form: "Shall the bill pass, the objections of the governor thereto 
notwithstanding?" The vote upon this question shall be taken by yeas 
and nays, and the names entered upon the journal, and if two-thirds of all 
the members elected to the house vote in the affirmative, the presiding 
officer of that house shall certify that fact on the roll, attesting the same 
by his signature, and send the bill, with the objections of the governor, to 
the other house, in which like proceedings shall be had in relation thereto; 
and if the bill receive a like majority of the votes of all the members elected 
to that house, the vote being taken by yeas and nays, the presiding officer 
thereof shall, in like manner, certify the fact upon the bill. The bill thus 
certified shall be deposited in the office of the secretary of state, as an au- 
thentic act, and shall become a law in the same manner and with like effect 
as if it had received the approval of the governor. 

Sec. 40. Whenever the governor shall fail to perform his duty, as pre- 
scribed in section twelve, article V, of this constitution, in relation to any 
bill presented to him for his approval, the general assembly ma}-, by joint 
resolution, reciting the fact of such failure and the bill at length, direct the 
secretary of state to enrol the same as an authentic act in the archives of 
the state, and such enrollment shall have the same effect as an approval by 
the governor: Provided, That such joint resolution shall not be submit- 
ted to the governor for his approval. 

Sec. 41 . Within five years after the adoption of this constitution all 
the statute laws of a general nature, both civil and criminal, shall be re- 
vised, digested, and promulgated in such manner as the general assembly 
shall direct; and a like revision, digest, and promulgation shall be made 
at the expiration of every subsequent period of ten years. 

Sec. 42. Each house shall, from time to time., publish a journal of its 
proceedings, and the yeas and nays on any question shall be taken and 
entered on the journal at the motion of any two members. Whenever the 
yeas and nays are demanded, the whole list of members shall be called, 
and the names of the'absentees shall be noted and published in the journal. 


Sec. 4o. All revenue collected and moneys received by the state from 
any source whatsoever, shall go into the treasury, and the general assem- 
bly shall have no power to divert the same, or to permit money to be drawn 
from the treasury, except in pursuance of regular appropriations made by 
law. All appropriations of money by the successive general assemblies 
shall be made in the following order: 


First, For the payment of all interest upon the bonded debt of the 
state that may become due during the term for which each general 
assembly is elected. 

Second, For the benefit of the sinking fund, which shall not be less an- 
nually than two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 

Third, For free public school purposes. 

Fourth, For the payment of the cost of assessing and collecting the 

Fifth, For the payment of the civil hst. 

Sixth, For the support of the eleemosynary institutions of the state. 

Seventh, For the pay of the general assembly, and such other purposes 
not herein prohibited, as it may deem rj xessary; but no general assembly 
shall have power to make any approj riation of money for any purpose 
whatsoever, until the respective sum^ necessary for the purposes in this 
section specified have been set apart and appropriated, or to give pri- 
ority in its action to a succeeding overi i preceding item as above enumer- 

Sec. 44. The general assembly shall have no power to contract or to 
authorize the contracting of any debt or liabiHty on behalf of the state, or 
to issue bonds or other evidences of indebtedness thereof, except in the 
following cases: 

First, In renewal of existing bonds, when they cannot be paid at matu- 
rity, out of the sinking fund or other resources. 

Second, On the occurring of an unforeseen emergency, or casual defi- 
ciency of the revenue when the temporary liability incurred, upon the rec- 
ommendation of the governor first had, shall not exceed the sum of two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars for any one year, to be paid in not 
more than two years from and after its creation. 

Third, On the occurring of any unforeseen emergency or casual defi- 
ciency of the revenue, when the temporary liability incurred or to be incur- 
red shall exceed the sum of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars for 
any one year, the general assembly ma}^ submit an act providing for the 
loan, or lor the contracting of the liability, and containing a provision for 
levying a tax sufficient to pay the interest and principal when they become 
due, (the latter in not more than thirteen years from the date of its crea- 
tion) to the qualified voters of the state, and when the act so submitted 
shall have been ratified by a two-thirds majority, at an election held for 
that purpose, due publication having been made of the provisions of the 
act for at least three months before such election, the act thus ratified 
shall be irrepealable until the debt thereby incurred shall be paid, princi- 
pal and interest. 

Sec. 45. The general assembl}'- shall have no power to give or to lend, 
or to authorize the giving or lending of the credit of the state in aid of or 
to any person, association or corporation, whether municipal or other, or to 
pledge the credit of the state in any manner whatsoever, for the payment 
of the liabilities, present or prospective, of any individual, association of 
individuals, municipal or other corporation whatsoever. 

Sec. 4(5. The general assembly shall have no power to make any 
grant, or to authorize the making of any grant of public money or thing of 
k^alue to any individual, association of individuals, municipal or other cor- 
poration whatsoever: Provided, That this shall not be so construed as to 
:)revent the grant of aid in a case of public calamity. 


Sec. 47. The general assembly shall have no power to authorize any 
county, city, town or township, or other political corporation or subdiviision 
of the state now existing, or that may be hereafter established, to lend its 
credit, or to grant public money or thing of value in aid of, or to any indi- 
vidual, association or corporation whatsoever, or to become a stockholder 
in such corporation, association or company. 

Sec. 48. The general assembly shall have no power to grant, or to 
authorize anv count}'- or municipal authority to grant any extra compensa- 
tion, fee or allowance to a public officer, agent, servant or contractor, after 
service has been rendered or a contract has been entered into and per- 
formed in whole or in part, nor pay nor authorize the payment of any claim 
hereafter created against the state, or any county or municipahty of the 
state under any agreement or contract made without express authority of 
law; and all such unauthorized agreements or contracts shall be null and 

Sec. 49. The general assembly shall have no power hereafter to sub- 
scribe or authorize the subscription of stock on behalf of the state, in any 
corporation or association except for the purpose of securing loans hereto- 
fore extended to certain railroad corporations by the state. 

Sec. 50. The general assembly shall have no power to release or 
alienate the lien held by the state upon any railroad, or in anywise change 
the tenor or meaning, or pass any act explanatory thereof; but the same 
shall be enforced in accordance with the original terms upon which it was 

Sec. 51. The general assembly shall have no power to release or ex- 
tinguish, or authorize the releasing or extinguishing, in whole or in part, 
the indebtedness, liability or obligation of any corporation or individual, to 
this state, or to any county or other municipal corporation therein. 

Sec. 52. The general assembly shall have no power to make any ap- 
propriation of money, or to issue any bonds or other evidences of indebted- 
ness for the payment, or on account, or in recognition of any claims audited, 
or that may hereafter be audited by virtue of an act entitled " An act to 
audit and adjust the war debt of the state, " approved March 19, 1874, or any 
act of a similar nature, until after the claims so audited shall have been 
presented to and paid by the government of the United States to the state 
of Missouri. 

Sec. 53. The general assembly shall not pass any local or special law: 

Authorizing the creation, extension or impairing of liens: 

Regulating the affairs of counties, cities, townships, wards or school 

Changing the names of persons or places: 

Changing the venue in civil or criminal cases: 

Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering or maintaining roads, 
highways, streets or alleys: 

Relating to ferries or bridges, or incorporating ferry or bridge compa- 
nies, except for the erection of bridges crossing streams which form 
boundaries between this and any other state: 

Vacating roads, town plats, streets or alleys: 

Relating to cemeteries, grave yards or public grounds not of the state: 

Authorizing the adoption or legitimation of children: 

Locating or changing county seats: 

Incorporating cities, towns or villages, or changing their charters: 


For the opening and conducting of elections, or fixing or changing the 
places of voting: 

Granting divorces: 

Erecting new townships, or changing township lines, or the lines of 
school districts: 

Creating offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of officers in 
counties, cities, townships, election or school districts: 

Changing the law of descent or succeision: 

Regulating the practice or jurisdictid i of, or changing the rules of evi- 

dence in any judicial proceeding or in 

peace, sheritfs, commissioners, arbitratq s or other tribunals, or providing 

uiry before courts, justices of the 

)f debts, or the enforcing of judg- 
al sales of real estate: 

or changing methods for the collection 
ments, or pi-escribing the effect of judic. 

Regulating the fees or extending the powers and duties of aldermen, 
justices of the peace, magistrates or constables: 

Regulating the management of public schools, the building or repairing 
of school houses, and the raising of mone}?^ for such purposes: 

Fixing the rate of interest: 

Affecting the estates of minors or persons under disability: 

Remitting fines, penalties and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally 
paid into the treasury: 

Exempting property from taxation: 

Regulating labor, trade, mining or manufacturing: 

Creating corporations, or amending, renewing, extending or explaining 
the charter thereof: 

Granting to any corporation, association or individual any special or 
exclusive right, privilege or immunity, or to any corporation, association or 
individual, the right to lay down a railroad track: 

Declaring any named person of age: 

Extending the time for the assessment or collection of taxes, or other- 
wise relieving any assessor or collector of taxes from the due performance 
of their official duties, or their securities from liability: 

Giving effect to informal or invalid wills or deeds: 

Summoning or empanneling grand or petit juries: 

For limitation of civil actions: 

Legalizing the unauthorized or invalid acts of any officer or agent of 
the state, or of an}^ county or municipality thereof. In all other cases 
where a general law can be made applicable, no local or special law shall 
be enacted; and whether a general law could have been made applicable 
in any case, is hereby declared a judicial question, and as such shall be ju- 
dicially determined without regard to any legislative assertion on that 

Nor shall the general assembly indirectly enact such special or local 
law by the partial repeal of a general law; but laws repealing local or 
special acts may be passed. 

Sec. 5i. No local or special law shall be passed unless notice of the 
intention to apply therefor shall have been published in the locality where 
the matter or thing to be affected may be situated, which notice shall state 
the substance of the contemplated law, and shall be published at least 
thirty days prior to the introduction into the general assembly of such 
bill, and in the manner to be provided by law. The evidence of such 
notice having been published, shall be exhibited in the general assembly 


before such act shall be passed, and the notice shall be recited in the act 
according to its tenor. 

Sec. 55. The general assembly shall have no power, when convened 
in extra session by the governor, to act upon subjects other than those 
specially designated in the proclamation by which the session is called, or 
recommended by special message to its consideration by the governor 
after it shall have been convened. 

Sec. 56. The general assembly shall have no power to remove the 
seat of government of this state from the city of Jefferson. 

ARTICLE V. — EXECUTIVE department. 

Section 1. The executive department shall consist of a governor, 
lieutenant governor, secretary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, 
attorney general and superintendent of public schools, all ot' whom, except 
the lieutenant governor, shall reside at the seat of government during 
their term of office, and keep the public records, books and papers there, 
and shall perform such duties as may be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 2. The term of office of the governor, lieutenant governor, sec- 
retary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, attorney general and super- 
intendent of public schools, shall be four years from the second Monday 
of January next after their election, and until their successors are elected 
and qualified; and the governor and state treasurer shall be ineligible to 
re-election as their own successors. At the general election to be held in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six, and every four 
years thereafter, all of such officers, except the superintendent of public 
schools, shall be elected, and the superintendent of public schools shall be 
elected at the general election in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
seventy-eight, and every four years thereafter. 

Sec. 3. The returns of every election for the above named officers 
shall be sealed up and transmitted by the returning officers to the secre- 
tary of state, directed to the speaker of the house of representatives, who 
shall immediately, after the organization of the house, and before proceed- 
ing to other business, open and publish the same in the presence of a 
majority of each house of the general assembly, who shall for that pur- 
pose assemble in the hall of the house of representatives. The person 
having the highest number of votes for either of said offices shall be 
declared duly elected; but if two or more shall have an equal and the 
highest number of votes, the general assembly shall, b}' joint vote, choose 
one of such persons for said office. 

Sec. 4. The supreme executive power shall be vested in a chief mag- 
istrate, who shall be styled "the governor of the state of Missouri." 

Sec. 5. The governor shall be at least thirty-five years old, a male, 
and shall have been a citizen of the United States ten years, and a resi- 
dent of this state seven years next before his election. 

Sec. 6. The governor shall take care that the laws are distributed and 
faithfully executed; and he shall be a conservator of the peace through- 
out the state. 

Sec. 7. The governor shall be commander-in-chief of the militia of 
this state, except when they shall be called into the service of the United 
States, and may call out the same to execute the laws, suppress insurrec- 
tion and repel invasion; but he need not command in person unless 
directed so to do by a resolution of the general assembly. 


Sec. 8. The governor shall have power to grant reprieves, commuta- 
tions and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses, except treason and 
cases of impeachment, upon such condition and with such restrictions and 
limitations as he may think proper, subject to such regulations as may be 
provided by law relative to the manner of applying for pardons. He shall, 
at each session of the general assembly, communicate to that body each 
case of reprieve, commutation or pardon granted, stating the name of the 
convict, the crime of which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, 
the date of the commutation, pardon or reprieve, and the reason for grant- 
ing the same. 

Sec. 9. The governor shall, from time to time, give to the general 
assembly information relative to the state of the government, and shall 
recommend to its consideration such measures as he shall deem necessary 
and expedient. On extraordinary occasions he may convene the general 
assembly by proclamation, wherein he shall state specifically each matter 
concerning which the action of that body is deemed necessary. 

Sec. 10. The governor shall, at the commencement of each session of 
the general assembly, and at the close of his term of office, give informa- 
tion by message, of the condition of the state, and shall recommend such 
measures as he shall deem expedient. He shall account to the general 
assembly, in such manner as may be prescribed by law, for all moneys 
received and paid out by him from any funds subject to his order, with 
vouchers; and at the commencement of each regular session, present esti- 
mates of the amount of money required to be raised by taxation for all 

Sec 11. When any office shall become vacant, the governor, unless 
otherwise provided by law, shall appoint a person to fill such vacancy, 
who shall continue in office until a successor shall have been duly elected 
or appointed and qualified according to law. 

Sec 12. The governor shall consider all bills and joint resolutions, 
which, having been passed by both houses of the general assembly, shall 
be presented to him. He shall, within ten days after the same shall have 
been presented to him, return to the bouse in which they respectively 
originated, all such bills and joint resolutions, with his approval endorsed 
thereon, or accompanied by his objections: Provided^ That if the general 
assembly shall finally adjourn within ten days after such presentation, 
the governor may, within thirty days thereafter, return such bills and res- 
f'lutions to the office of the secretary of state, with his approval or reasons 
for disapproval. 

Sec 1-3. If any bill presented to the governor contain several items 
of appropriation of money, he may object to one or more items while 
approving other portions of the bill. In such case he shall append to the 
bill, at the time of signing it, a statement of the items to which he objects, 
and the appropriations so objected to shall not take effect. If the general 
assembly be in session, he shall transmit to the house in which the bill 
originated a copy of such statement, and the items objected to shall be 
separately reconsidered. If it be not in session, then he shall transmit the 
same within thirty days to the office of secretary of state, with his approval 
or reasons for disapproval. 

Sec 14. Every resolution to which the concurrence of the senate and 
house of representatives may be necessary, except on questions of adjourn- 
ment, of going into joint session, and of amending this constitution, shall 


be presented to the governor, and before the same shall take effect, shall 
be proceeded upon in the same manner as in the case of a bill: Provided^ 
That no resolution shall have the effect to repeal, extend, alter or amend 
anv law. 

Sec. 15. The lieutenant governor shall possess the same qualifications 
as the governor, and by \'irtue of his office shall be president of the senate. 
In committee of the whole he may debate all questions; and when there 
is an equal division he shall give the casting vote in the senate, and also in 
joint vote of both houses. 

Sec. 16. In case of death, conviction, or impeachment, failure to qual- 
ifv, resignation, absence from the state, or other disability of the governor, 
the DOwers, duties, and emoluments of the office for the residue of the 
terrn, or until the disability shall be removed, shall devolve upon the lieu- 
tenant governor. 

Sec. 17. The senate shall choose a president ^ro tempore to preside in 
cases of the absence or impeachment of the lieutenant-governor, or when 
he shall hold the office of governor. If there be no lieutenant-governor, 
or the lieutenant governor shall, for any of the causes specified in section 
sixteen, of this article, become incapable of performing the duties of the 
office, the president of the senate shall act as governor until the vacancy 
is filled, or the disability removed ; and if the president of the senate, for 
any of the above named causes, shall become incapable of performing the 
duties of governor, the same shall devolve upon the speaker of the house 
of representatives, in the same manner, and with the same powers and 
compensation as are prescribed in the case of the office devolving upon 
the lieutenant-governor. 

Sec. 18. The lieutenant-governor, or the president -pro tempore of the 
senate, while presiding in the senate, shall receive the same compen- 
sation as shall be allowed to the speaker of the house of representatives. 

Sec. 19. No person shall be eligible to the office of secretary of state, 
state auditor, state treasurer, attorney-general, or superintendent of public 
schools, unless he be a male citizen of the United States, and at least 
twenty-five years old, and shall have resided in this state at least five years 
next before his election. 

Sec. 20. The secretary of state shall be the custodian of the seal of 
the state, and authenticate therewith all official acts of the governor, his 
approval of laws excepted. The said seal shall be called the "Great Seal 
of the State of Missouri," and the emblems and devices thereof, hereto- 
fore prescribed by law, shall not be subject to change. 

Sec. 21. The secretary of state shall keep a register of the official acts 
of the governor, and when necessary, shall attest them, and lay copies of 
the same, together with copies of all papers relative thereto, before either 
house of the general assembly whenever required to do so. 

Sec. 22. An account shall be kept by the officers of the executive 
department of all moneys and choses in action disbursed, or otherwise dis- 
posed of by them severally, from all sources, and for every service per- 
formed; and a semi-annual report thereof shall be made to the governor 
under oath. The governor may at any time require information, in writ- 
ing, under oath, from the officers of the executive department, and all 
officers and managers of state institutions, upon any subject relating to 
the condition, management and expenses of their respective offices and 
institutions; which information, when so required, shall be furnished by 


such officers and manac^ers, and any officer or manager who at any time 
shall make a false report, shall be guilty of perjury and punished accord- 

SiEC. 23. The governor shall commission all officers not otherwise pro- 
vided for by law. All commissions shall run in the name and by the 
authority of the state of Missouri, be signed by the governor, sealed with 
the great seal of the state of Missouri, and attested by the secretary of state. 

Sec. 24. The officers named in this article shall receive for Iheir ser- 
vices a salary to be established by law, which shall not be increased or 
diminished during their official terms; and they shall not, after the expir- 
ation of the terms of those in office at the adoption of this constitution, 
receive to their own use any fees, costs, perquisites of office, or other com- 
pensation. All fees that may hereafter be payable by law for any service 
performed by anv officer provided for in this article shall be paid in 
advance into the state treasury. 

Sec. 25. Contested elections of governor and lieutenant-governor 
shall be decided by a joint vote of both houses of the general assembly, 
in such manner as may be provided by law ; and contested elections of 
secretary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, attorney-general, and su- 
perintendent of public schools shall be decided before such tribunal, and 
in such manner as may be provided by law. 


Section 1. The judicial power of the state, as to matters of in:--' r-nJ 
equity, except as in this constitution otherwise provided, shall be v-:-.j^ 
in a supreme court, the St. Louis court of appeals, circuit courts, crim- 
inal courts, probate courts, county courts, and municipal corporation courts. 

Sec. 2. The supreme court, except in cases otherwise directed by this 
constitution, shall have appellate jurisdiction only, which shall be co-ex- 
tensive with the state, under the restrictions and limitations in this consti- 
tution provided. 

Sec. 3. The supreme court shall have a general superintending con- 
trol over all inferior courts. It shall have power to issue writs of habeas 
corpus, mandamus, quo warranto, certiorari, and other original remedial 
writs, and to hear and determine the same. 

Sec. 4. The judges of the supreme court shall hold office for the term 
of ten years. The judge oldest in commission shall be chief justice of the 
court; and, if there be more than one commission of the same date, the 
court may select the chief justice from the judges holding the same. 

Sec. 5. The supreme court shall consist of five judges, any three of 
whom shall constitute a quorum; and said judges shall be conservators of 
the peace throughout the state, and shall be elected by the qualified voters 

Sec. 6. The judges of the supreme court shall be citizens of the 
United States, not less than thirty years old, and shall have been citizens 
of this state for five years next preceding their election or appointment, 
and shall be learned in the law. 

Sec. T. The full terms of the judges of the supreme court shall com- 
mence on the first day of Tanuarv next ensuin t their election, and those 
elected to fill any vacancy shall also enter upon the discharge of their 
dulics on the first day of January next ensuing such election. Those ap- 
pointed shall enter upon the discharge of their duties as soon as qualified. 


Sec. S. The present judges of the supreme court shall remain in 
office until the expiration of their respective terms of office. To fill their 
places as their terms expire, one judge shall be elected at the general 
election in eighteen hundred and seventy-six, and one every two years 

Sec 9. The supreme court shall be held at the seat of government at 
such times as may be prescribed by law^; and until otherwise directed by 
law, the terms of said court shall commence on the third Tuesday in Octo- 
ber and April of each year. 

Sec. 10. The state shall provide a suitable court room at the seat of 
government, in which the supreme court shall hold its sessions; also a 
clerk's office, furnished offices for the judges, and the use of the state 

Sec. 11. If, in any cause pending in the supreme court, or the St. 
Louis court of appeals, the judges sitting shall be equally divided in opin- 
ion, no judgment shall be entered therein based on such division ; but the 
parties to the cause may agree upon some person, learned in the law, to 
act as special judge in the cause, who shall therein sit with the court, and 
give decision in the same manner and with the same effect as one of the 
judges. If the parties cannot agree upon a special judge, the court shall 
appoint one. 

Sec. 12. There is hereby established in the city of St. Louis an appel- 
late court, to be known as the " St. Louis court of appeals," the jurisdic- 
tion of which shall be coextensive with the city of St. Louis and the coun- 
ties of St. Louis, St. Charles, Lincoln and Warren. Said court shall have 
■power to issue writs of habeas corpus, quo warranto, mandamus, certiorari, 
and other original remedial writs, and to hear and determine the same; and 
shall have a superintending control over all inferior courts of record in said 
counties. Appeals shall lie from the decisions of the St. Louis court of ap- 
peal? to the supreme court, and writs of error may issue from the supreme 
court to said court in the following cases only: In all cases where the 
amount in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum of two thousand five 
hundred dollars; in cases involving the construction of the constitution of 
the United States or of this state; in cases where the validity of a treaty or 
statute of, or authorit}- exercised under the United States is drawn in ques- 
tion ; in cases involving the construction of the revenue laws of this state, 
or the title to any office under this state; in cases involving title to real 
estate; in cases w^here a county or other political subdivision of the state, 
or an}' state officer is a party, and in all cases of felony. 

Sec 13. The St. Louis court of appeals shall consist of three judges, 
to be elected by the qualified voters of the city of St. Louis, and the coun- 
ties of St. Louis, St. Charles, Lincoln and Warren, who shall hold their 
offices for the period of twelve years. They shall be residents of the dis- 
trict composed of said counties, shall possess the same qualifications as 
judges of the supreme court, and each shall receive the same compensation 
as is now, or may be, provided by law for the judges of the circuit court of 
St. Louis county, and be paid from the same sources: Provided, That 
each of said counties shall pay its proportional part of the same, according 
to its taxable property. 

Sec 14. The judges of said court shall be conservators of the peace 
throughout said counties. Any two of said judges shall constitute a quo- 
rum. There shall be two terms of said court to be held each year, on the 


first Monday of March and October, and the first teiTn of said court shall 
be held on the first Monda}- in Januar^^, 1870. 

Sec. 15. The opinions of said court shall be in writing, and shall be 
filed in the cases in which they shall be respectively made, and become 
parts of their record ; and all laws relating to the practice in the supreme 
court shall appl}^ to this court, so far as the same may be applicable. 

Sec. 16. At the first general election held in said city and counties 
after the adoption of this constitution, three judges of said court shall be 
elected, who shall determine by lot the duration of their several terms of 
office, which shall be respectively four, eight and twelve years, and certify 
the result to the secretary of state; and every four years thereafter one 
judge of said court shall be elected to hold office for the term of twelve 
years. The term of office of such judges shall begin on the first Monday 
in January next ensuing their election. The judge having the oldest 
license to practice law in this state, shall be the presiding judge of said 

Sec. 17. Upon the adoption of this constitution the governor shall 
appoint three judges for said court, who shall hold their offices until the 
first Monday of January, eighteen hundred and seventy-seven, and until 
their successors shall be duly qualified. 

Sec. 18. The clerk of the supreme court at St. Louis shall be the clerk 
of the St. Louis court of appeals until the expiration of the term for which 
he was appointed clerk of the supreme court, and until his successor shall 
be duly qualified. 

Sec. 19. All cases which may be pending in the supreme court at St. 
Louis at the time of the adoption of this constitution, which by its terms 
would come within the final appellate jurisdiction of the St. Louis court of 
appeals, shall be certified and transferred to the St. Louis court of appeals, 
to be heard and determined by said court. 

Sec. 20. All cases coming to said court by appeal, or writ of error, 
shall be triable at the expiration of fifteen days from the filing of the tran- 
script in the office of the clerk of said court. 

Sec. 21. Upon the adoption of this constitution, and after the close of 
the next regular terms of the supreme court at St. Louis and St. Joseph, as 
now established by law, the office of the clerk of the supreme court at St. 
Louis and St. Joseph shall be vacated, and said clerks shall transmit to the 
clerk of the supreme court at Jefierson City all the books, records, docu- 
ments, transcripts and papers belonging to their respective offices, except 
those required b}' section nineteen of this article, to be turned over to the 
St. Louis court of appeals: and said records, documents, transcripts and 
papers shall become part of the records, documents, transcripts and papers 
of said supreme court at Jefferson Citv, and said court shall hear and 
determine all the cases thus transferred as other cases. 

Sec. 22. The circuit court shall have jurisdiction over all criminal 
cases not otherwise provided for by law ; exclusive original jurisdiction in 
all civil cases not otherwise provided for; and such concurrent jurisdiction 
with, and appellate jurisdiction from inferior tribunals and justices of the 
peace as is or ma}^ be provided b}^ law. It shall hold its terms at such 
times and places in each county as may be by law directed; but at least 
two terms shall be held every year in each county. 

Sec 2o. The circuit court shall exercise a superintending control over 
criminal courts, probate courts, county courts, municipal corporation 


courts, justices of the peace, and all inferior tribunals in each county in 

their respective circuits. , . , . • • 

Sec. 24. The state, except as otherwise provided in this constitution, 
shall be divided into convenient circuits of contiguous counties, in each of 
which circuits one circuit judge shall be elected; and such circuits may be 
chano-ed, enlarged, diminished or abolished, from time to time, as public 
convenience may require; and whenever a circuit shall be abolished, the 
office of the judge of such circuit shall cease. 

Sec. 25. The judges of the circuit courts shall be elected by the quali- 
fied voters of each circuit; shall hold their offices for the term of six years, 
and shall reside in and be conservators of the peace within their respective 


Sec. 26. No person shall be eligible to the office of judge of the cir- 
cuit court who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, been a citi- 
zen of the United States five years, a qualified voter of this state for three 
years, and who shall not be a resident of the circuit in which he may be 
elected or appointed. 

Sec. 27. The circuit court of St. Louis county shall be composed of 
five judges, and such additional number as the general assembly may, 
from time to time, provide. Each of said judges shall sit separately for 
the trial of causes and the transaction of business in special term. The 
judges of said circuit court may sit in general term, for the purpose of 
making rules of court, and for the transaction of such ^ other business as 
may be provided by law, at such time as they may determine ; but shall have 
no power to review any order, decision or proceeding of the court in 
special term. The St. Louis court of appeals shall have exclusive jurisdic- 
tion of all appeals from, and writs of error to circuit courts of St. Charles, 
Lincoln and Warren counties, and the circuit court of St. Louis county, in 
special term, and all courts of record having criminal jurisdiction in said 

Sec. 28. In any circuit composed of a single county, the general assem- 
bly may, from time time, provide for one or more additional judges, as the 
business shall require; each of whom shall separately try cases and per- 
form all other duties imposed upon circuit judges. 

Sec. 29. If there be a vacancy in the office of judge of any circuit, or 
if the judge be sick, absent, or from any cause unable to hold any term, or 
part of term of court, in any county in his circuit, such term, or part of 
term of court, may be held by a judge of any other circuit; and at the re- 
quest of the judge of any circuit, any term of court, or part of term in his 
circuit, may be held by the judge of any other circuit, and in all such cases, 
or in any case where the judge cannot preside, the general assembly shall 
make such additional provision for holding court as may be found necessary. 

Sec. 30. The election of judges of all courts of record shall be held as 
is or may be provided by law, and in case of a tie or contested election be- 
tween the candidates, the same shall be determined as prescribed by law. 

Sec. 31. The general assembly shall have no power to establish crim- 
inal courts, except in counties having a population exceeding fifty thousand. 

Sec. 32. In case the office of judge of any court of record becomes va- 
cant by death, resignation, removal, failure to qualify, or otherwise, such 
vacancy shall be filled in the manner provided by law. 

Sec. 33. The judges of the supreme, appellate and circuit courts, 
and of all other courts of record receiving a salary, shall, at stated times, 


receive such compensation for their services as is or may he prescribed by 
law; but it shall not be increased or diminished during the period for which 
they were elected. 

Sec. 34. The general assembly shall establish in every county a pro- 
bate court, which shall be a court of record, and consist of one judge, who 
shall be elected. Said court shall have jurisdiction over all matters per- 
taining to probate business, to granting letters testamentary and of admin- 
istration, the appointment of guardians and curators of minors and persons 
of unsound mind, settHng the accounts of executors, administrators, cura- 
tors and guardians, and the sale or leasing of lands by administrators, 
curators and guardians; and, also, jurisdiction over all matters relating to 
apprentices: Provided, That until the general assembly shall provide by 
law for a uniform system of probate courts, the jurisdiction of probate 
courts heretofore established shall remain as now provided by law. 

.Sec. 85. Probate courts shall be uniform in their organization, juris- 
diction, duties and practice, except that a separate clerk may be provided 
for, or the judge may be required to act, ex-qfficio, as his own clerk. 

Sec. 36. In each county there shall be a county court, which shall be 
a court of record, and shall have jurisdiction to transact all county and 
such other business as may be prescribed by law. The court shall consist 
of one or more judges, not exceeding three, of whom the probate judge 
may be one, as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 37. In each county there shall be appointed, or elected, as many 
justices of the peace as the public good may require, whose powers, duties 
and duration in office shall be regiilated by law. 

Sec. 38. All writs and process shall run, and all prosecutions shall be 
conducted in the name of the " state of Missouri ;" all writs shall be 
attested by the clerk of the court from which they shall be issued; and all 
indictments shall conclude "against the peace and dignity of the state." 

Sec. 39. The St. Louis court of appeals and supreme court shall 
appoint their own clerks. The clerks of all other courts of record shall 
be elective, for such terms and m such manner as may be directed by law ; 
■provided, that the term of office of no existing clerk of any court of record, 
not abolished by this constitution, shall be affected by such law. 

Sec. 40. In case there be a tie, or a contested election between can- 
didates for clerk of any court of record, the same shall be determined 
in such manner as may be directed by law. 

Sec. 41. In case of the inability of any judge of a court of record to 
discharge the duties of his office with efficiency, by reason of continued 
sickness, or physical or mental infirmity, it shall be in the power of the 
general assembly, two thirds of the members of each house concurring, 
with the approval of the governor, to remove such judge from office; but 
each house shall state on its respective journal the cause for which it shall 
wish his removal, and give him notice thereof, and he shall have the right 
to be heard in his defense, in such manner as the general assembly shall 
bv law direct. 

Sec. 42. All courts now existing in this state, not named or provided 
for in this constitution, shall continue until the expiration of the terms of 
office of the several judges; and as such terms expire, the business of said 
court shall vest in the court having jurisdiction thereof in the counties 
where said courts now exist, and all the records and papers shall be trans- 
ferred to the proper courts. 


Sec. 43. The supreme court of the state shall designate what opin- 
ions delivered by the court, or the judge thereof, may be printed at the ex- 
pense of the state; and the general assembly shall make no provision for 
pavment by the state for the publication of any case decided by said court, 
not so designated. 

Sec. 44. All judicial decisions in this state shall be free for publica- 
tion by any person. 


Section 1. The governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, 
state auditor, state treasurer, attorney general, superintendent of pub- 
lic schools, and judges of the supreme, circuit and criminal courts, and 
of the St. Louis court of appeals, shall be liable to impeachment for high 
crimes or misdemeanors, and for misconduct, habits of drunkenness, or op- 
pression in office. 

Sec. 2. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of 
impeachment. All impeachments shall be tried by the senate, and, when 
sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be sworn to do justice according 
to law and evidence. When the governor of the state is on trial, the chief 
justice of the supreme court shall preside. No person shall be convicted 
without the concurrence of two-thirds of the senators present. But judg- 
ment in such cases shall not extend any further than removal from office, 
and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust or profit under this 
state. The party, whether convicted or acquitted, shall, nevertheless, be 
liable to prosecution, trial, judgment an^ punishment according to law. 


Section 1. The general election shall be held biennially on the Tues- 
da}"- next following the first Monday in November. The first general elec- 
tion under this constitution shall be held on that day, in the year one thou- 
sand eight hundred and seventy-six; but the general assembly may, by 
law, fix a different day, two-thirds of all the members of each house con- 
sentinij thereto. 

Sec 2. Every male citizen of the United States, and every male per- 
son of foreign birth, who may have declared his intention to become a citi- 
zen of the United States according to law, not less than one year nor more 
than five j'ears before he offers to vote, who is over the age of twenty-one 
years, possessing the following qualifications, shall be entitled to vote at 
all elections by the people: 

Firsts He shall have resided in the state one year immediately preceding- 
the election at which he offers to vote. 

Second^ He shall have resided in the county, city or town where he 
shall offer to vote, at least sixtv daj^s immediately preceding the election. 

Sec. ?>. All elections bv the people shall be by ballot; every ballot voted 
shall be numbered in the order in which it shall be received, and the 
number recorded by the election officers on the list of voters, opposite the 
name of the voter who presents the ballot. The election officers shall be 
sworn or affirmed not to disclose how an}' voter shall have voted, unless 
required to do so as witnesses in a judicial proceeding: Provided, That in all 
cases of contested elections the ballots cast may be counted, compared with 
the list of voters, and examined under such safeguards and regulations as- 
may be prescribed by law. 


Sec. 4. Voters shall, in all cases except treason, felony or breach of 
the peace, be privileged from arrest during then* attendance at elections, 
and in going to and returning therefrom. 

Sec. 5. The general assembly shall provide, by law, for the registra- 
tion of all voters in cities and counties having a population of more than 
one hundred thousand inhabitants, and may provide for such registration in 
cities having a population exceeding twenty-five thousand inhabitants and 
not exceeding one hundred thousand, but not otherwise. 

Sec. 6. All elections, by persons in a representative capacity, shall be 
viva voce. 

Sec. 7. For the purpose of voting, no person shall be deemed to have 
gained a residence by reason of his presence, or lost it by reason of his ab 
sence, while employed in the service, either civil or military, of this state, 
or of the United States, nor while engaged in the navigation of the waters 
of the state or of the United States, or of the high seas, nor while a student 
of any institution of learning, nor while kept in a poor house or other asy- 
lum at public expense, nor while confined in public prison. 

Sec. 8. No person, while kept at any poor house, or other asylum, at 
public expense, nor while confined in any public prison, shall be entitled to 
vote at any election under the laws of this state. 

Sec. 9. The trial and determination of contested elections of all public 
officers, whether state, judicial, municipal, or local, except governor and 
lieutenant governor, shall be by the courts of law, or by one or more of the 
judges thereof. The general assembly shall, by general law, designate the 
court or judge by whom the several classes of election contests shall be 
tried, and regulate the manner of trial and all matters incident thereto ; but 
no such law, assigning jurisdiction or regulating its exercise, shall apply to 
any contest arising out of any election held before said law shall take effect. 

Sec. 10. The general assembly may enact laws excluding from the 
right of voting all persons convicted of felony or other infamous crime, or 
misdemeanors connected with the exercise of the right of suffrage. 

Sec. 11. No officer, soldier or marine, in the regular army or navy of 
the United States, shall be entitled to vote at an}^ election in this state. 

Sec. 12. No person shall be elected or appointed to any office in this 
state, civil or military, who is not a citizen of the United States, and who 
shall not have resided in this state one year next preceding his election or 

ARTICLE IX. — COUNTIES, cities and towns. 

Section 1. The several counties of this state, as they now exist, are 
hereby recognized as legal subdivisions of the state. 

Sec. 2. The general assembly shall have no power to remove the 
count}' seat of any county, but the removal of county seats shall be pro- 
vided for by general law; and no county seat shall be removed unless two- 
thirds of the qualified voters of the county, voting on the proposition at a 
general election, vote therefor; and no such proposition shall be sub- 
mitted oftener than once in five years. All additions to a town, which 
is a county seat, shall be included, considered and regarded as part of the 
county seat. 

Sec. 3. The general assembly shall have no power to establish any 
new county with a territory of less than four hundred and ten square miles, 
nor to reduce any county, now established, to a less area or less population 


than required for a ratio of representation existing at the time; but when 
a new county is formed, having a population less than a ratio of represent- 
ation, it shall be attached for representative purposes to the county from 
which the greatest amount of territory is taken until such ratio shall be 
obtained. No county shall be divided or have any portion stricken there- 
from, without submitting the question to a vote of the people of the county, 
nor unless a majorit}^ of all the qualified voters of the county or counties 
thus aflected, voting on the question, shall vote therefor; nor shall any new 
county be established, any line of which shall run within ten miles of the 
then existing county seat of any county. In all cases of the estabhshment 
of an)'- new county, the new county shall be held for and obliged to pay its 
ratable proportion of all the liabilities then existing of the county or coun- 
ties from which said new county shall be formed. 

Sec. 4. No part of the territory of any county shall be stricken ofi'and 
added to an adjoining county, without submitting the question to the qual- 
ified voters of the counties immediately interested, nor unless a majority of 
all the qualified voters of the counties thus affected, voting on the question, 
shall vote therefor. When any part of a county is stricken off and attached 
to another county, the part stricken off shall be holden for, and obliged to 
pay its proportion of all the liabilities then existing of the county from 
which it is taken. 

Sec. 5. When any new county, formed from contiguous territor}'^ taken 
from older counties, or when any county to which territory shall be added 
taken from an adjoining county, shall fail to pay the proportion of indebt- 
edness of such territory, to the county or counties from which it is taken, 
then it may be lawful for any county from which such territory has been 
taken, to levy and collect, by taxation, the due proportion of indebtedness 
of such territory, in the same manner as if the territory had not been 
stricken off. 

Sec. 6. No county, township, cit)^ or other municipalit}^, shall here- 
after become a subscriber to the capital stock of any railroad or other cor- 
poration or association, or make appropriation or donation, or loan its credit 
to, or in aid of any such corporation or association, or to or in aid of any 
college or institution of learning, or other institution, whether created for 
or to be controlled by the state or others. All authority heretofore con- 
ferred for any of the purposes aforesaid by the general assembly, or by 
the charter of any corporation, is hereby repealed: Provided, however , 
That nothing in this constitution contained shall affect the right of any 
such municipality to make such subscription, where the same has been au- 
thorized under existing laws by a vote of the people of such municipality 
prior to its adoption, or to prevent the issue of renewal bonds or the use of 
such other means as are or may be prescribed by law, for the liquidation or 
payment of such subscription, or of any existing indebtedness. 

Sec. 7. The general assembly shall provide, by general laws, for the 
organization and classification of cities and towns. The number of such 
classes shall not exceed four; and the power of each class shall be defined 
by general laws, so that all such municipal corporations of the same class 
shall possess the same powers and be subject to the same restrictions. The 
general assembly shall also make provisions, by general law, whereby any 
city, town or village, existing by virtue of any special or local law, may 
elect to become subject to, and be governed by, the general laws relating 
to such corporations. 


Sec. S. The general assembly may provide, by general law, for town- 
ship organization, under which any county may organize whenever a ma- 
jorit}' of the legal voters of such county, voting at any general election, 
shall so determine ; and whenever any county shall adopt township organ- 
ization, so much of this constitution as provides for the management of 
county affairs, and the assessment and collection of the revenue by county 
officers, in conflict with such general law for township organization, may 
be dispensed with, and the business of said county, and the local concerns 
of the several townships therein, may be transacted in such manner as may 
be prescribed b}'' law: Provided, That the justices, of the county court in 
such case shall not exceed three in number. 

Sec. 9. In any county which shall have adopted " Township Organiz- 
ation," the question of continuing the same may be submitted to a vote of 
the electors of such count}- at a general election, in the manner that shall 
be provided by law; and if a majority of all the votes cast upon that 
question shall be against township organization, it shall cease in said 
county; and all laws in force in relation to counties not having township 
organization shall immediately take effect and be in force in such county. 

Sec. 10. There shall be elected by the qualified voters in each county, 
at the time and places of electing representatives, a sheriff and coroner. 
They shall serve for two years, and until their successors be duly elected 
and qualified, unless sooner removed for malfeasance in office, and shall be 
eligible only four years in any period of six. Before entering on the duties 
of their office, they shall give security in the amount and in such manner 
as shall be prescribed by law. Whenever a county shall be hereafter 
established, the governor shall appoint a sheriff and a coroner therein, who 
shall continue in office until the next succeeding general election, and until 
their successors shall be duly elected and qualified. 

Sec 11. Whenever a vacancy shall happen in the office of sheriff or 
coroner, the same shall be filled by the county court. If such vacancy hap- 
pen in the office of sheriff' more than nine months prior to the time of 
holding a general election, such county court shall immediately order a 
special election to fill the same, and the person by it appointed shall hold 
office until the person chosen at such election shall be duly qualified; 
otherwise, the person appointed by such county court shall hold office 
until the person chosen at such general election shall be duly qualified. 
If any vacancy happen in the office of coroner, the same shall be filled for 
the remainder of the term by such county court. No person elected or 
appointed to fill a vacancy in either of said offices shall thereby be ren- 
dered inefigible for the next succeeding terru. 

Sec. 12. The general assembly shall, by a law uniform in its opera- 
tion, provide for and regulate the fees of all county officers, and for this 
purpose may classify the counties by population. 

Sec. 13. The fees of no executive or ministerial officer of any county 
or municipality, exclusive of the salaries actually paid to his necessary 
deputies, shall exceed the sum of ten thousand dollars for any one year. 
Every such officer shall make return, quarterly, to the county court of all 
fees by him received, and of the salaries by him actually paid to his depu- 
ties or assistants, stating the same in detail, and verifying the same by his 
affidavit; and for any statement or omission in such return, contrary to 
truth, such officer shall be liable to the penalties of willful and corrupt 


Sec. 14. Except as otherwise directed by this constitution, the general 
assembly shall provide for the election or appointment of such other 
county, ' township and municipal officers, as public convenience may 
require ; and their terms of office and duties shall be prescribed by law ; 
but no term of office shall exceed four years. 

Sec. 15. In all counties having a city therein containing over one hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants, the cit}'- and county government thereof may 
be consolidated in such manner as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 16. Any city having a population of more than one hundred 
thousand inhabitants, may frame a charter for its own government, con- 
sistent with and subject to the constitution and laws of this state, by 
causing a board of thirteen freeholders, who shall have been for at least 
five years qualified voters thereof, to be elected by the qualified voters of 
such city at any general or special election; which board shall, within 
ninety days after such election, return to the chief magistrate of such city 
a draft of such charter, signed by the members of such board or a majority 
of them. Within thirty days thereafter, such proposed charter shall be 
submitted to the qualified voters of such city, at a general or special elec- 
tion, and if four-sevenths of such qualified voters voting thereat, shall rat- 
ify the same, it shall, at the end of thirty da^^s thereafter, become the char- 
ter of such city, and supersede an}'^ existing charter and amendments 
thereof. A duplicate certificate shall be made, setting forth the charter 
proposed and its ratification, which shall be signed by the chief magistrate 
of such city, and authenticated by its corporate seal. One of such certifi- 
cates shall be deposited in the office of the secretary of state, and the other, 
after being recorded in the office of the recorder of deeds for the county 
in which such city lies, shall be deposited among the archives of such city, 
and all courts shall take judicial notice thereof. Such charter, so adopted, 
may be amended by a proposal therefor, made by the law-making author- 
ities of such cit}^ published for at least thirty days in three newspapers of 
largest circulation in such cit}-, one of which shall be a newspaper printed 
in the German language, and accepted by three-fifths of the qualified 
voters of such city, voting at a general or special election, and not other- 
wise; but such charter shall always be in harmony with and subject to the 
constitution and laws of the state. 

Sec 17. It shall be a feature of all such charters that they shall pro- 
vide, among other things, for a raa3'or or chief magistrate, and two houses 
of legislation, one of which at least shall be elected by general ticket; and 
in submitting any such charter or amendment thereto to the qualified 
voters of such city, any alternative section or article may be presented for 
the choice of the voters, and may be voted on separately, and accepted or 
rejected separately, without prejudice to other articles or sections of the 
charter or any amendment thereto. 

Sec. 18. In cities or counties having more than two hundred thousand 
inhabitants, no person shall, at the same time, be a state officer and an 
officer of any county, city or other municipahty; and no person shall, at 
the same time, fill two municipal offices, either in the same or different 
municipalities; but this section shall not apply to notaries public, justices 
of the peace or officers of the militia. 

Sec 19. The corporate authorities of any county, city, or other munic- 
ipal subdivision of this state, having more than two hundred thousand in- 
habitants, which has already exceeded the limit of indebtedness prescribed 


in section twelve of article X of this constitution, may, in anticipation of 
the customary annual revenue thereof, appropriate, during any fiscal year, 
toward the general governmental expenses thereof, a sum not exceeding 
seven-eighths of the entire revenue applicable to general governmental 
purposes (exclusive of the payment of the bonded debt of such county, cit}- 
or municipality) that was actually raised by taxation alone during the pre- 
ceding fiscal year; but until such excess of indebtedness cease, no further 
bonded debt shall be incurred, except for the renewal of other bonds. 


Sec. 20. The city of St. Louis may extend its limits so as to embrace 
the parks now without its boundaries, and other convenient and contiguous 
territory, and frame a charter for the government of the city thus enlarged, 
upon the following conditions, that is to say: The council of the city and 
county court of the county of St. Louis, shall, at the request of the mayor 
of the city ofSt.Louis,meet in joint session and order an election, to be held 
as provided for general elections, by the qualified voters of the city and 
county, of a board of thirteen freeholders of such city or county, whose 
duty shall be to propose a scheme for the enlargement and definition of the 
boundaries of the city, the reorganization of the government of the county, 
the adjustment of the relations between the city thus enlarged and the 
residue of St. Louis county and the government of the city thus enlarged, 
by a charter in harmony with and subject to the constitution and laws of 
Missouri, which shall, among other things, provide for a chief executive 
and two houses of legislation, one of which shall be elected by general 
ticket, which scheme and charter shall be signed in duplicate by said board 
or a majority of them, and one of them returned to the mayor of the city 
and the other to the presiding justice of the county court within ninety 
days after the election of such board. Within thirty days thereafter the 
city council and county court shall submi*: such scheme to the qualified 
voters of the whole county, and such charter to the qualified voters of the 
city so enlarged, at an election to be held not less than twenty nor more 
than thirty days after the order therefor; and if a majority of such qualified 
voters, voting at such election, shall ratify such scheme and charter, then 
such scheme shall become the organic law of the county and city, and such 
charter the organic law of the city, and at the end of sixty days thereafter 
shall take the place of and supersede the charter of St. Louis, and all 
amendments thereof, and all special laws relating to St. Louis county in- 
consistent with such scheme. 

Sec. 21. A copy of such scheme and charter, with a certificate thereto 
appended, signed by the mayor and authenticated by the seal of the city, 
and also signed by the presiding justice of the county court and authenti- 
cated by the seal of the county, setting forth the submission of such scheme 
and charter to the qualified voters of such county and city and its ratifica- 
tion, by them, shall be made in duplicate, one of which shall be deposited 
in the office of the secretary of state, and the other, after being recorded in 
the office of the recorder of deeds of St. Louis county, shall be deposited 
among the archives of the city, and thereafter all courts shall take judicial 
notice thereof. 

Sec. 23. The charter so ratified may be amended at intervals of not 
less than two years, by proposals therefor, submitted by the law-making 
authorities of the city to the qualified voters thereof at a general or special 


election, held at least sixty days after the publication of such proposals, 
and accepted by at least three-fifths of the qualified voters voting thereat. 

Sec. 23. Such charter and amendments shall always be in harmony 
with, and subject to the constitution and laws of Missouri, except only, 
that provision may be made for the graduation of the rate of taxation for 
city purposes in the portions of the city which are added thereto by the 
proposed enlargement of its boundaries. In the adjustment of the rela- 
tions between city and county, the city shall take upon itse.t Mie entire 
park tax; and in consideration of the city becoming the propriccor of all 
the county buildings and property within its enlarged Hmits, it shall as- 
sume the whole of the existing county debt, and thereafter the city and 
county of St. Louis shall be independent of each other. The city shall be 
exempted from all county taxation. The judges of the county court shall 
be elected by the qualified voters outside of the city. The city, as en- 
larged, shall be entitled to the same representation in the general assem- 
bly, collect the state revenue, and perform all other functions in relation to 
the state in the same manner as if it were a county, as in this constitution 
defined ; and the residue of the county shall remain a legal county of the 
state of Missouri, under the name of the county of St. Louis. Until the 
next apportionment for senators and representatives in the general assem- 
bly, the city shall have six senators and fifteen representatives, and the 
county one senator and two representatives, the same being the number of 
senators and representatives to which the county of St. Louis, as now or- 
ganized, is entitled under sections eight and eleven, of article IV, of this 

Sec. 24. The county and city of St. Louis, as now existing, shall con- 
tinue to constitute the eighth judicial circuit, and the jurisdiction of all 
courts of record, except the county court, shall continue until otherwise 
provided by law. 

Sec. 25. Notwithstanding the provisions of this article, the general 
assembly shall have the same power over the city and county of St. Louis 
that it has over other cities and counties of this state. 


Section 1. The taxing power may be exercised by the general as- 
sembly for state purposes, and by counties and other municipal corpora- 
tions, under authority granted to them by the general assembly, for 
county and other corpqrate purposes. 

Sec. 2. The power to tax corporations and corporate property shall 
not be surrendered or suspended by act of the general assembty. 

Sec. 3. Taxes may be levied and collected for public purposes only. 
They shall be uniform upon the same class of subjects within the territorial 
limits of the authority levjdng the tax; and all taxes shall be levied and 
collected by general laws. 

Sec. 4. All property subject to taxation shall be taxed in proportion 
to its value. 

Sec. 5. All railroad corporations in this state, or doing business 
therein, shall be subject to taxation for state, county, school, municipal and 
other purposes, on the real and personal property owned or used by them, 
and on their gross earnings, their net earnings, their franchises and their 
capital stock. 

Sec. 6. The property, real and personal, of the state, counties and 


Other municipal corporations, and cemeteries, shall be exempt from taxa- 
tion. Lots in incorporated cities or towns, or within one mile of the limits 
of any such city or town, to the extent of one acre, and lots one mile or 
more distant from such cities or towns, to the extent of five acres, with the 
buildings thereon, ma}^ be exempted from taxation, when the same are 
used exclusively for religious worship, for schools, or for purposes purely 
charitable; also, such property, real or personal, as may be used exclusively 
for agricultural or horticultural societies: Provided, That such exemptions 
shall be only by general law. 

Sec. 7. All laws exempting property from taxation, other than the 
property above enumerated, shall be void. 

Sec. 8. The state tax on property, exclusive of the tax necessary to 
pay the bonded debt of the state, shall not exceed twenty cents on the 
hundred dollars valuation; and whenever the taxable property of the state 
shall amount to nine hundred million dollars, the rate shall not exceed fif- 
teen cents. 

Sec. 9. No county, city, town, or other municipal corporation, nor the 
inhabitants thereof, nor the property therein, shall be released or discharged 
from their or its proportionate share of taxes to be levied lor state pur- 
poses, nor shall commutation for such taxes be authorized in any form 

Sec. 10. The general assembly shall not impose taxes upon counties, 
cities, towns or other municipal corporations; or upon the inhabitants or 
property thereof, for county, city, town or other municipal purposes; but 
may, by general laws, vest in the corporate authorities thereof, the power 
to assess and collect taxes for such purposes. 

Sec. 11. Taxes for county, city, town and school purposes, may be 
levied on all subjects and objects of taxation; but the valuation of property 
therefor shall not exceed the valuation of the same property in such town, 
city or school district for state and county purposes. For county purposes 
the annual rate on property, in counties having six million dollars or less, 
shall not, in the aggregate, exceed fifty cents on the hundred dollars valua- 
tion ; in counties having six million dollars and under ten milHon dollars, 
said rate shall not exceed forty cents on the hundred dollars valuation ; in 
counties having ten million dollars and under thirty million dollars, said 
rate shall not exceed fifty cents on the hundred dollars valuation ; and in 
counties having thirty million dollars or more, said rate shall not exceed 
thirty-five cents on the hundred dollars valuation. For city and town pur- 
poses the annual rate on property in cities and towns having thirty thou- 
sand inhabitants or more, shall not, in the aggregate, exceed one hundred 
cents on the hundred dollars valuation; in cities and towns having less 
than thirty thousand and over ten thousand inhabitants, said rate shall 
not exceed sixt}^ cents on the hundred dollars valuation; in cities and 
towns having less than ten thousand and more than one thousand inhabi- 
tants, said rate shall not exceed fifty cents on the hundred dollars valuation; 
and in towns having one thousand inhabitants or less, said rate shall not 
exceed twenty-five cents on the hundred valuation. For school purposes in 
districts, the annual rate on property shall not exceed forty cents on the 
hundred dollars valuation: Provided, The aforesaid atmual rates for school 
purposes ma}^ be increased, in districts formed of cities and towns, to an 
amount not to exceed one dollar on the hundred dollars valuation ; and in 
other districts to an amount not to exceed sixty-five cents on the hundred 


dollars valuation, on the condition that a majority of the voters who are 
tax-payers, voting at an election held to decide the question, vote for said 
increase. For the purpose of erecting public buildings in counties, cities 
or school districts, the rates of taxation herein limited may be increased 
when the rate of such increase and the purpose for which it is intended 
shall have been submitted to a vote of the people, and two-thirds of the 
qualified voters of such county, city, or school district, voting at such elec- 
tion shall vote therefor. The rate herein allowed to each county shall be 
ascertained by the amount of taxable property therein, according to the 
last assessment for state and county purposes, and the rate allowed to each 
city or town by the number of inhabitants, according to the last census 
taken under the authorit}^ of the state, or of the United States; said re- 
strictions, as to rates, shall apply to taxes of every kind and description, 
whether general or special, except taxes to pay valid indebtedness now ex- 
isting or bonds which may be issued in renewal of such indebtedness. 

Sec. 12. No county, city, town, township, school district or other polit- 
ical corporation or subdivision of the state, shall be allowed to become 
indebted in any manner or for any purpose to an amount exceeding in an}'- 
year the income and revenue provided for such year, without the assent of 
two-thirds the voters thereof, voting at an election to be held for that 
purpose; nor in cases requiring such assent shall any indebtedness be 
allowed to be incurred to an amount including existing indebtedness, in 
the aggregate, exceeding five per centum on the value of the taxable prop- 
erty therein, to be ascertained by the assessment next before the last as- 
sessment for state and county purposes, previous to the incurring of such 
indebtedness: Provided^ That with such assent any county may be allowed 
to become indebted to a larg^er amount for the erection of a court house or 
jail: And provided further^ That any county, city, town, township, school 
district or other political corporation, or subdivision of the state, incurring 
any indebtedness, requiring the assent of the voters as aforesaid, shall, be- 
fore or at the time of doing so, provide for the collection of an annual tax, 
sufficient to pay the interest on such indebtedness as it falls due, and also 
to constitute a sinking fund for payment of the principal thereof, within 
twenty years from the time of contracting the same. 

Sec. 13. Private property shall not be taken or sold for the payment 
of the corporate debt of a municipal corporation. 

Sec. 14. The tax authorized by the sixth section of the ordinance 
adopted June sixth, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-five, is hereby 
abolished, and hereafter there shall be levied and collected an annual tax 
sufficient to pay the accruing interest upon the bonded debt of the state, 
and to reduce the principal thereof each year by a sum not less than two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars; the proceeds of which tax shall be paid 
into the state treasury, and appropriated and paid out for the purposes 
expressed in the first and second subdivisions of section forty-three of arti- 
cle IV of this constitution. The funds and resources now in the state in- 
terest and state sinking funds shall be appropriated to the same purposes ; 
and whenever said bonded debt is extinguished, or a sum sufficient there- 
for has been raised, the tax provided for in this section shall cease to be 

Sec. 1.5. All moneys now, or at any time hereafter, in the state treas- 
ury, belonging to the state, shall, immediately on receipt thereof, be 
deposited by the treasurer to the credit of the state for the benefit of the 


funds to which they respectively belong, in such bank or banks as he may, 
from time to time, with the approval of the governor and attorney gen- 
eral, select; the said bank or banks giving security, satisfactory to the gov- 
ernor and attorney general, for the safe keeping and payment of such 
deposit, when demanded by the state treasurer on his checks; such bank 
to pay a bonus for the use of such deposits not less than the bonus paid by 
other banks for similar deposits; and the same, together with such interest 
and profits as may accrue thereon, shall be disbursed by said treasurer for 
the purposes of the state, according to law, upon warrants drawn by the 
state auditor, and not otherwise. 

Sec. 16. The treasurer shall keep a separate account of the funds, and 
the number and amount of warrants received, and from whom; and shall 
publish, in such manner as the governor may designate, quarterly state- 
ments, showing the amount of state moneys, and where the same are kept 
or deposited. 

Sec. 17. The making of profit out of state, county, city, town or school 
district money, or using the same for any purpose not authorized by law, 
by any public officer, shall be deemed a felony, and shall be punished as 
provided by law. 

Sec. 18.' There shall be a state board of equalization, consisting of the 
governor, state auditor, state treasurer, secretary of state and attorney 
general. The duty of said board shall be to adjust and equalize the valu- 
ation of real and personal property among the several counties in the state, 
and it shall perform such other duties as are or may be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 19. No moneys shall ever be paid out of the treasury of this 
state, or any of the funds under its management, except in pursuance of 
an appropriation by law ; nor unless such payment be made, or a warrant 
shall have issued therefor, within two years after the passage of such ap- 
propriation act; and every such law, making a new appropriation, or con- 
tinuing or reviving an appropriation, shall distinctly specify the sum appro- 
priated, and the object to which it is to be applied ; and it shall not be suffi- 
cient to refer to any other law to fix such sum or object. A regular state- 
ment and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money 
shall be pubHshed from time to time. 

Sec. 20. The moneys arising from any loan, debt or liability, con- 
tracted by the state, or any county, city, town, or other municipal corpora- 
tion, shall be applied to the purposes for which they were obtained,' or to 
the repayment of such debt or liability, and not otherwise. 

Sec. 21. No corporation, company or association, other than those 
formed for benevolent, religious, scientific, or educational purposes, shall be 
created or organized under the laws of this state, unless the persons named 
as corporators shall, at or before the filing of the articles of association or 
incorporation, pay into the state treasury fifty dollars for the first fifty 
thousand dollars or less of capital stock, and a further sum of five dollars 
for every additional ten thousand dollars of its capital stock. And no such 
corporation, company or association shall increase its capital stock without 
first paying into the treasury five dollars for every ten thousand dollars of 
increase: Provided^ That nothing contained in this section shall be con- 
strued to prohibit the general assembly from levying a further tax on the 
franchises of such corporation. 



Section 1. A general diffusion of knowledge and intelligence being 
essential to the preservation of the rights and liberties of the people, the 
o-eneral assembly shall establish and maintain free public schools for the 
gratuitous instruction of all persons in this state between the ages of six 
and twent}- years. 

Sec. 2. "^ The income of all the funds provided by the state for the sup- 
port of free public schools, shall be paid annually to the several county 
treasurers, to be disbursed according to law ; but no school district, in 
which a free public school has not been maintained at least three months 
during the year for which the distribution is made, shall be entitled to 
receive anv portion of such funds. 

Sec. 3. " Separate free public schools shall be established for the educa- 
tion of children of African descent. 

Sec. 4. The supervision of instruction in the public schools shall be 
vested in a " board of education," whose powers and duties shall be pre- 
scribed by law. The superintendent of public schools shall be president 
of the board. The governor, secretary of state and attorney-general shall 
be ex-officio members, and with the superintendent, compose said board 
of education. 

Sec. 5. The general assembly shall, whenever the public school fund 
will permit, and the actual necessity of the same may require, aid and 
maintain the state university, now established, with its present depart- 
ments. The government of the state university shall be vested in a board 
of curators, to consist of nine members, to be appointed by the governor, 
bv and with the advice and consent of the senate. 

Sec 6. The proceeds of all lands that have been, or hereafter may be 
granted by the United States to this state, and not otherwise appropriated 
by this state or the United States; also, all moneys, stocks, bonds, lands 
and other property now belonging to any state fund for purposes of educa- 
tion; also, the net proceeds of all sales of lands, and other property and 
effects that may accrue to the state by escheat, from unclaimed dividends 
and distributive shares of the estates of deceased persons; also, any pro- 
ceeds of the sales of the public lands which may have been or hereafter 
may be paid over to this state, (if congress will consent to such appropria- 
tion); also, all other grants, gifts or devises that have been, or hereafter 
may be, made to this state, and not otherwise appropriated by the state or 
the terms of the grant, gift or devise, shall be paid into the state treasury, 
and securely invested and sacredly preserved as a public school fund; the 
annual income of which fund, together v.ith so much of the ordinary reve- 
nue of the state as may be by law set apart for that purpose, shall be faith- 
fully appropriated for establishing and maintaining the free public schools 
and the state university in this article provided for, and for no other uses 
or purposes whatsoever. 

Sec 7. In case the public school fund now provided and set apart by 
law, for the support of free public schools, shall be insufficient to sustain a 
free school at least four months in every year in each school district in this 
state, the general assembly may provide "for such deficienc}- in accordance 
with section eleven of the article on revenue and taxation ; but in no case 
shall there be set apart less than twenty-five per cent, of the state revenue 
exclusive of the interest and sinking fund, to be applied annually to the 
support of the public schools. 


Sec. 8. All moneys, stocks, bonds, lands and other property belonging 
to a county school fund; also, the net proceeds from the sale of estrays: 
also, the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures, and of all fines 
collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal or mili- 
tary laws of the state, and all moneys which shall be paid by persons as 
an equivalent for exemption from military duty, shall belong to and be 
securely invested, and sacredly preserved in the several counties, as a 
county public school fund; the income of which fund shall be faithfully 
appropriated for establishing and maintaining free pubHc schools in the 
several counties of this state. 

Sec. 9. No part of the public school fund of the state shall ever be 
invested in the stock or bonds, or other obligations of any other state, or 
of any county, city, town or corporation; and the proceeds of the sales of 
any lands or other property which now belong, or may hereafter belong, 
to said school fund, shall be invested in the bonds of the state of Missouri, 
or of the United States. 

Sec. 10. All county school funds shall be loaned only upon unincum- 
bered real estate security, of double the valve of the loan, with personal 
security in addition thereto. 

Sec 11. Neither the general assembly, nor any county, city, town, 
township, school district or other municipal corporation, shall ever make 
an appropriation, or pay from any public fund whatever anything in aid of 
any religious creed, church or sectarian purpose; or to help to support or 
sustain any private or public school, academy, seminary, college, univers- 
ity or other institution of learning, controlled by any religious crted, 
church or sectarian denomination whatever; nor shall any grant or 
donation of personal property or real estate ever be made by the state, or 
any county, city, town or other municipal corporation, for any religious 
creed, church or sectarian purpose whatever. 


Section 1. All existing charters, or grants of special or exclusive priv- 
ileges, under which a bona fide organization shall not have taken place, 
and business been commenced in good faith, at the adoption of this con- 
stitution, shall thereafter have no validity. 

Sec 2. No corporation, after the adoption of this constitution, shall be 
created by special laws; nor shall any existing charter be extended, 
changed or amended by special laws, except those for charitable, penal or 
reformatory purposes, which are under the patronage and control of the 

Sec 3. The general assembly shall not remit the forfeiture of the 
charter of any corporation now existing, or alter or amend such forfeited 
charter, or pass any other general or special laws for the benefit of such 

Sec 4. The exercise of the power and right of eminent domain, shall 
never be so construed or abridged as to prevent the taking, by the general 
assembl}^, of the property and franchises of incorporated companies already 
organized, or that may be hereafter organized, and subjecting them to the 
public use, the same as that of individuals. The right of trial by jury 
shall be held inviolate in all trials of claims for compensation, when in the 
exercise of said right of eminent domain, any incorporated company shall 
be interested either for or against the exercise of said right. 


Sec. 5. The exercise of the police power of the state shall never be 
abridged, or so construed as to permit corporations to conduct their busi- 
ness in such manner as to infringe the equal rights of individuals, or the 
general well-being of the state. 

Sec 6. In all elections for directors or managers of any incorporated 
company, each shareholder shall have the right to cast as many votes in 
the aggregate as shall equal the number of shares so held by him or her 
in said company, multiplied by the number of directors or managers to be 
elected at such election ; and each shareholder may cast the whole number 
of votes, either in person or by proxy for one candidate, or distribute such 
votes among two or more candidates ; and such directors or managers shall 
not be elected in any other manner. 

Sec 7. No corporation shall engage in business, other than that ex- 
pressly authorized in its charter or the law under which it may have been 
or hereafter may be organized, nor shall it hold any real estate for any 
period longer than six years, except such as may be necessary and proper 
for carrying on its legitimate business. 

Sec "s. No corporation shall issue stock or bonds, except for money 
paid, labor done or property actually received, and all fictitious increase of 
stock or indebtedness shall be void. The stock and bonded indebtedness 
of corporations shall not be increased, except in pursuance of general law, 
nor without the consent of the persons holding the larger amount in value 
of the stock first obtained at a meeting called for the purpose, first giving 
sixty days public notice, as may be provided by law. 

Sec d. Dues from private corporations shall be secured by such means 
as may be prescribed by law, but in no case shall any stockholder be indi- 
vidually liable in any amount over or above the amount of stock owned 
by him or her. 

Sec 10. No corporation shall issue preferred stock without the con- 
sent of all the stockholders. 

Sec 11. The term "corporation," as used in this article, shall be con- 
strued to include all joint stock companies or associations having any pow- 
ers or privileges not possessed by individuals or partnerships. 


Sec 12. It shall not be lawful in this state for any railway company 
to charge for freight or passengers a greater amount, for tht- transportation 
of the same, for a less distance than the amount charged for an}- greater 
distance, and suitable laws shall be passed by the general assembly to en- 
force this provision; but excursion and commutation tickets maybe issued 
at special rates. 

Sec 13. Any railroad corporation or association, organized for the 
purpose, shall have the right to construct and operate a railroad between 
any points within this stale, and to connect at the state line with railroads 
of other states. Every railroad company shall have the right, with its 
road, to intersect, connect with, or cross any other railroad, and shall receive 
and transport each the other's passengers, tonnage and cars, loaded or 
empty, without delay or discrimination. 

Sec 14. _ Railways heretofore constructed, or that may hereafter be 
constructed in this state are hereby declared public highw-ays, and railroad 
companies common carriers. The general assembly shall pass laws tc 
correct abuses and prevent unjust discrimination and extortion in the rates 


of freight and passenger tariffs on the different railroads in this state; and 
shall, from time to time, pass laws establishing reasonable maximum rates 
of charges for the transportation of passengers and freight on said railroads, 
and enforce all such laws by adequate penalties. 

Sec. 15. Every railroad or other corporation, organized or doing busi- 
ness in this state under the laws or authority thereof, shall have and main- 
tain a public office or place in this state for the transaction of its business, 
where transfers of stock shall be made, and where shall be kept, for public 
inspection, books in which shall be recorded the amount of capital stock 
subscribed, the names of the owners of the stock, the amounts owned by 
them respective!}', the amount of stock paid, and by whom, the transfer of 
said stock, with the date of transfer, the amount of its assets and liabilities, 
and the names and places of residence of its officers. The directors of 
every railroad company shall hold one meeting annually in this state, pub- 
lic notice of which shall be given thirty days previously, and shall report 
annually, under oath, to the state auditor, or some officer designated by 
law, all of their acts and doings, which report shall include such matters 
relating to railroads as may be prescribed by law. The general assembly 
shall pass laws enforcing, by suitable penalties, the provisions of this sec- 

Sec. 16. The rolling stock and all other movable property belonging 
to any railroad company or corporation in this state, shall be considered 
personal property, and shall be liable to execution and sale in the same 
manner as the personal property of individuals; and the general assembly 
shall pass no law exempting any such property from execution and sale. 

Sec. 17. No railroad or other corporation, or the lessees, purchasers or 
managers of any railroad corporation, shall consolidate the stock, property 
or franchises ot such corporation, with, or lease or purchase the works or 
franchises of, or in any way control any railroad corporation owning or hav- 
ing under its control a parallel or competing line; nor shall any officer of 
such railroad corporation act as an officer of any other railroad corporation 
owning or having the control of a parallel or competing line. The ques- 
tion whether railroads are parallel or competing lines shall, when demanded, 
be decided by a jury, as in other civil issues. 

Sec. 18. If any railroad company organized under the laws of this 
state shall consolidate, by sale or otherwise, with any railroad company 
organized under the laws of any other state, or of the United States, the 
same shall not thereby become a foreign corporation; but the courts of this 
state shall retain jurisdiction in all matters which may arise, as if said con- 
solidation had not taken place. In no case shall any consolidation take 
place, except upon public notice of at least sixty days to all stockholders, 
in such manner as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 19. The general assembly shall pass no law for the benefit of a 
railroad or other corporations, or any individual or association of individ- 
uals, retrospective in its operation, or which imposes on the people of any 
county or municipal subdivision of the state, a new liability in respecc to 
transactions or considerations alread}^ past. 

Sec 20. No law shall be passed by the general assembly granting the 
right to construct and operate a street railroad within any city, town, vil- 
lage, or on any public highway, without first acquiring the consent of the 
local authorities having control of the street or highway proposed to be 


occupied by such street railroad; and the franchises so granted shall not 
be transferred without similar assent first obtained. 

Sec. 21. No railroad corporation in existence at the time of the adop- 
tion of this constitution shall have the benefit of any future legislation, 
except on condition of complete acceptance of all the provisions of this 
constitution applicable to railroads. 

Sec. 22. No president, director, officer, agent, or employe of any rail- 
road companv shall be interested, directly, or indirectly, in furnishing ma- 
terial or supplies to such company, or in the business of transportation as 
a common carrier of freight or passengers over the works owned, leased, 
controlled or worked by such company. 

Sec. 23. No discrimination in charges or facilities in transportation 
shall be made between transportation companies and individuals, or in 
favor of either, by abatement, drawback or otherwise; and no railroad com- 
pany, or any lessee, manager or employee thereof, shall make any prefer- 
ence in furnishing cars or motive power. 

Sec. 24. No railroad or other transportation company shall grant free 
passes or tickets, or passes or tickets at a discount, to members of the gen- 
eral assembly, or members of the board of equalization, or any state, or 
county, or municipal officers; and the acceptance of such pass or ticket, by 
a member of the general assembly, or any such officer, shall be a forfeiture 
of his office. 



Sec. 25. No state bank shall hereafter be created, nor shall the state 
own or be liable for any stock in any corporation, or joint stock company, 
or association for banking purposes, now created or hereafter to be cre- 

Sec. 26. No act of the general assembly authorizing or creating cor- 
porations or associations with banking powers (except banks of deposit 
or discount,) nor amendments thereto, shall go into effect, or in any man- 
ner be enforced, unless the same shall be submitted to a vote of the quali- 
fied voters of the state, at the general election next succeeding the pass- 
age of the same, and be approved by a majority of the votes cast at such 

Sec. 27. It shall be a crime, the nature and punishment of which shall 
be prescribed by law, for any president, director, manager, cashier or other 
officer of any banking institution, to assent to the reception of deposits, or 
the creation of debts by such banking institution, after he shall have had 
knowledge of the fact that it is insolvent, or in failing circumstances; and 
any such officer, agent or manager, shall be individually responsible for 
such deposits so received, and all such debts so created with his assent. 


Section 1. All able-bodied male inhabitants of this state between the 
ages of eighteen and forty-five years, who are citizens of the United States, 
or have declared their intention of become such citizens, shall be liable to 
military duty in the militia of this state: Provided^ That no person who is 
religiously scrupulous of bearing arms, can be compelled to do so, but may 
be compelled to pay an equivalent for military service, in such manner as 
sh;ill be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 2. The general assembly, in providing for the organization, 


equipment and discipline of the militia, shall conform, as nearly as practi- 
cable, to the regulations for the government of the armies of the United 

Sec. 3. Each company and regiment shall elect its own company and 
regimental officers; but if any company or regiment shall neglect to elect 
such officers within the time prescribed by law, or by the order of the gov- 
ernor, they may be appointed by the governor. 

Sec. 4. Volunteer companies of infantry, cavalry and artillery, may 
be formed in such manner and under such restrictions as may be provided 
by law. 

Sec. 5. The volunteer and militia forces shall in all cases, except trea- 
son, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their 
attendance at musters, parades and elections, and in going to and returning 
from the same. 

Sec. 6. The governor shall appoint the adjutant general, quarter- 
master general and his other stafl' officers. He shall also, with the advice 
and consent of the senate, appoint all major generals and brigadier generals. 

Sec. 7. The general assembly shall provide for the safe keeping of 
the public arms, military records, banners and relics of the state. 


Section 1. The general assembly of this state shall never interfere 
with the primary disposal of the soil by the United States, nor with any 
regulation which congress may find necessary for securing the title in such 
5oil to bona -fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the prop- 
erty of the 'United States; nor shall lands belonging to persons residing 
out of the limits of this state ever be' taxed at a higher rate than the lands 
belonging to persons residing within the state. 

Sec. 2. No person shall be prosecuted in any civil action or criminal 
proceeding for or on account of any act by him done, performed or exe- 
cuted between the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-one, and the twentieth day of August, one thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-six, by virtue of military authority vested in him, or in pursu- 
ance of orders from any person vested with such authority by the govern- 
ment of the United States, or of this state, or of the late Confederate 
states, or any of them, to do such act. And if any action or proceedings 
shall have been, or shall hereafter be instituted against any person for the 
doing of any such act, the defendant may plead this section in bar thereof. 

Sec. 3. No person who shall hereafter fight a duel, or assist in the 
same as a second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry a challenge therefor, 
or agree to go out of this state to fight a duel, shall hold any office in this 

Sec. 4. No person holding an office of profit under the United States, 
shall, during his continuance in such office, hold any office of profit under 
this state. 

Sec. 5. In the absence of any contrary provision, all officers now or 
nereafter elected or appointed, subject to the right of resignation, shall 
hold office during their official terms, and until their successors shall be 
duly elected or appointed and qualified. 

Sec. 6. All officers, both civil and military, under the authority of this 
state, shall, before entering on the duties of their respective offices, take 
and subscribe an oath;-<or affirmation, to support the constitution of the 


United States and of this state, and to demean themselves faithfully in 


Sec. 7. The general assembly shall, in addition to other penalties, 
provide for the removal from office of county, city, town and township 
officers, on conviction of willful, corrupt or fraudulent violation or neglect 
of official duty. 

Sec. S. The compensation or fees of no state, county or municipal 
officer shall be increased during his term of office ; nor shall the term of 
any office be extended for a longer period than that for which such officer 
was elected or appointed. 

Sec. 9. The appointment of all officers not otherwise directed by this 
constitution, shall be made in such manner as may be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 10. The general assembly shall have no power to authorize lot- 
teries or gift enterprises for any purpose, and shall pass laws to prohibit the 
sale of lottery or gift enterprise tickets, or tickets in any scheme in the 
nature of a lottery, in this state ; and all acts or parts of acts heretofore 
passed by the legislature of this state, authorizing a lottery or lotteries, 
and all "^acts amendatory thereof, or supplemental thereto, are hereby 

Sec. 11. It shall be the duty of the grand jury in each county, at least 
once a year, to investigate the official acts of all officers having charge of 
public funds, and report the result of their investigations in writing to the 

Sec. 12. Senators and representatives shall, in all cases, except trea- 
son, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during the 
session of the general assembly, and for fifteen days next before the com- 
mencement and after the termination of each session ; and for any speech 
or debate in either house the}^ shall not be questioned in any other place. 


Section 1. This constitution may be amended and revised only in 
pursuance of the provisions of this article. 

Sec. 2. The general assembly may, at any time, propose such amend- 
me-nts to this constitution as a majority of the members elected to each 
house shall deem expedient; and the vote thereon shall betaken by yeas 
and nays, and entered in full on the journals. The proposed amendments 
shall be published with the laws of that session, and also shall be published 
weekly in some newspaper, if such there be, within each county in the 
state, for four consecutive weeks next preceding the general election then 
next ensuing. The proposed amendments shall be submitted to a vote of 
the people, each amendment separately, at the next general election there- 
after, in such manner as the general assembly may provide. If a major- 
ity of the qualified voters of the state, voting for and against any one of 
said amendments, shall vote for such amendment, the same shall be deemed 
and taken to have been ratified by the people, and shall be vahd and 
binding, to all intents and purposes, as a part of this constitution. 

Sec. 3. The general assembly may at any time authorize, by law a 
vote of the people to be taken upon the question whether a convention 
shall be held for the purpose of revising and amending the constitution of 
this state; and if at such election a majority of the votes on the question 
be in favor of a convention, the governor shall issue writs to the sherifls of 
the different counties, ordering the election of delegates to such a conven- 


tion, on a day not less than three and within six months after that on which 
the said question shall have been voted on. At such election each senato- 
rial district shall elect two delegates for each senator to which it ma}^ then 
be entitled in the general assembly, and every such delegate shall have 
the qualifications of a state senator. The election shall be conducted in 
conformity with the laws regulating the election of senators. The dele- 
gates so elected shall meet at such time and place as may be provided bv 
law, and organize themselves into a convention, and proceed to revise and 
amend the constitution; and the constitution when so revised and amend- 
ed, shall, on a day to be therein fixed, not less than sixty days or more than 
six months after that on which it shall have been adopted by the conven- 
tion, be submitted to a vote of the people for and against it, at an election 
to be held for that purpose ; and, if a majority of all the votes given be in 
favor of such constitution, it shall, at the end of thirty days after such elec- 
tion became the constitution of this state. The result of such elec- 
tion shall be made known by proclamation by the governor. The general 
assembly shall have no power, otherwise than in this section specified, to 
authorize a convention for revising and amending the constitution. 


That no inconvenience may arise frorn the alteration and amendments 
in the constitution of this state, and to carry the same into complete effect, 
it is hereby ordained and declared: 

Section 1 . That all laws in force at the adoption of this constitution, 
not inconsistent therewith, shall remain in full force until altered or re- 
pealed by the general assembly; and, all rights, actions, prosecutions, 
claims and contracts of the state, counties, individuals or bodies corporate 
not inconsistent therewith, shall continue to be as valid as if this constitution 
had not been adopted. The provisions of all laws which are inconsistent 
with this constitution, shall cease upon its adoption, except that all laws 
which are inconsistent with such provision of this constitution, as require 
legislation to enforce them, shall remain in force until the first day of July, 
one thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven, unless sooner amended or 
repealed by the general assembly. 

Sec. 2. That all recognizances, obligations and all other instruments, 
entered into or executed before the adoption of this constitution, to this 
state or to any subdivision thereof, or any municipality therein ; and all 
fines, taxes, penalties and forfeitures, due or owing to this state, or any 
such subdivision or municipality; and all writs, prosecutions, actions and 
causes of action, except as herein otherwise provided, shall continue and 
remain unafiected by the adoption of this constitution. All indictments 
which shall have been found or may hereafter be found, for any crime or 
offense committed before this constitution takes effect, may be proceeded 
upon as if no change had taken place, except as otherwise provided in 
this constitution. 

Sec. 3. All county and probate courts, as now constituted and organ- 
ized, shall continue with their jurisdiction, until the general assembly 
shall by law conform them in their organization to the requirements of this 

Sec. 4. All criminal courts organized and existing under the laws of 
this state, and not specially provided for in thi^ constitution, shall continue 
to exist until otherwise provided by law. 

Sec. 5. All courts of common pleas existing and organized in cities 


and towns having a population exceeding three thousand five hundred in- 
habitants, and such as by the law of their creation are presided over by a 
judge of a circuit court, shall continue to exist and exercise their present 
jurisdiction, until otherwise provided by law. All other courts of common 
pleas shall cease to exist at the expiration of the present terms of office of 
the several judges thereof. 

Sec. 6. All persons now filling any office or appointment in this state, 
shall continue in the exercise of the duties thereof, according to their re- 
spective commissions or appointments, unless otherwise provided by law. 

Sec. 7. Upon the adoption of this constitution, all appeals to, and 
writs of error from the supreme court, shall be returnable to the supreme 
court at the cit}^ of Jefierson. 

Sec. 8. Until the general assembly shall make provision for the pay- 
ment of the state and railroad indebtedness of this state, in pursuance of 
section fourteen of article ten of this constitution, there shall be levied 
and collected an annual tax of one-fifth of one per centum on all real estate 
and other property and effects subject to taxation, the proceeds of which 
shall be applied to the payment of the interest on the bonded debt of this 
state as it matures, and the surplus, if any, shall be paid into the sinking 
fund and thereafter applied to the payment of such indebtedness, and to 
no other purpose. 

Sec. 9. This constitution shall be submitted to the people of this state 
for adoption or rejection, at an election to be held for that purpose only, on 
Saturday, the thirtieth day of October, one thousand eight hundred and 
seventv-five. Every person entitled to vote under the constitution and 
laws of this state shall be entitled to vote for the adoption or rejection of 
this constitution. Said election shall be held, and said qualified electors 
shall vote at the usual places of voting in the several counties of this state ; 
and said election shall be conducted, and returns thereof made, according 
to the laws now in force regulating general elections. 

Sec. 10. The clerks of the several county courts in this state, shall, at 
least five days before said election, cause to be delivered to the judges of 
election in each election district or precinct, in their respective counties, 
suitable blank poll books, forms of return and five times the number of 
properly prepared printed ballots for said election, that there are voters in 
said respective districts, the expense whereof shall be allowed and paid by 
the several county courts, as other county expenditures are allowed and 

Sec. 11. At said election the ballots shall be in the following form: 
New constitution ticket, {erase the clause you do not favor ^ New consti- 
tution, — Yes. New constitution, — No, Each of said ticket sshall be 
counted as a vote for or against this constitution, as the one clause or the 
other may be canceled with ink or pencil by the voter, and returns thereof 
shall be made accordingly. If both clauses of the ticket be erased, or if 
neither be erased, the ticket shall not be counted. 

Sec. 12. The returns of the whole vote cast for the adoption and 
against the adoption of this constitution shall be made by the several 
clerks, as now provided by law in case of the election of state officers, to 
the secretary of state, within twenty days after the election ; and the re- 
turns of said votes shall, within ten days thereafter, be examined and 
canvassed by the state auditor, state treasurer and secretary of state, or 
any two of them, in the presence of the governor, and proclamation shall 
be made by the governor forthwith of the result of the canvass. 


Sec. 13. If, upon such canvass, it shall appear that a majority of the 
votes polled were in favor of the new constitiition, then this constitutiq' 
shall, on and after the thirtieth day of November, one thousand eight,\in_ 
dred and seventy-five, be the supreme law of the state of Missouri ^nd the 
present existing constitution shall thereupon cease in all itSpj-ovisions- 
but if it shall appear that a majority of the votes poll^d^ygre against the 
new constitution, then this constitution shall J^'-j^-^ll ^^^j void and the 
existing constitution shall continue in force. - 

Sec. 14. The provisions of this sche^-^ie required to be executed prior 
to the adoption or rejection of this^o„stj^^tjo„^ghall take efTect and be in 
torce immediately. 

bEc. lo. The general ^gggj^^i g^^^^^ gg ^^j^ g^^,]^ |^^^^g ^^ ^ ^^ 
necessary to carry this^l^^^-^^^-^^ into full effect. 

C)EC. lb. 1 he pr^gnt secretary of state, state auditor; attorney-general, 
and supenntendent^f ^^-^^^^ schools, shall, during the remainder of their 
terms or otnce, u^i^gg Q^hej-wise directed by law, receive the same com- 
pensation and I'^g ^g jg ^^^^ provided by law; and the present state treas- 
urer shall, l^^ing the remainder of the term of his office, continue to be 
governed bj ^^^^^^^^ l^^^y^ in the custody and disposition of the state 
funds, unle^^^ otherwise directed by law. ^ 

' • Section twelve of [the] bill of rights shall not be so construed 
as to prev^j^^ arrests and preliminary examination in any criminal case. 

in the ve^'^^^'^^°^^°°' ^^ *^^ capitol, in the city of Jefferson, on the second day of August, 
Dendencp'' o^ °"^ Lord, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, and of the inde- 
. of the United States the one hundredth. 
^' WALDO P. JOHNSON, President, St. Clair county. 

N. W. WATKINS, Vice President, Scott county. 

^T T ^s, Washington, Cooper. Letcher, Wm. H., Saline. 

AljEN, DeWitt C, Clay. Lay, Alfred M., Cole. 

Bl^xander, A. M., Monroe. Mabrey, Pinckney, Ripley. 

B(ACK, Francis IV!., Jackson. Massey, B. F , Newton. 

BrONE, Henry, DeKalb. Maxey, James Harvey, Howell, 

B>ADFiELD, George W., Laclede. McAfee, Charles B., Greene. 

B^ioADHEAD, James O., St. Louis. McKee, Archibald V., Lincoln. 

(^rokmeyer, Henry C, St. Louis. McCabe, Edward, Marion. 

rARLETON, George W , Pemiscot. McKillop, Malcomb, Atchison. 

^hrisman, William, Jackson. Mortell, Nicholas A., St. Louis. 

^ONWAY, Edmund V., St. Francois. Mudd, Henry Thomas, St. Louis. 

Oottey, Lolis F., Knox. Nickerson, Edmund A., Johnson. 

Crews, T. W. B., Franklin. Norton, Elijah Hise, Platte. 

Crockett, Samuel R., Vernon. Pipkin, Philip, Jefferson. 
Davis, Lowndey Henry, Cape Girardeau. Priest, William, Platte. 

Dryden, Leonidas J., Warren Pulitzer, Joseph, St. Louis. 

Dysart, Benjamin Robert, Macon. Ray, John, Barry. 

Edwards, John F. T., Iron. Rider, J. H., Bollinger. 

Edwards, James C, St. Louis. Ripey, J. R., Schuyler. 

FiTZEN, Charles D., Gasconade. Roberts, James C, Buchanan. 

,^;arris, James L., Ray. Ross, J. P., Morgan. 

fjcyAN, Robert W. Webster. Ross, John W., Polk. 

jg^i.NTT, Thomas Tasker, St. Louis. Rucker, John Fleming, Boone. 

jjj^ttschalk, Louis, St. Louis. Shackelford, Thomas, Howard. 

H^ii-E, John B., Carroll. Shanklin, John H., Grundy. 

Harv^e^^ton, W., Sullivan. Shields, George H., St. Louis. 

2oL-*^OND, Charles, Chariton. Spaunhorst, Henry J., St. Louis. 

Hyei^™, Neil Cameron, Pike. Switzler, William F., Boone. 

jQHjjLiDAY, J. A., Caldwell. Taylor, John H., Jasper. 

jQjjjjg, John, Dent. Taylor, Amos Riley, St. Louis. 

Lack^son, Horace B., Cole. Todd, Albert, St. Louis. 

.Won, T. J., Nodoway. Wagner, L. J , Scotland. 

|iAND, Henry Clay, St. Charles. Wallace, Henry C, Lafayette. 
Attbst* G. N. NOLAN, Secretary. 

J. Boyle Adams, Assistant Secretary 

.^-bstract of Missouri State Laws. 


A biU of exchange is a written uider from one person to another, direct- 
ing the person to whom it is addressed \Z pav to a third person a certain 
sum of money therein named. , 

The person making the bill is called the makef; The person to whom 
• • V J • n Au J J ^u •''■ whose favor the bill 

it IS directed is called the drawee, and the person m ,y^'^'=' 

of exchange is made payable, is called the payee, anc-.^ ^ P 

acceepts a bill of exchange, is called the acceptor. \. . , i -^ 

A 1^11 r u u .• 0,1 .• ui -t negotiable, it 

A bill of exchange may be negotiable or non-negotiable ;ir » 

mav be transferred either before or after acceptance. To maR- ^ 

"'er or must 
ble it must be payable to the order ot the payee, or to the beai\ ' 

contain other equivalent or operative words of transfer. \i . 

Bills of exchange containing no words of transfer, are non-neg^ * „ 

The usual form of accepting bills of exchange, is by writing " a# ^ 
across the bill, and signing the acceptor's name. \^ , 

After such acceptance the acceptor becomes liable for the paymtg'^ 
the bill upon its maturity. St.. - 

No person within this state shall be charged as an acceptor of a bild 
exchange unless his acceptance shall be in writing signed by himself, . 
his lawful agent. . ^ 

If such acceptance be written on a paper other than the bill, it shall n^Q 
bind the acceptor. Except in favor of a person to whom such acceptanc c, 
shall have been shown, and who upon the faith thereof shall have receivec i' 
the bill for a valuable consideration. ^3 

An unconditional promise in writing to accept a bill before it is" 
drawn, will be binding upon the acceptor in favor of any person wh(>n 
upon the faith of such written promise shall have received the bill for ati- 
valuable consideration. be 

Every holder of a bill presenting the same for acceptance, may require- 
that the acceptance be written on the bill, and a refusal to compl}'- wit^ ''■c 
such request, shall be deemed a refusal to accept, and the bill may be pr 
tested for non-accentance. ^ \ 

Every person upon whom a bill of exchange ma}'- be drawn, an<it , 
whom the same shall be delivered for acceptance, who shall destroy '^^^ , 
bill or refuse within twenty-four hours after such delivery, or within s }' a 
period as the holder may allow to return the bill accepted or non-acc^^-j^t'^ 
to the holders, shall be deemed to have accepted the same. Vn r 


When any bill of exchanjre expressed to be for value received, drawn 
or nesfotiated within this state, shall be duly presented for acceptance or 
payment, and protested for non-acceptance or non-payment, there shall be 
allowed and paid to the holders by the drawer and endorsers having due 
notice of the dishonor of the bill, damages in the following cases: First, 
if the bill shall have been drawn by any person, at any place within this 
state, at the rate of four per centum on the principal sum specified in the 
bill. Second, if the bill shall have been drawn on any person, at any 
place out of this state, but within the United States or territories thereof, 
at the rate of two per centum on the principal sum specified in the bill. 
Third, if the bill shall have been drawn on any person, at any part or 
place without the United States and their territories, at the rate of 
twenty per centum on the principal sum specified in the bill. 

If any bill of exchange expressed to be for value received, shall be 
drawn on any person, at any place within this state, and accepted, and 
payment shall not be duly made by the acceptor, there shall be allowed 
and paid to the holder, by the acceptor, damages in the following cases: 
First, if the bill be drawn by any person, at any place within this state, 
at the rate of four per centum on the principal sum therein specified. 
Second, if the bill be drawn by any person, at any place without this 
state, but within the United States or territories, at the rate of ten per 
centum on the principal sum therein specified. 

The damages herein allowed shall be recovered only by the holder ot 
a bill, who shall have purchased the bill or acquired some interest therein, 
for valuable consideration. In cases of non-acceptance or non-payment 
of a bill, drawn at any place within this state, on any person at a place 
within the same, no damages shall be recovered, if payment of the prin- 
cipal sum, with interest and charges of protest, be paid within twenty 
days after demand, or notice of the dishonor of the bill. 

If the contents of a bill be expressed in the money of account of the 
United States, the "amount due and the damages therein, shall be ascer- 
tained and determined without any reference to the rate of exchange 
existing between this state and the place on which the bill shall have been 
drawn, at the time of demand of payment or notice of the dishonor of the 

If the contents of such bill be expressed in the money of account or 
currency of any foreign country, then the amount due, exclusive of dam- 
ages, shall be ascertained and determined by the rate of exchange, or the 
value of such for-i^ign currency at the time of payment. 

Every bill of ex "hange, draft or order drawn either within this state or 
elsewhere upon any person residing within this state, payable on its face 
at sight, or on demand, shall be deemed and considered to be due and 
payable on the day it is presented, or demanded, any usage or custom 


here or elsewhere to the contrary notwithstanding, and if not so paid, 
ma^^ be protested for non-payment. 

If in any suit founded upon any negotiable promissory note or bill of 
exchange, or in which such bill or note is produced, might be allowed in 
the defense of any suit, it appear on the trial that such note or bill was 
lost while it belonged to the party claiming the amount due thereon, 
parol or other evidence of the contents thereof, ma}' be given on such 
trial, and such party shall be entitled to recover the amount due thereon 
as if such note or bill had been produced. 

To entitle a part}'^ to such recovery, he or some responsible person for 
him, shall execute a bond to the adverse part}^ in a penalty at least double 
the amount of such note or bill, wif.h two sufficient securities, to be 
approved by the court in which the trial shall be had, conditioned to 
indemnify the adverse party against all claims b}' any other person on 
account of such note or bill, and against all costs and expenses by reason 
of such claim. 


A promissory note is a written promise to pay a certain sum of money 
at a future time, unconditional!}'. 

The person to whom the money is payable is called the payee. 

The maker is the one who promises to pay the money when the note 
becomes due. 

A note payable to bearer is negotiated or transferred bv mere delivery, 
and the possession of the note is ^rima facie proof of title- 

A note payable to the order of a particular person is transferred or 
negotiated by writing the name of the person upon the back of the note, 
which is called an endorsement. The person making the endorsement 
is called the endorser. The person for whose benefit it is made is called 
the endorsee. 

Every promissory note for the payment of money to the payee therein 
named, or order or bearer, and expressed to be for value received, shall be 
due and payable as therein expressed and shaU have the same effect and 
be negotiable in like manner as inland bills of exchange. 

The payee and endorsers of every such negotiable note payable to them 
or order, and the holder of every such note payable to bearer may main- 
tain actions for the sums of money therein mentioned, against the makers 
and endorsers of them in like manner as in cases of inland bills of exchange, 
and not otherwise. 

Such negotiable promissory note made payable to the order of the 
maker thereof, or to the order of a fictitious person shall, if negotiated by 
the maker, have the same effect and be of the same validity as against the 
maker, and all persons having knowledge of the facts, as if payable to 


bearer. Provided^ That negotiable note in the hands of the purchaser of 
the same from the makers by way of discount or investment if protested 
for non-pa\'ment at maturity, shall not be subjected to damages. 

When the day of payment of an}'^ bond, bill of exchange, or promissory 
note, shall according to its terms, be a Sunday, Christmas day, Thanks- 
giving day (State or National), New Years day, or a Fourth of July, its 
payment shall be deemed due and be demandable on such day next before 
its day of payment, according to its terms, as shall not be one of the days 
above specified. 

A notarial protest is evidence of a demand and refusal to pay a bill of 
exchange or negotiable promissory note, at the time and in the manner 
stated in such protest. 


$1,000. Kansas City, Mo., Aug. 1, 1869. 

Thirty days after date, I promise to pay Richard Roe, or order, 
One Thousand Dollars, value received, with interest after due at the rate 
of ten per cent per annum. Louis Roy. 


$100.00. Kansas City, Mo., Aug, 1, 1869. 

Thirty days after date, I promise to pay Richard Roe, 
One Hundred Dollars, value received, with interest from date, at the rate 
of ten per cent per annum. Louis Roy. 


The legal rate of interest is six per cent. 

Parties may agree in writing for the payment of interest not exceeding 
ten per cent. 

Money due upon judgments or order of court, shall draw interest from 
the day of rendering the same. All such judgments and orders for money 
upon contracts, bearing more than six per cent., shall bear the same inter- 
est borne by such contracts. All other judgments and orders for money 
shall draw six per cent. 

If a greater rate of interest than ten per cent, is contracted for, and suit 
brought upon the same, judgment will be entered for six per cent., and 
the whole interest shall be set apart for, and become a part of the com- 
mon school fund. 

Parties may contract in writing for the payment of interest upon inter- 
est; but interest shall not be compounded oftener than once a year. 
Where a different rate is not expressed, interest upon interest shall be at 
the same rate as interest on the principal debt. 



Property in this state shall be distributed in the following course, sub- 
ject to the payment of debts and the widow's dower: 

First. To the children or their descendants in equal parts. 

Second. If there be no children or their descendants, then to the father, 
mother, brothers and sisters, and their descendants, in equal parts. 

Third. If there be no children, or their descendants, father, mother, 
brother or sister, or their descendants, then to the husband or wife. 
If there be no husband or wife, then to the grandfather, grandmother, 
uncles and aunto, and their descendants, in equal parts. 

Fotirth. If there be no children or their descendants, father, mother, 
sister, brother or their descendants, husband or wife, grandfather, grand- 
mother, uncles, aunts, nor their descendants, then to the great-grandfather, 
great-grandmother, and their descendants, in equal parts, and so on in 
other cases without end, passing to the nearest lineal ancestors and their 
children, and their descendants, in equal parts. 

Posthumous children, or descendants of the intestate, shall inherit in 
like manner as if born in the lifetime of the intestate. This does not 
apply to anyone other than the children or descendants of the intestate 
unless they are in being and capable in law to take as heirs at the time of 
the intestate's death. 

If there be no children or their' descendants, father, mother, brother or 
sister, nor their descendants, husband or wife, nor any paternal or mater- 
nal kindred capable of inheriting, the whole shall go to the kindred of the 
wife or husband of the intestate in the like course as if such wife or hus- 
band had survived the intestate and then died entitled to the estate. 

If any of the children receive any real or personal estate in the lifetime 
of the intestate by way of advancement, shall choose to come into par- 
tition \\'\\\\ the other heirs, such advancement shall be brought into 
hatchpot with the estate descended. 

Maintaining, educating, or giving money to a child under majority 
without an}' view to a portion or settlement, shall not be deemed an 

Bastards shall inherit and be capable of transmitting inheritance on the 
part of their mother, and such mother may inherit from her bastard 
child or children in like manner as if they had been lawfully begotten of 

The issues of all marriages decreed null in law or dissolved by divorce 
shall be leijitimate. 

Persons of color shall inherit as above set forth, providing it shall 
appear to the court that they are residents of this state, or if residents of 
some other state, are free persons. 

The children of all parents who were slaves, and who were living 


together in good faith as man and wife at the time of the birth of such 

children, shall be deemed to be the legitimate children of such parents. 

All children of any one mother who was a slave at the time of her birth 

shall be deemed lawful brothers and sisters for the purposes of this 



The term will, or last will and testament, means the disposition of one's 
property, to take effect after death. No exact form of words is neces- 
sary in order to make a will good at law. 

Every person of twenty-one years of age and upward, of sound mind, 
may, by last will, devise all his estate, real, personal and mixed, and all 
interest therein, saving the widow her dower. Every person over the 
age of eighteen years, of sound mind, may by last will, dispose of his 
goods and chatties. Every will must be in writing, signed by the testator 
or by some person by his direction, in his presence, and shall be attested 
by two or more competent witnesses, subscribing their names to the will 
in the presence of the testator. 

No will in writing, except in cases hereinafter mentioned, nor any part 
thereof, shall be revoked, except by a subsequent will in writing, or by 
burning, canceling, tearing or -obliterating the same by the testator, or in 
his presence, and by his consent and direction. 

If, after making a will disposing of the whole estate of the testator, 
such testator shall marry, and die, leaving issue by such marriage living 
at the time of his death, or shall leave issue of such marriage born to 
him after his death, such will shall be deemed revoked, unless provisions 
shall have been made for such issue by some settlement, or unless such 
issue shall be provided for in the will, and no evidence shall be received to 
rebut the presumption of such revocation. 

A will executed by an unmarried woman shall be deemed revoked by 
her subsequent marriage. 

If a person make his w^ill and die leaving children not provided for, 
although born after making the will, he shall be deemed to die intestate, 
and such children shall be entitled to such proportion as if he had died 
intestate. All other heirs or legatees must refund their proportionate part. 

The county court or clerk thereof in vacation subject to the confirma- 
tion or rejection of the court, shall take the proof of the last will of the 



I, Richard Johnson, of Carroll county, in the state of Missouri, being 
of sound mind and memory, and of fuU age, do hereby make and publish 
this, my last will and testament, hereby revoking all former wills by me 


First. I direct the payment of all lawful claims against my estate, to 
be made out of the proceeds of the sale of my personal property. 

Second. I give, devise and bequeath to my eldest son, John B. Johnson, 
the sum of five thousand dollars of bank stock, in the First National 
Bank of Lexington, Missouri, and the farm owned by myself in the town- 
ship of , in the county of Saline, consisting of 100 acres, with all 

the houses, tenements and improvements thereunto belonging, to have 
and to hold unto m}^ said son, his heirs and assigns forever. 

Third. I give, devise, and bequeath to each of my daughters, Mary E. 
Johnson and Clara B. Johnson, each five thousand dollars in bank stock,, 
in the First National Bank, of Lexington, Missouri; and also, each one 

quarter section of land owned by myself, situated in the township of , 

Ray county, Missouri. 

Fourth. I give, devise and bequeath to my son, Frank R. Johnson, the 
farm owned by myself, situated in Chariton county, Missouri, consisting 
of six hundred and forty acres, together with all stock, houses, and 
improvements, thereunto belonging. 

Fifth. I give to my wife, EHzabeth Johnson, all my household furni- 
ture, goods, chattels and personal property about my house, not hitherto 
disposed of, including six thousand dollars of bank stock, in the First 
National Bank of Lexington, Missouri, and the free and unrestricted use, 
possession and benefit of the home farm, so long as she may live — said 
farm being my present place of residence. 

Sixth. I give and bequeath to my mother, Martha Johnson, the income 
from rents of my store building, at No. 905 Pine street, St. Louis, Mis- 
souri, during the term of her natural life, said building and land therewith 
to revert to my sons and daughters, in equal proportions, upon the demise 
of my said mother. 

Seventh. It is also my will and desire that at the death of my wife, Eliz- 
abeth Johnson, that the above mentioned homestead may revert to my 
above named children, or to the lawful heirs of each. 

Eighth. I appoint as my executors of this, my last will and testament, 
my wife, Elizabeth Johnson, and my eldest son John B. Johnson. 

In witness whereof, -I, Richard Johnson, to this, my last will and testa- 
ment, have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourth day of June, 
eighteen hundred and seventy-five. Richard Johnson. 

Signed and declared by Richard Richard Johnson, as and for his last 
will and testament, in the presence of each other, have subscribed our 
names hereuntp, as witnesses thereof. 

Edward Davison, Scdalia, Missouri. 
Frederick Jones, Marshall., Missouri, 



Whereas, I, Richard Johnson, did, on the fourth day of June, one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, make m}'' last will and testa- 
ment, I do now, by this writing add this codicil to my said will, to be 
taken as part thereof. 

Whereas, By the dispensation of Providence, my daughter, Clara B. 
Johnson, has deceased, March the first, eighteen hundred and seventy- 
six; and whereas,, a son has been born to me, which son is now christened 
David S. Johnson, I give and bequeath unto him my gold watch, and all 
right, interest and title in lands and bank stock, and chattels bequeathed 
to my deceased daughter, Clara B., in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto place my hand and seal, this tenth day 
of March, eighteen hundred and seventy-seven. Richard Johnson. 

Signed, sealed, published and declared to us, by the testator, Richard 
Johnson, as and for a codicil, to be annexed to his will and testament; and 
we, at his request and in his presence, and in the presence of each other 
have subscribed our names as witnesses thereto, at the date hereof. 

Peter Brown, Lexms^ton, Missouri. 

Robert Burr, Richmond, Missouri. 


For the support of the government of the state, the payment of the 
public debt, and the advancement of the public interest, taxes shall be 
levied on all property, real and personal, except as stated below: 

No tax shall be assessed for or imposed by any city, county, or other 
nmnicipal corporation, or for their use upon the following property: All 
houses, necessary furniture and equipments thereof, used exclusively for 
public worship, and the lot of ground on which the same may be erected. 
All orphan or other asylums, for the relief of the sick or needy, with their 
furniture and equipments, and the lands on which they are erected and 
used therewith, so long as the same shall be held and used for that pur- 
pose only ; all universities, colleges, academies, schools, and all other sem- 
inaries of learning, with the furniture and equipments, and land thereto, 
belonging or used immediately therewith, and their endowment fund, 
when not invested in real estate, so long as the same shall be employed 
for that purpose only. Provided^ That the land hereby exempted from 
taxation, belonging to any of the last named institutions, in any city or 
town, shall not exceed two acres, and in the County, not exceed five acres. 
And further provided. That such property, so exempted, shall not be 
under rent to any person, corporation, or society, and shall not, in any 
way or manner, be paying or yielding any rent or profit. Cemeteries 
and graveyards set apart and used for that purpose only. All real estate 
and other property belonging to any incorporated agricultural society, so 


long as the same shall be employed for the use of such society and none 
other. All libraries and their furniture and equipments, belonging to any 
hbrarv association or society. Nothing in this section shall be construed 
as to exempt from municipal or local taxation any description of property, 
when the same is held for the purpose of pecuniary profit or speculation. 

Lots in incorporated cities or towns, or within one mile of the limits of 
such city or town, to the extent of one acre, and lots, one mile distant 
from such cities or towns, to the extent of five acres, with the buildings 
thereon, when the same are used exclusively for religious worship, for 
schools, or for purposes purely charitable, shall be exempt from taxation 
for state, count}'-, or local purposes. 

There shall be annually assessed and collected on the assessed value of 
all the real estate and personal property subject by law to taxation in the 
state one-fifth of one per centum for state revenue and one-fifth of one 
per centum for the payment of all state indebtedness. 

The assessor or his deputv or deputies shall, between the first days of 
August and January, and after being furnished with the necessary books 
and blanks by the county clerk, at the expense of the county, proceed to take 
a list of the taxable personal property in his county, town, or district, and 
assess the value thereof in the manner following, to-wit: He shall call at 
the office, place of doing business, or residence of each person required 
by this act to list property, and shall require such person to make a cor- 
rect statement of all taxable property owned by such person, or under 
the care, charge, or management of such person, except merchandise, 
which may be required to pay a license tax, being in any county in this 
state, in accordance with the provisions of this act, and the person listing 
the property shall enter a true and correct statement of such property in 
a printed or written blank prepared for that purpose, which statement, 
after being filled out, shall be signed and sworn to, to the extent required 
by this act, by the person listmg the property, and delivered to the 
assessor, and such assessor's book shall be arranged and divided into two 
parts: The "land list" and the "personal property list." If any tax- 
payer shall fail or neglect to pay such collector his taxes at the time and 
place required by such notices, then it shall be the dut}'- of the collector 
after the first day of January then next, to collect and account for as 
other taxes, an additional tax, as a penalty, of one per cent per month 
upon all taxes collected b}^ him after the first day of January, as afore- 
said, and in computing said additional tax or penalty a fractional part of 
a month shall not be counted as a whole month. Collectors shall on the 
day of their annual settlement with the county court, file with said court a 
statement under oath of the amount so received, and from whom received, 
and setde with the court therefor; -provided, however, that said interest 
shall not be chargeable against persons who are absent from their homes 


and engaged in the militaiy service of this state, or of the United States, 
or against any tax payer who shall pay his taxes to the collector at any 
time before the first day of Januar}- in each year; -provided, that the 
provisions of this section shall apply to the city of St. Louis so far as the 
same relates to the addition of said interest which in said city shall be 
collected and accounted for by the collector as other taxes, for which he 
shall receive no compensation. 

Every county collector shall on or before the fifteenth day of each 
month pay to the state treasurer all taxes or licenses received by him 
prior to the first day of the month. 

The sheriff's deed executed to the purchaser of real estate under a sale 
for delinquent taxes, which shall be acknowledged before the circuit court 
of the county or city as in ordinary cases; shall convey a title in fee to 
such purchaser of the real estate therein named, and shall be prima facie 
evidence of title, and the matters and things therein stated are true. 



At the general election in the year eighteen hundred and eighty, and 
every two years thereafter, there shall be elected one judge of the 
supreme court, who shall hold his office for a term of ten years from the 
first day of January next after his election, and until his successor is duly 
elected and qualified. The majority of the judges may order special 


At the general election in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eighty, and at the general election every sixth year thereafter, except as 
otherwise provided by law, all the circuit judges shall be elected, and 
shall enter upon their offices on the first Monday in January next ensuing. 
Circuit courts in the respective counties in which they may be held shall 
have power and jurisdiction as follows: First, as courts of law in all 
criminal cases which shall not be otherwise provided for by law. Second, 
exclusive original jurisdiction in all civil cases which shall not be cogniz- 
able before the county courts, probate courts, and justices of the peace 
and not otherwise provided by law. Third, concurrent original jurisdic- 
tion with justices of the peace in all civil actions and proceedings for the 
recovery of money, whether such action be founded upon contract or 
trust or upon a bond or undertaking given in pursuance of law in any 
civil action or proceeding, or for a penalty or forfeiture given by any 
statute of this state when the sum demanded, exclusive of interest and 
cost, shall exceed fifty dollars and does not exceed one hundred and fifty 
dollars, and of all actions against any railroad company in this state to 
recover damages for the killing or injuring of horses, mules, cattle or 


Other animals, without regard to the value of such animals or the amount 
claimed for killing or injury, the same in all counties or cities having over 
fifty thousand inhabitants; concurrent original jurisdiction with justices 
of the peace of all actions and proceedings for the recovery of money, 
whether such actions be founded upon contract or tort or upon a bond 
or undertaking given in any civil action or proceeding, or for a penalty or 
forfeiture given by any statute of this state when the sum demanded, 
exclusive of interest and cost, shall exceed fifty dollars and not exceed 
two hundred and fifty dollars, and of all actions against any railroad com- 
pany in this state to recover damages for the killing or injuring horses, 
mules, cattle or other animals, without regard to the value of such ani- 
mals or the amount of damages claimed for killing or injuring the same. 
Fourth, appellate jurisdiction from the judgments and orders of the coun- 
ty court, probate court, and justices of the peace in all cases not expressly 
prohibited by law, and shall possess the superintending control over them. 
Fifth, the general control over executors, administrators, guardians, cura- 
tors, minors, idiots, lunatics, and persons of unsound mind. 


The county court shall be composed of three members, to be styled the 
judges of the county court; and each county shall be districted by the 
county court thereof into two districts of contiguous territory, as near 
equal in population as practicable, without dividing municipal townships. 
Judges of this court shall be elected for a term of two years. At the 
general election of 1882, they shall be elected for four years. Four terms 
of the county court shall be held in each county annually, at the place of 
holding courts therein, commencing on the first Monday in February, 
May, August, and November, and shall also have power to order special 
terms. This court has control of county property, settling with county 
treasurers, etc. 


A probate court which shall be a court of record and consist of one 
judge is hereby established in the city of St. Louis and in every county in 
this state. 

Jurisdiction— ^2ix^ court shall have jurisdiction over all matters per- 
taining to probate business, to granting letters testimentary and of adminis- 
tration, the appointment of guardians and curators of minors and per- 
sons of unsound mind, setUing the accounts of executors, administrators, 
curators and guardians, and the sale or leasing of lands by administrators, 
curators and guardians, and over all matters relating to apprentices, and 
such judges shall have the power to solemnize marriages. 

Judges of this court shall be elected in the year eighteen hundred and 
seventy-eight, and every four years thereafter. Said judge shall be com- 
missioned by the governor and shall hold his office for four years. 



The qualified voters of the counties of the city of St. Louis, the counties 
of St. Louis, St. Charles, Lincoln and Warren, shall elect a judge of the 
St. Louis court of appeals, who shall be a resident of district composed of 
said counties, and who shall hold offices for a term of twelve years. The 
St. Louis court of appeals shall consist of three judges, who shall possess 
the same qualifications as judges of the supreme court. The court shall 
have a marshal, janitor and reporter. 



Offenses punishable with death or imprisonment in the penitentiary dur- 
ing life, may be prosecuted at any time after the offense shall have been 

For felonies other than above mentioned, within three years after the 
commission of the offense. 

For any offense other than felony or fine or forfeiture, within one year 
after the commission of the offense. 

Actions and suits upon statute for penalty or forfeiture given in whole 
or part, to any person who will prosecute within one year after the com- 
missions of the offense. 

When penalty is given in whole or in part to the state, or county or 
city or the treasurer of the same, suit must be brought within two years. 

Actions upon any statute for any penalty or forfeiture given in whole or 
in part to the party aggrieved within three years. 

Actions against moneyed corporations, or against the directors or stock- 
holders of the same, shall be brought within six years of the discovery. 


Civil actions other than those for the recovery of real propery, must 
be commenced within the periods here prescribed. 

Actions upon any writing, whether sealed or unsealed, for the payment 
of money or property, within ten years. 

Actions brought on any covenant of warranty in deed, or conveyance of 
land, within ten years. 

Actions on any covenant of seizure contained in any such deed, within 
ten years. 

Actions upon contracts, obligations, or liabilities — express or implied, 

except as above mentioned, and except upon judgments or decrees of a 

court of record, within five years. 


Actions upon liability created by statute, other than penalty or forfeiture, 
five years. 

Actions for trespass on real estate, five years. 

Actions for taking, detaining, or injuring any goods or chattels, includ- 
ing actions for the recovery of specific personal property, or for any other 
injury to the person or rights of another not arising on contract and not 
otherwise enumerated, five years. 

Actions for relief on the ground of fraud, five years. 

Actions against a sheriff', coroner, or other public officer upon a liability 
incurred by doing an act in his official capacity, or the omission of an 
ofiicial duty, non-payment of money collected, etc., three years. 

Actions upon a statute for a penalty or forfeiture where the action is 
given to the party aggrieved, or to such party and the state, three years. 

Actions for libel, slander, assault and battery, false imprisonment, or 
criminal conversation, two years. 


Actions for the recovery of any lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or 
for the recovery of the possession thereof, shall be commenced by any 
person whether citizen, denizen, alien, resident or non-resident, unless 
his ancestor, predecessor, grantor, or other person under whom he claims 
was seized or possessed of the premises in question, within ten years 
before the commencement of such actions, except in case of military bounty 
lands, which must be brought within two years. 

No entry upon any lands, tenements or hereditaments shall be valid as a 
claim, unless the action be commenced thereon within one year after the 
making of such entry, and within ten years from the time when the right 
to make such entry accrued. 

If any person entitled to bring an action as above stated, shall be under 
twenty-one years of age, or imprisoned for less than life, or insane, or a 
married woman, the time during such disability shall continue, shall not be 
deemed any portion of the time limited for the commencetnent of such 
action or the making of such entry after the time so limited, and may be 
brought in three years after the disability is removed. 

If any person having the right to bring such action or make such entry, 
die during the disability mentioned, and no determination be had of the 
right, title, or action to him accrued, his heirs or any one claiming under 
him, may commence such action within three years. 



A grand jury shall consist of twelve men, and, unless otherwise ordered, 
as hereinafter provided, it shall be the duty of the sheriff* of each coimty 
in the state to summon within the time prescribed by law a panel of 


grand jurors, consisting of twelve good and lawful men, selected from 
the different townships of his county, as near as may be in proportion to 
the number of male citizens in each, to be returned to each regular term 
of the courts in his county having criminal jurisdiction. 

Every juror, grand and petit, shall be a male citizen of the state, 
resident in the county, sober and intelligent, of good reputation, over 
twenty-one years of age, and otherwise qualified. 

In all counties having a population less than twenty thousand inhabit- 
ants, every juror, grand and petit, shall be a male citizen of the state, 
resident in the county, sober and intelligent, of good reputation, over 
twenty-one years of age, and otherwise qualified. 

No exception to a juror on account of his citizenship, non-residence, 
state, or age, or other legal disability, shall be allowed after the jury is 

No person being a member of any volunteer fire department duly 
organized and ready for active service; no person employed in any paid 
fire department, and no person exercising the functions of a clergyman, 
practitioner of medicine, or atiorney-at-law, clerk or other officer of any 
court, ferry-keeper, postmaster, overseer of roads, coroner, constable, 
miller, professor or other teacher in any school or institution of learning, 
judge of a court of record, or any person over the age ob sixty-five years 
shall be compelled to serve on any jury. 

No person shall be summoned to serve at more than one term of court, 
either as grand or petit juror, within the period of one year in any court 
of record. Each person summoned under this act shall receive one dollar 
and fifty cents per day for every day he shall serve as such, and five cents 
for every mile he may necessarily travel in going from his place of resi- 
dence to the court house and returning to the same, to be paid out of the 
county treasury. 

All persons duly summoned as grand or petit jurors may be attached 
for non-attendance, and fined by the court for contempt in any sum not 
exceeding fifty dollars, in the discretion of the court. 

In all suits which hereafter may be pending in any court of record in 
this state the clerk shall, if a jury be sworn to try the same, tax up as 
other costs against the unsuccessful party a jury fee of six dollars, which 
shall be collected by the sheriff', and paid into the hands of the county 
treasurer, who shall keep an account thereof, in a separate book to be 
provided for that purpose, and the money so collected and paid in shall 
constitute a jury fund. 

Grand jurors shall not be compelled to serve on a petit jury during the 
same term. 

In all civil cases in courts of record, where a jury is demanded, there 
shall be summoned and returned eighteen qualified jurors; but in appeal 


cases the number shall be the same as allowed by law in the courts from 
which the appeals are taken, and the number of peremptory challenges in 


In the trial of civil causes, each party shall be entitled to challenge per- 
emptorily three jurors. 


The homestead of every housekeeper or head of a family, consisting of 
a dwelling-house and appurtenances, and the land used in connection there- 
with, which shall be used by such housekeeper or head of a family as such 
homestead, shall be exempt from attachment and execution. Such home- 
stead in the country shall not include more than 160 acres of land or exceed 
the total value of $1,500; and in cities having a population of 40,000 or 
more such homestead shall not include more than eighteen square rods of 
ground, or exceed the total value of three thousand dollars; and in cities 
or incorporated towns and villages having a less population than 40,000, 
such homestead shall not include more than thirty square rods of ground, 
or exceed the total value of $1,500. After the filing by the wife of her 
claim upon the homestead as such, the husband shall be debarred from 
and incapable of selling, mortgaging or alienating the homestead in any 
manner whatever. 

A husband and wife may convev the real estate of the wife, and the 
wife may relinquish her dower in the real estate of her husband, by their 
joint deed, acknowledged and certified as herein provided, but no covenant 
expressed or implied in such deed shall bind the wife or the heirs except 
so far as may be necessary effectually to convey from her or her heirs all 
her right, title and interest expressed to be conveyed therein. 

A married woman may conve}^ her real estate or relinquish her dower 
m the real estate of her husband by a power of attorney authorizing its 
conveyance, executed and acknowledged by her jointly with her husband, 
as deeds conveying real estate by them are required to be executed and 

If any married woman shall hold real estate in her own right, and her 
husband, by criminal conduct toward her, or by ill usage, shall give such 
married woman cause to live separate and apart from her husband, such 
woman may by her next friend petition the circuit court, setting forth such 
facts, and therein pray that such estate may be enjoA-^ed by her for her 
sole use and benefit. 

Any personal property, including rights in action, belonging to any 
woman at her marriage, or which may have come to her during coverture 
by gift, bequest or inheritance, or by purchase with her separate money 
or means, or be due as the wages of her separate labor, or have grown 
out of any violation of her personal rights, shall, together with all income, 
increase and profits thereof, be and remain her separate property, and 


under her sole control, and shall not be liable to be taken by any process 
of law for the debts of her husband. 


Whenever the personal property of any homestead or head of a family 
shall be attached or taken in execution, the debtor therein shall claim that 
the same, or any part thereof, is the product of such homestead, the officer 
taking the same shall cause appraisers to be appointed and sworn, as in 
the case of the levy of execution on real estate, and such appraisers shall 
decide upon such claim and settle the products of such homestead to such 
debtor accordingly, and the proceedings therein shall be stated by such 
officer in his return. 

Any policy of insurance heretofore or hereafter made by an}'- insurance 
company on the life of any person, expressed to be for the benefit of any 
married woman, whether the same be effected by herself or by her hus- 
band, or by any third person in her behalf, shall inure to her separate use 
and benefit and that of her children, if any, independently of her husband 
and of his creditors and representatives, and also independently of such 
third person effecting the same in his behalf, his creditors and representa- 

The following property only shall be exempt from attachment and exe- 
cution when owned by any person other than the head of a family: Firsts 
the wearing apparel of all persons. Second^ the necessary tools and 
implements of trade of any mechanic while carrying on his trade. 

The following property, when owned by the head of a famil}^ shall be 
exempt from attachment and execution. Firsts ten head of choice hogs, 
ten head of choice sheep, or the product thereof, in wool, yarn or cloth; 
two cows and calves, two plows, one axe, one hoe and one set of plow 
gears and all necessary farm implements for the use of one man. Second^ 
working animals of the value of one hundred and fifty dollars. Third, 
the spinning wheel and cards, one loom and apparatus necessary for man- 
ufacturing cloth in a private family. Fourth, all the spun yarn, thread 
and cloth, manufactured for family use. Fifth, any quantity of hemp, flax 
and wool not exceeding twenty-five pounds each. Sixth, aU wearing 
apparel of the family, four beds with their usual bedding, and such other 
household and kitchen furniture not exceeding the value of one hundred 
dollars, as may be necessary for the family, agreeably to an inventory 
thereof to be returned on oath, with the execution, by the officer whose 
duty it may be to levy the same. Seventh, the necessary tools and imple- 
ments of trade of any mechanic, while carrying on his trade. Eighth^ 
all arms and equipments required by law to be kept. JVinth, all such 
provisions as may be found on hand for family use, not exceeding one 
hundred dollars in value. Tenth, the bibles and other books used in a 


family, lettered grave stones, and oae pew in a house of worship. 
Eleventh^ all lawyers, physicians and ministers of the gospel shall have 
the privilege of selecting such books as may be necessary in their profes- 
sion, in the place of other property herein allowed at their option ; that 
doctors of medicine in lieu of the property exempt from execution, 
may be allowed to select their medicines. In all cases of the sale of per- 
sonal property, the same shall be subject to execution against the pur- 
chaser on a judgment for the purchase price thereof, and shall in no case 
be exempt from such judgment and execution for the purchase price as 
between the vendor, his assignee, heir or legal representative and pur- 


All fields and inclosures shall be inclosed by hedge, or with a fence 
sufficiently close, composed of posts and rails, posts and palings, posts and 
planks, posts and wires, palisades or rails alone, laid up in the manner com- 
monly called a worm fence, or of turf with ditches on each side, or of 
stone or brick. 

All hedges shall be at least four feet high, and all fences composed of 
posts and rails, posts and palings, posts and wire, posts and planks or pal- 
isades shall be at least four and a half feet high; those composed of turf 
shall be at least four feet high and with ditches on either side, at least 
three feet wide at the top and three feet deep; and what is commonly 
•called a worm fence shall be at least five feet high to the top of the rider, 
or if not ridered shall be five feet to the top of the top rail or pole and 
shall be locked with strong rails, poles or stakes; those composed of stone 
or brick shall be at least four and a half feet hiGfh. 

Wherever the fence of any owner of real estate now erected or con- 
structed, serves to enlose the lands of another, or which shall become a 
part of the fence enclosing the land of another, on demand made by the 
person owning such fence, such other person shall pay the owner one- 
half the value of so much thereof as serves to enclose his land; and upon 
such payment shall own an undivided half of such fence. 

Provided^ The person thus benefitted shall have the option to build 
within eight months from date of such demand, a lawful fence half the 
distance along the line covered by the above mentioned fence. The. 
demand shall be made in writing and served on the party interested, his 
agent or attorney, or left with some member of the family over fourteen 
years of age, at his usual place of abode. If the party notified fails to 
comply with the demand within the specified time, the party making the 
demand may, at his option, proceed to enforce the collection of one-half 
the value of such fence, or remove his fence without any other or further 

Every person owning a part of a division fence, shall keep the same in 


good repair, according to the requirements of the act, and upon neglect 
or refusal to do so, shall be liable in double damages to the party injured 

If the parties interested shall fail to agree as to the value of one-half 
of such fence, the owner of the fence may apply to a justice of the peace 
of the township, who shall, without delay, issue an order to three disinter- 
ested householders of the township, not of kin to either party, reciting the 
complaint, and requiring them to view the fence, estimate the value 
thereof, and make return under oath to the justice on the day named in 
the order. 

If the person thus assessed or charged with the value of one-half of 
any fence, shall neglect or refuse to pay over to the owner of such fence 
the amount so awarded, the same may be recovered before a justice of the 
peace or other court of competent jurisdiction. 


The overseers of highways in each road district in each township, shaU 
have care and superintendence of all highways and bridges therein, and 
it shall be their duty to have all highways and bridges kept in good repair, 
and to cause to be built all such bridges as public necessity may require, 
said bridges to be built by contract, let to the lowest responsible bidder, 
and to be paid for out of .any money in the overseer's hands, or in the 
treasury for road or bridge purposes. But in no case shall the overseer 
take such contract, either for himself or by his agent. 

It shall be the duty of the overseer of highways to name all residents 
of the district against whom a land or personal tax is assessed, giving 
them two da^^s notice to work out the same upon the highways, and he 
shall receive such tax in labor from every able bodied man, or his or her 
substitute, at the rate of $1.50 per day, and in proportion for a less 
amount, provided that any person may pay such tax in money. The 
township board of directors shall have the power to assess upon all real 
estate and personal property in their township made taxable by law for 
state and county purposes, a sufficient tax to keep the roads and highways 
of the various road districts in their township in good repair, which tax 
shall be levied as follows: for ever}'- one mill tax upon the dollar levied 
upon real and personal property, as valued on the assessor's roll of the 
previous year, the township board of directors shall require one day's 
work of each person subject to work on roads and highways, and no 


Poor persons shall be relieved, maintained and supported by the county 
of which they are inhabitants. 

Aged, infirm, lame, blind, or sick persons who are unable to support 


themselves, and where there are no other persons required by law and 
able to maintain them, shall be deemed poor persons. 

No person shall be deemed an inhabitant within the meaning of this 
chapter, who has not resided for the space of twelve months next preced- 
ing the time of any order being made respecting such person in the county, 
or who shall have removed from another county for the purpose of impos- 
ing the burden or keeping such person on the county where he or she last 
resided for the time aforesaid. 


Every landlord shall have a lien on the crops grown on the demised 
premises in any year for the rent that shall accrue for such year; and such 
lien shall continue for eight months after such rent shall become due and 
payable, and no longer. When the demised premises or any portion 
thereof are used for the purpose of growing nursery stock, the lien shall 
exist and continue in such stock until the same shall have been removed 
from the premises and sold. 

No tenant for a term, not exceeding two years, or at will, or by suffer- 
ance, .shall assign or transfer his term, or interest, or any part thereof to 
another, without the written assent of the landlord, or person holding 
under him. 

Either party may terminate a tenancy from year to year, by giving 
notice in writing of his intention to terminate the same, of not less than 
three months next before the end of the year. 

A tenancy at will, or by sufferance, or for less than one year, may be 
terminated by the person entitled to the possession, by giving one month's 
notice, in writing to the person in possession, requiring him to remove. 
All contracts or agreements for the leasing, renting, or occupation of stores, 
shops, houses, tenements, or other buildings in cities, towns, or villages, not 
made in writing, signed by the parties thereto, or their agents, shall be 
held and taken to be tenancies from month to month; and all such tenan- 
cies may be terminated by either party thereto, or his agent, giving to the 
other party or his agent one month's notice in writing, of his intention to 
terminate such tenancy. 

No notice to quit shall be necessary from or to a tenant whose time is 
to end at a certain time, or where by special agreement, notice is dis- 
pensed with. 

A landlord may recover a reasonable satisfaction for the use and occu- 
pation of any lands or tenements, held by any person under an agreement 
not made by deed. 

Property exempt from execution shall be also exempt from attachment 
for rent, except the crops grown on the demised premises on which the 
rent claimed is due. 


If any tenant for life or years, shall commit waste during his estate or 
term, of any thing belonging to the tenement so held, without special 
license in writing, so to do, he shall be subject to a civil action for such 
waste and shall lose the thing so wasted and pay treble the amount at 
which the waste shall be assessed. 


A bin of sale is a written agreement to another party for a considera- 
tion to convey his right and interest in the personal property. The pur- 
chaser must take actual possession of the property, or the bill of sale 
must be acknowledged and recorded. 


Know all men by these presents, That I, David Franklin, of Lexington, 
Missouri, of the first part, for and in consideration of three hundred dollars, 
to me in hand paid by Albert Brown, of the same place, of the second 
part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have sold, and by this 
instrument do convey unto the said Brown, party of the second part, his 
executors, administrators and assigns, my undivided half of forty acres of 
corn now growing on the farm ofWilliam Mason, in the township of Jackson, 
Lafayette county, Missouri; one pair of horses, twenty head of hogs, and six 
cows belonging to me and in my possession at the farm aforesaid ; to have and 
to hold the same unto the party of the second part, his heirs, executors, and 
assigns, forever. And I do for myself and legal representatives agree 
with the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, to 
warrant and defend the sale of the aforementioned property and chattels, 
.unto the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, 
against all and every person whatsoever. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto affixed my hand this first day of 
June, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six. 

David Franklin. 


Any lodge of Free Masons, or Odd Fellows, division of Sons of Tem- 
perance or any other association organized for benevolent or charitable 
purposes, or any library company, school, college, or other association, 
organized for the promotion of literature, science, or art, or any gymnastic 
or other association, organized for the purpose of promoting bodily or 
mental health, and all societies, organized for the purpose of promoting 
either of the objects above named, and for all similar purposes, by what- 
ever name they may be known, consisting of not less than three persons, 
may be constituted and declared a body politic and corporate, with aU the 
privileges, and subject to all the liabilities and restrictions contained in this 
act. Acts 1868, page 28. 


All associations incorporated under the provisions of the above law shall 
file a copy of all amendments to their articles of association, certified as 
such under their seal, with the clerk of the circuit court, within sixty days 
after their passage. 

Any number of persons, not less than three in number, may become an 
incorporated church, religious society, or congregation, by complying 
with the provisions of this chapter, except that it will be sufficient if the 
petition be signed by all the persons making the application, and when so 
incorporated, such persons and their associates and successors shall be 
known by the corporate name specified in the certificate of incorporation, 
and shall be entitled to all the privileges, and capable of exercising all the 
powers conferred, or authorized to be conferred by the constitution of this 
state upon such corporation. Acts 1871-2, P. 16, Sec. 1. 

Any such corporation shall have power to raise money in any manner 
agreed upon in the articles of association. 


A dramshop-keeper is a person permitted by law to sell intoxicating 
liquors in any quantity not exceeding ten gallons. 

No person shall directly or indirectly sell intoxicating liquors in any 
quantity less than one gallon without taking out a license as a dramshop- 

Application for a license as a dramshop-keeper shall be made in writing 
to the county court, and shall state where the dramshop is to be kept, and 
if the court shall be of opinion that the appHcant is a person of good 
character, the court may grant a license for six months. 

An}'^ sale, gift or other disposition of intoxicating liquors made to any 
minor without the permission or consent herein required, or to any hab- 
itual drunkard, b}' any clerk, agent, or other person acting for any dram- 
shop-keeper, druggist, merchant, or other person, shall be deemed and 
taken to be as the act of such dramshop-keeper, druggist, merchant, or 
other person. 

Intoxicating liquors may be sold in an}^ quantity not less than a quart 
at the place where made, but the maker or seller shall not permit or suffer 
the same to be drank at the place of sale, nor at any place under the 
control of either or both. Any person convicted of a violation of the 
provisions of this section shall be fined a sum not less than $40 nor more 
than $200. Provided, that nothing herein contained shall be so con- 
strued as to affect the right of any person having a wine and beer house 
license to sell wine and beer in any quantity not exceeding ten gallons at 
any place. 

Any dramshop-keeper, druggist, or merchant selling, giving away or 
otherwise disposing of any intoxicating liquors to any habitual drunkard, 


after such dramshop-keeper, druggist, or merchant shall have been noti- 
fied by the wife, father, mother, brother, sister, or guardian of such per- 
son not to sell, give away or furnish to such person any intoxicating 
liquors, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction 
thereof, shall be fined in any sum not less than $40 nor more than $200, 
and upon conviction of any dramshop-keeper it shall work a forfeiture of 
his license to keep a dramshop, and also debar him from again obtaining 
a license for that purpose. 


This Indenture^ made on the .... day of . . . . A. D. one thousand eight 
hundred and . . . . , by and between .... of ... . part .... of the first part, and 
.... of the . . . . of . . . . , in the state of ... . part . . of the second part. 

WITNESSETH, That the said part . . of the first part, in consideration of 
the sum of .... ^^dollars, to ... . paid by the said part . . of the second 
part, the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, do . . by these pres- 
ents, grant, bargain, and sell, convey, and confirm, unto the said part . . of 
the second part, .... heirs and assigns, the following described lots, tracts, 
or parcels of land, lying, being and situated in the. . . .of . . . .and state of 

, to-wit: * 

[Give description of property.]* 

To have and to hold the premises aforesaid, with all and singular, the 
rights, privileges, appurtenances, immunities, and improvements thereto 
belonging, or in any wise appertaining unto the said part, .of the second 
part, and unto .... heirs and assigns, forever; the said .... hereby cov- 
enanting that.... will warrant and defend the title to the said premises 
unto the said part . . of the second part and unto .... heirs and assigns 
forever, against the lawful claims and demands of all persons whom- 

In witness whereof, the said part . . of the first part ha . . hereunto set . . 
hand . . and seal . . the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of us. 



state of missouri, ) 

.... of ... . [ ' Be it remembered, that on this .... 

day of .... A. D. 18 .... , before the undersigned, a within and for the 

.... of ... . and state of ... . personally came .... who are personally known 
to me to be the same persons whose names are subscribed to the fore- 
going instrument of writing as parties thereto, and they acknowledged 
the same to be their act and deed for the purposes therein mentioned. 

And the said being by me first made acquainted with the contents of 

said instrument, upon an examination separate and apart from .... hus- 
band . . . . , acknowledged that .... executed the same, and relinquishes 


dower, in the real estate therein mentioned, freely and without fear, 

compulsion or undue influence on the part of . . . .said husband. . . . ; and 

I certify that my term of office as a notar\- public w ill expire 18 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set m}- hand and affixed my 
official seal, at my office in this day and year first above written. 


This indenture, made on the .... day of . . . . , A. D. one thousand eight 
hundred and , . . . , by and between . . . . , of the county of ..... and state of 
. . . . , part of the first part, and . . . . , of the county of . . . . , and state of 
, part of the second part, 

Witnesseth, That the said part of the first part, in consideration of the 

sum of luio dollars, to .... paid by the said part of the second part, 

the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, do by these presents, 
remise, release, and forever quit-claim unto the said part of the second 
part, the following described lots, tracts, or parcels of land, lying, being 
and situate in the county of . . . . , and state of . . . ., to wit: [Give descrip- 
tion of property.] 

* [This deed of quit-claim being made in release of, and satisfaction for 
a certain deed .... dated the . . day of .... , 18 . . ; recorded in the recor- 
der's office, within and for the county of .... aforesaid, in deed book , . , 
at pages . . . .] 

To have and to hold the same, with all the rights, immunities, privileges 
and appurtenances thereto belonging, unto the said part of the second 
part, and .... heirs and assigns, fOrever; so that neither the said part 
of the first part nor .... heirs, nor an}^ other person or persons for .... 
or in .... name or behalf, shall or will hereafter claim or demand any 
right or title to the aforesaid premises, or any part thereof, but they and 
every of them shall, by these presents, be excluded and forever barred. 

In witness whereof. That said part of the first part ha hereunto set 
hand and seal , the day and year first above written. 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of us. 



[Acknowledgment same as in General Warranty Deed.] 


Know all men by these presents, that, of the county of , in the 

state of ... . for and in consideration of the sum of ... . dollars, to the said 
in hand paid by.... of the county of.... in the state of ha.. 

* Omit this clause in case this deed is not made in release of some other instrument. 


granted, bargained and sold, and by these presents do . . grant, bargain 

and sell, unto the said the following described situated in the 

county of. . . .in the state of . . . .that is to say: 

[Give descriptioa of property.] 
To have and to hold the property and premises hereby conveyed, with 
all the rights, privileges and appurtenances thereunto belonging, or in 
anywise appertaining, unto said. . . .heirs and assigns forever; upon this 
express condition, whereas, the said .... on the .... day of .... A. D. one 
thousand eight hundx :d and .... made, executed and delivered to the said 

certain .... described as follows, to-wit: 

[Give description of notes, time of payment, etc.] 

Now, if the said .... executor or administrator, shall pay the sum of 
money specified in said .... and all the interest that may be due thereon, 
according to the tenor and effect of said .... then this conveyance shall be 
void, otherwise it shall remain in full force and virtue in law. 

In witness whereof, , the said grantor and mortgagor ha . , 

hereunto subscribed .... name .... and affixed .... seal .... this .... day of 

« • .} A.. xJ, In. . . 



[Acknowledgment same as General Warranty Deed.] 


Know all men by these presents, That of the county of , and 

state of . . . . , in consideration of the sum of . . . . Foo dollars, to ... . paid by 
.... of the county of . . . . and state of .... do sell and convey to said .... 
the following goods and chattels, to-wit: 

[Here describe goods.] 

Warranted free of incumbrances, and against any adverse claims: 

Upon condition. That. . . . pay to the said. . . .the sum of . . . .loo dollars, 

and interest, agreeably to . . .* . note . . dated on the .... day of , 18 . . , 

and made payable to the said .... as follows, to-wit : . . . . then this deed 
shall be void, otherwise it shall remain in full force and effect. 

The parties hereto agree That, until condition broken, said property 
may remain in possession of ... . but after condition broken, the said .... 
may at ... . pleasure take and remove the same, and may enter into any 
building or premises of the said. . . .for that purpose. 

Witness our hands and seals, this .... day of . . . A. D. 18 . . 

Signed, sealed and delivered in 

presence of us. [seal.] 

. [seal.] 

State of Missouri, 

County of '' 

Be it remembered, That on the. . . .day of A. D. 18. ., before the 

undersigned, a . . . . within and for the county aforesaid, personally came 


who personally known to me to be the same person whose 

name subscribed to the foregoing chattel mortgage as part 

thereto, and acknowledged the same to be act and deed for the uses 

and purposes therein mentioned. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed 
my seal, at my office in in said county, the day and year afore- 
said. My term of office as notary public will expire on the ... day of 
18. . 


This article of agreement witnesseth, That ha . . this day rented to 

in the present condition thereof, the for the period of from 

the da}^ 18. ., on the following terms and conditions, to-wit: 

For the use and rent thereof, the said. ...hereby promise, .to pay said 

or to order dollars, per for the whole time above stated, 

and to pay the same at the of each ; that will not 

sub-let or allow any other tenant to come in with or under .... without 
the written consent of said ; that will repair all injuries or dam- 
ages done to the premises by him or them during occupancy, or pay 

lor the same; that all of property, whether subject to legal exemption 

or not, shall be bound, and subject to the payment of rents and damages 

thereof; that will take good care of the buildings and premises and 

keep them free from filth, from danger of fire or any nuisance and from 
all uses forbidden in any fire insurance policy issued thereon, .... and pro- 
tect, defend and indemnify the said from all damages and charges 

for such, that the houses and premises shall be kept clean, fairly treated 
and left so; that in default of the payment of any. . . .installment of rent 
for .... day . . after the same becomes due, .... will, at the request of the 
said. . . .quit and render to. . . .the peaceable possession thereof; but, for 
this cause, the obligation to pay shall not cease, and, finally at the end of 
... .term. .. .will surrender to said .... heirs or assigns, the peaceable 
possession of the said house and premises, with all the keys, bolts, latches 
and repairs, if any, in as good condition as ... . received the same, the 
usual wear and use and providential destruction or destruction by fire 

In witness whereof, the parties have set, .. .hand. .. .and seal. .. .to 
.... cop . . hereof to be retained by ... . 

Dated this .... day of .... 18 . . 



Every mechanic or other person who shall do or perform any work or 
labor upon, or furnish an}^ materials, fixtures, engine, boiler or machinery 
for any building, erection or improvements upon land, or for repairing the 


same under or by virtue of any contract with the owner or proprietor, or 
his agent, trustee, contractor or sub-contractor, shall be entitled to a lien 
upon such building, erection, or improvement, and upon the land belong- 
ing to such owner or proprietor on which the same are situated. The 
original contractor must within six months, and every journeyman and 
day laborer within thirty days, and of every other person seeking to 
obtain the benefit of the provisions of this chapter, within four months 
after the indebtedness shall have accrued, file with the clerk of the cir- 
cuit court of the proper county, a just and true account of the demand due 
him or them, after all just credits have been given, which is to be a lien 
upon such building or improvement, and a true description of the property 
or so near as to identify the same upon which the lien is intended to apply, 
with the name of the owner or contractor, or both, if known to be the 
person filing the lien which shall in all cases be verified by the oath of 
himself or some credible person for him. 

Every person except the original contractor, who may wish to avail 
himself of the benefits of the provisions of this chapter, shall give ten days 
notice before filing of the lien as herein required, to the owner, owners, or 
agent, or either of them, that he or they hold a claim against such build- 
ing or improvements, setting forth the amount and from whom the same is 

All mechanics' lien holders shall stand on equal footing, without refer- 
ence to date of filing, and upon sale of property they shall take pro rata 
on the respective liens. 

We onty attempt to give an outline of the law of mechanics' liens to aid 
the general business man. Should any complicated questions arise, it is 
best to consult an attorney in regard to the san>e. 


Now, at this day, come .... and with a view to avail .... of the benefit 
of the statute relating to mechanics' liens, file . . the account below set 
forth for work and labor done, and materials furnished by .... under 
contract with .... upon, to and for the buildings and improvements 
described as follows, to-wit: 

(Give description of buildings.) 
and situated on the following described premises, to-wit: 

(Give description of the property upon which the building is erected.) 
said premise, buildings, and improvements, belonging to and being 
owned by .... which said account, the same being hereby filed, in order 
that it may constitute a lien upon the buildings, improvements, and prem- 
ises above described, is as follows: 

[Set the account out in full.] 

State of Missouri, county of . . . . , ss., being duly sworn, on his 

oath says that the foregoing is a just and true account of the demand due 


.... for work and labor done, and materials furnished by .... upon, to 
and for the buildings and improvements hereinbefore described, after all 
just credits have been given; that said work and labor were done, and 
said materials furnished upon, to and for said buildings and improvements 

by .... at the instance and request of, and under contract with that 

the foregoing description is a true description of the property upon, to and 
for which said materials were furnished, and said work and labor done, 
and to which this Hen is intended to apply, or so near as to identify the 

same ; that said demand accrued within months prior to the filing of 

this lien, and that on the day of ....... 18. ., and at least ten days 

prior to the filing of this lien .... gave notice to .... of his claim against 
the amount thereof, from whom due, and of ... . intention to file a lien 
therefor; that said .... as affiant is informed and believes, the owner. . 
of the above described premises, and the buildings and improvements 
thereon, which said premises, buildings, and improvements are intended 
to be charged with this lien. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this day of , 18 . . 


Know all men by these presents, that .... of .... for and in considera- 
tion of the sum of .... dollars to . . in hand paid by .... of the 

receipt whereof . . do hereby acknowledge, by these presents do bargain 
and sell unto the said .... all the goods, household stuff, implements and 
furniture, and all other goods and chattels whatsoever mentioned in the 
schedule hereunto annexed: To have and to hold all and singular the 
said goods, household stuff, and furniture, and other premises above bar- 
gained and sold or intended so to be, to the said .... and . . assigns for- 
ever. And .... the said .... for ... . and . . heirs, all and singular, the 
goods and chattels of whatever description, unto the said .... and . . 
assigns against .... the said .... and against all and every other person 
and persons whomsoever, shall and will warrant and forever defend 
by these presents. Of all and singular which said goods, chattels, 
and property, .... the said have put the said in full pos- 
session by delivery to . ., the said one at the seaUng and delivery 

of these presents, in the name of the whole premises hereby bargained 

and sold, or mentioned, or intended so to be unto . . , the said as 


In witness whereof, . . have hereunto set . . hand . . and affixed . . seal 
this day A. D. 18 . . 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of [l. s.] 

Note. — If the bill of sale is to be recorded in the county recorder's office, it must bo 
acknowledged before some officer authorized lo take acknowledgment of deeds — other- 
wise not. 

abstract of missouri state laws. 193 

State of Missouri, ) 
County of f 

Be it remembered, that on this .... day of . . . ., A. D. 18. ., before the 
undersigned, a . . . . within and for the county of . , . . and state of Mis- 
souri, personally came .... who . . personally known to me to be the 
same person . . whose name . . subscribed to the foregoing instrument 
of writing, as part., thereto, and acknowledged the same to be .. 
voluntary act and deed for the purposes therein mentioned. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my 
official seal, at my office in the day and year above written. 


$ means dollars, being a contraction of U. S., which was formerly 

placed before any denomination of money, and meant, as it means now. 
United States currency. 

£ means pounds, English money. 

@ stands for at or to-, lb for pounds, and bbl. for barrels', f) for -per 
or by the. Thus, butter sells at 20 @ 30c f S>, and flour at $8@12 f bbl. 

"|o for per cent., and jj for number. 

May 1. Wheat sells at $1.20@$1.25, "seller June." Seller June 
means that the person wiio sells the wheat has the privilege of delivering 
it at any time during the month of June. 

Selling short, is contracting to deliver a certain amount of grain or 
stock, at a fixed price, within a certain length of time, when the seller has 
not the stock on hand. It is for the interest of the person selling " short" 
to depress the market as much as possible, in order that he may buy and 
fill his contract at a profit. Hence the " shorts" are called " bears." 

Buying long, is to contract to purchase a certain amount of grain or 
shares of stock at a fixed price, deliverable within a stipulated time, 
expecting to make a profit b}^ the rise in prices. The " longs" are termed 
" bulls," as it is for their interest to " operate " so as to " toss " the prices 
upward as much as possible. 


Orders should be worded simply, thus: 
Mr. F. H. Coats: St. Louis, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Please pay to H. Birdsall twenty-five dollars, and charge to 

F. D. SiLVA. 

Receipts !-hould always state when received and what for, thus. 


$100. St. Louis, vSept. 15, 1876. 

Reeived of J. W. Davis, one hundred dollars, for services 

rendered in grading his lot in Sedalia, on account. 

Thomas Brady. 
If receipt is in full, it should be so stated. 


W. N . Mason, Marshall, Missouri, Sept. 18, 1876. 

Bought of A. A. Graham. 

4 Bushels of Seed Wheat, at $1.50 $6 00 

2 Seamless Sacks " 30 60 

Received payment, $6 60 

A. A. Graham. 


An agreement is where one party promises to another to do a certain 
thing in a certain time for a stipulated sum. Good business men always 
reduce an agreement to writing, which nearly always saves misunder- 
standings and trouble. No particular form is necessary, but the facts must 
be clearly and explicitly stated, and there must, to make it valid, be a 
reasonable consideration. 


This agreement, made the second day of June, 1878, between John 
Jones, of Marshall, county of Saline, state of Missouri, of the first part, 
and Thomas Whitesides, of the same place, of the second part — 

WITNESSETH, That the said John Jones, in consideration of the agree- 
ment of the part}' of the second part, hereinafter contained, contracts and 
agrees to and with the said Thomas Whiteside, that he will deliver in good 
and marketable condition, at the village of Slater, Missouri, during the month 
of November, of this year, one hundred tons of prairie hay, in the fol- 
lowing lots, and at the following specified times, namely: Twenty-five 
tons by the seventh of November, twenty-five tons additional by the 
fourteenth of the month, twenty-five tons more by the twenty-first, and 
the entire one hundred tons to be all delivered bv the thirtieth of November. 

And the said Thomas Whitsides, in consideration of the prompt fulfill- 
ment of this contract, on the part of the party of the first part, contracts 
to and agrees with the said John Jones, to pay for said hay five dollars per 
ton, for each ton as soon as delivered. 

In case of failure of agreement by either of the parlies hereto, it is 
hereby stipulated and agreed that the party so failing shall pay to the 
other, one hundred dollars, as fixed and settled damages. 

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands, the day and year 
first above written. John Jones. 

Thomas Whitesidb. 



This agreement, made the first day of May, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy-eight, between Reuben Stone, of Marshall, county of 
Saline, State of Missouri, party of the first part, and George Barclay, of 
Sedaha, county of Pettis, state of Missouri, party of the second part — 

WITNESSETH, That said George Barclay agrees faithfully and diligently 
to work as clerk and salesman for the said Reuben Stone, for and during 
the space of one year fi"om the date hereof, should both Hve such length of 
time, without absenting himself from his occupation ; during which time he, 
the said Barclay, in the store of said Stone, of Marshall, will carefully and 
honestly attend, doing and performing all duties as clerk and salesman 
aforesaid, in accordance and in all respects as directed and desired by the 
said Stone. 

In consideration of which services, so to be rendered by the said Bar- 
clay, the said Stone agrees to pay to said Barclay the annual sum of one 
thousand dollars, payable in twelve equal monthly payments, each upon 
the last day of each month; provided that all dues for days of absence 
from business by said Barclay, shall be deducted from the sum otherwise 
by the agreement due and payable by the said Stone to the said Barclay. 

Witness our hands: Reuben Stone. 

George Barclay. 

Practical Rules for Every Day Use. 

How to find the gain or loss fer cent. wJien the cost and selling f rice are 

Rule. — Find the difference between the cost and selling price, which 
will be the gain or loss. 

Annex two ciphers to the gain or loss, and divide it by the cost price; 
the result will be the gain or loss per cent. 

How to change gold into currency. 

Rule. — Multiply the given sum of gold by the price of gold. 

How to chano^e currency into gold. 

Divide the amount of currency by the price of gold. 

How to find each partner's share of the gain or loss in a copartnership 

Rule. — Divide the whole gain or loss by the entire stock, the quotient 
will be the gain or loss per cent. 

Multiply each partner's stock by this per cent., the result will be each 
one's share of the gain or loss. 

How to find gross and net weight and price of hogs. 

A short and simple metJwd for finding the net weighty or price of hogs^ 
when the gross weight or price is given^ and vice versa. 

Note. — It is generally assumed that the gross weight of hogs diminished by 1-5 or 20 
per cent, of itself gives the net weight, and the net weight increased by ^ or 25 per cent, of 

itself equals the gross weight. 

To find the net weight or gross -price. 

Multiply the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

To find the gross weight or net price. 

Divide the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

How to find the capacity of a granary, bin, or wagon-bed. 

Rule. — Multiply (by short method) the number of cubic feet by 6308, 
and point off one decimal place -the result will be the correct answer in 
bushels and tenths of a bushel. 

I^or only an approximate answer, multiply the cubic feet by 8, and point 
off one decimal place. 

How to find the contents of a corn-crib. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 54, short method, or 
by 4^ ordinary method, and point off one decimal place — the result will 
be the answer in bushels. 

Note — In estimating corn in the ear, quality and the time it has been cribbed must be 
taken into consideration, since corn will shrink considerably during the winter and spring. 
This rule generally holds good for corn measured at the time it is cribbed, provided it is 
sound and clean. 


How to find the contents of a cistern or tank. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of the mean diameter by the depth (all in 
feet) and this product by 5681 (short method), and point ofT one decimal 
place — the result will be the contents in barrels of 31-^ gallons. 

How to find the contents of a barrel or cask. 

Rule. — Under the square of the mean diameter, write the length (all 
in inches) in reversed order, so that its units will fall under the tens; 
multiply by short method, and this product again by 430; point ofi one 
decimal place, and the result will be the answer in wine gallons. 

How to measure boards. 

Rule. — Multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches) and divide 
the product by 12 — the result will be the contents in square feet. 

How to tneasure scantlings^ joists., -planks., sills, etc. 

Rule. — Multiply the width, the thickness, and the length together, (the 
width and thickness in inches, and the length in feet), and divide the 
product b}^ 12 — the result will be square feet. 

How to find the number of acres in a body of land. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width (in rods) and divide the pro- 
duct by 160 (carrying the division to 2 decimal places if there is a remain- 
der); the result will be the answer in acres and hundredths. 

When the opposite sides of a piece of land are of unequal length, add 
them together an-d take one-half for the mean length or width. 

How to find the number of square yards in afioor or wall. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width or height (in feet), and divide 
the product by 9, the result will be square yards. 

How to find the number of bricks required in a building. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 22^. 

The number of cubic feet is found by multiplying the length, height 
and thickness (in feet) together. 

Bricks are usually made 8 inches long, 4 inches wide, and two inches 
thick ; hence, it requires 27 bricks to make a cubic foot without mortar, 
but. it is generally assumed that the mortar fills 1-6 of the space. 

How to find the number of shingles required in a roof. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of square feet in the roof by 8, if the 
shingles are exposed ^\ inches, or by 7 1-5 if exposed 5 inches. 

To find the number of square feet, multiply the length of the roof by 
twice the length of the rafters. 

To find the length of the rafters, at one-fourth pitch, multiply the 
width of the building by .56 (hundredths); at one-third pitch by .6 
(tenths); at two-fifths pitch, by .64 (hundredths); at one-half pitch, 
by .71 (hundredths). This gives the length of the rafters from the apex 
to the end of the wall, and whatever they ar« to project must be taken 
into consideration. 


XoTE. — By ^ or 1^ pitch is meant that the apex or comb of the roof is to be jt|^ or )^ 
the width of the building higher than the walls or base of the rafters. 

How to reckon the cost of hay. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of pounds by half the price per ton, and 
remove the decimal point three places to the left. 

Uotv to measure gram. 

Rule. — Level the grain; ascertain the space it occupies in cubic 

feet; multiply the number of cubic feet by 8, and point off one place to 

the left. 

Note. — Exactness requires the addition, to every three hundred bushels, of one extra 

The foregoing rule may be used for finding the number of gallons, by 
multiplying the number of bushels by 8. 

If the corn in the box is in the ear, divide the answer by 2 to find the 
number of bushels of shelled corn, because it requires 2 bushels of ear 
com to make 1 of shelled corn. 

Rapid rules for measuring' land luithoiit instruments. 

In measuring land, the first thing to ascertain is the contents of any 
given plot in square yards; then, given the number of yards, find out the 
number of rods and acres. 

The most ancient and simplest measure of distance is a step. Now, an 
ordinary-sized man can train himself to cover one yard at a stride, on the 
average, with sufficient accuracy for ordinary purposes. 

To make use of this means of measuring distances, it is essential to 
walk in a straight line; to do this, fix the eye on two objects in a line 
stright ahead, one comparatively near, the other remote; and, in walking-, 
keep these objects constantly in line. 

Farmers and others by adopting the following simple and ingenious con- 
trivance., may always carry with them the scale to construct a correct yard 

Take a foot rule, and commencing at the base of the little finger of the 
left hand, mark the quarters of the foot on the outer borders of the left 
arm, pricking in the marks with indelible ink. 

To find how many rods in length will make an acre^ the width being 

Rule. — Divide 160 by the width, and the quotient will be the answer. 

How to find the number of acres in any plot of land, the number of rods 
being given. 

Rule. — Divide the number of rods by 8, multiply the quotient by 5, 
and remove the decimal point two places to the left. 

The diameter being given., to find the circumference. 

Rule. — Multiply the diameter by 3 1-7. 

How to find the diameter when the circumference is gyven. 

Rule. — Divide the circumference by 3 1-7. 


To find how many solid feet a round stick of timber of the same thwh^ 
ness throughout will contain when squared. 

Rule. — Square half the diameter in inches, multiply by 2, multiply by 
the length in feet, and divide the product by 144. 

General rule for measuring timber^ to find the solid contents in feet. 

Rule, — Multiply the depth in inches by the breadth in inches, and then 
multiply by the length in feet, and divide by 144. 

To find the number of feet of ti^nber in trees with the bark on. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of one-fifth of the circumference in inches 
by twice the length in feet, and divide by 144. Deduct 1.10 to 1.15 
according to the thickness of the bark. 

Howard's new rule for commuting interest. 

Rule. — The reciprocal of the rate is the time for which the interest on 
any sum of money will be shown by simply removing the decimal point 
two places to the left ; for ten times that time, remove the point one place 
to the left; for 1-10 of the same time, remove the point three places to the 

Increase or diminish the results to suit the time given. 

Note. — The reciprocal of the rate is found by inverting Whq rate ; thus 8 per cent per 
month, inverted, becomes 3^ of a month, or ten days. 

When the rate is expressed by one figure, always write it thus: 8-1, 
three ones. 

Rule for converting English into American currency. 

Multiply the pounds, with the shillings and pence stated in decimals, by 
400 plus the premium in fourths, and divide the product by 90. 


A township — 36 sections each a mile square. 
A section — 640 acres. 

A quarter section, half a mile square — 160 acres. 

An eight section, half a mile long, north and south, and a quarter of a 
mile wide — 80 acres. 
A sixteenth section, a quarter of a mile square — 40 acres. 

The sections are all numbered 1 to 36, commencing at the north-east 

The sections are divided into quarters, which are named by the cardinal 
points. The quarters are divided in the same way. The description of 
a forty-acre lot wculd read: The south half of the west half of the 
south-west quarter of section 1, in township 24, north of range 7 west, 
or as the case might be; and sometimes will fall short, and sometimes 
overrun the number of acres it is supposed to contain. 



7 92-100 inches make 1 link. 

26 links " 1 rod. 

4 rods " 1 chain. 

80 chains " 1 mile. 

Note. — A chain is 100 links, equal to 4 rods or 66 feet. 

Shoemakers formerly used a subdivision of the inch called a barleycorn; 
three of which made an inch. 

Horses are* measured directly over the fore feet, and the standard oi 
measure is four inches — called a hand. 

In biblical and other old measurements, the term span is sometimes 
used, which is a length of nine inches. 

The sacred cubit of the Jews was 24.024 inches in length. 

The common cubit of the Jews was 21.704 inches in length. 

A pace is equal to a yard or 36 inches. 

A fathom is equal to 6 feet. 

A league is three miles, but its length is variable, for it is strictly speaking 
^ nautical term, and should be three eeo£fraphical miles, equal to 3.45 stat- 
ute miles, but when used on land, three statute miles are said to be a'league. 

In cloth measure an aune is equal to IJ yards, or 45 inches. 
An Amsterdam ell is equal to 26.796 inches. 
A Trieste ell is equal to 25.284 inches. 
A Brabant ell is equal to 27.116 inches. 


Every farmer and mechanic, whether he does much or little business, 
should keep a record of his transactions in a clear and systematic manner. 
For the benefit of those who have not had the opportunity of acquiring a 
primary knowledge of the principles of book-keeping, we here present a 
simple form of keeping accounts which is easily comprehended, and well 
adapted to record the business transactions of farmers, mechanics and 

1875. A. H. JACKSON. Dr. Cr. 













March 8 























7 bushels wheat 

shoeing span of horses. . 

14 bushels oats 

5 ft), butter 

new harrow 

sharpening 2 plows 

new double-tree 

cow and calf 

half ton of hay 


repairing corn-planter. . . 

one sow with pigs 

cash, to balance account , 

, at $1.25 

'.at $ .45 
at .25 

$ 8.76 









. . . . r ,^5.15 

$88 .o'5|$88j05 




























By 3 day's labor 

To 2 shoats 

To 18 bushels corn 

By 1 months labor , 

To cash 

By 8 days mowing 

To 50 lbs. flour 

To 27 lbs. meat 

By 9 days harvesting 

By 6 days labor 

To cash 

To cash to balance account 

.at $1.25 
.at 3.00 
. at .45 

at $1.50 

.at$ .10 
• at 2.00 
,at 1.50 

$ 6.00 


* 2.75 



$ 67.75 $67.75 

$ 3.75 

• • • • 


• • • • 




A Simple Rule for Accdeatblt Coxpdtins Interest at Akt Gitbn P«k Cemt »ob Amt LBMeTB 

OP Time. 

Multiply the prtncepoi (amount of money at interest) by the f.ime reduced to days; then divide thl« 
product by the qvotunt obtained by dividing 360 cthe number of days in the interest year) by the p#r 
cent of interest, and the quotient thus obtained will be the required interest. 

ILliU^TRATION. SolutiOTi. 

Require tht- interest of $462.50 lor one month and eighteen days at 6 per cent. An $462.60 

inieret-t mouth is 30 days ; one month and eighteen days equal 48 days. $462.50 .48 

multiplied by .48 gives"$35S.0O00; 360 divided hy 6 (the per cent of interest) gives 
60, and 222.0000 divided by 60 will give the exact interest, which is $3.70. If the 

rate of iuteros't in the above example were_12 per cent, we would divide the $222.- 6(300 1 

OOuO by 30 (because 360 divided by 12 gives 30); if 4 per cent, we would divide by 90; 
if 8 per cent, by 4o, and in like raatiner for any other per cent. 


CO 2222.0000 



IS unite or things, 1 doses . 
Vi dozen, 1 gross. 
210 things, 1 score. 


1 196 pounds, 1 barrel of flour. 

200 pounds, 1 barrel of pork. 

1 66 pounds, 1 firkis of butter. 

24 sheets of paper. 1 quire. 

SO quires of puper, 1 ream. 

4 .. wide, 4 ft. high, ftod 8ft. long, 1 cord wood. 




Virginia. — The oldest of the states, was so called in honor of Queen 
Elizabeth, the " Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made 
his first attempt to colonize that region. 

Florida. — Ponce de Leon landed on the coast of Florida on Easter 
Sunday, and called the countr3' in commemoraticn of the day, which was 
the Pasqua Florida of the Spaniards, or " Feast of Flowers." 

Louisiana was called after Louis the Fourteenth, who at one time 
owned that section of the country. 

Alabama was so named b}" the Indians, and signifies " Here we Rest." 

Mississippi is likewise an Indian name, meaning " Long River." 

Arkansas, from Kansas, the Indian word for " smoky water."' Its pre- 
fix was reall}' arc, the French word for "bow." 

The Carolinas were original!}" one tract, and were called " Carolana," 
after Charles the Ninth of France. 

"* 6^tfor<f/(r/ owes its name to George the Second of England, who first 
established a colonv there in 1732. 

Tennessee is the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i. e., the 
Mississippi which forms its western boundary. 

Kentucky \& the Indian name for "at the head of the river." 

<9;42b means "beautiful;" T^zrw, "drowsy ones;" Afintiesota, ^^ cloudy 
water," and Wisconsin, " wild-rushing channel." 

Illinois is derived from the Indian word lllini, men, and the French 
suffix ois, together signifying " tribe of men." 

Michigan was called by the name given the lake, fish-iveir, which was 
to styled from its fancied resemblance to a fish trap. 

ivfissouri is from the Indian word " muddy," which more properly 
applies to the river that flows through it. 

Oregon owes its Indian name also to its principal river. 

Cortez named California. 

Massachusetts is the Indian for " the coimtry around the great hills." 

Connecticut, from the Indian Quon-ch-ta-Cut, signifying " Long River." 

Marvland, after Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles the First, of Eng- 

New York was named by the Duke of York. 

Pennsylvania means " Penn's woods," and was so called after William 
Penn, its original owner. 

Delaware after Lord De la Ware. 

New Jersey, so called in honor of Sir George Carteret, who was gov- 
ernor of the island of Jersey, in the British channel. 

Maine was called after the province of Maine, in France, in compliment 
of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned that province. 


Vermont, from the French words vert mont^ signifying green mountain. 

Nezv Hampshire, from Hampshire county, in England. It was formerly 
Ciilled Laconia. 

The little state of Rhode Island owes its name to the island of Rhodes, 
in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said to greatly resemble. 

Texas is the American word for the Mexican name by which all that 
section of the country was called before it was ceded to the United States. 


The business of -publishing books by subscription, having so often been 
brought into disrepute by agents making representations and declarations 
not authorized by the publis/ier, in order to prevent that as much as possi- 
ble, and that there may be more general knowledge of the relation such 
agents bear to their principal, and the law governing such cases, the fol- 
lowing statement is made: 

A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, by 
which the subscriber agrees io pay a certain sum for the work described; 
the consideration is concurrent that the publisher shall publish the book 
immed, and deliver the same, for which the subscriber is to pay the price 
named. The nature and character of the work is described by the pros- 
pectus and sample shown. These should be carefully examined before sub- 
scribing, as they are the basis and consideration of the promise to pay, and 
not the too often exaggerated statements of the agent, who is merely 
e^nployed to solicit subscriptions, for which he usually paid a commission 
for each subscriber, and has no authority to change or alter the conditions 
upon which the subscriptions are authorized to be made by the publisher. 
Should the agent assume to agree to make the subscription conditional, or 
modify or change the agreement of the publisher, as set out by the pros- 
pectus and sample, in order to bind the principle, the subscriber should see 
that such condition or changes are stated over or in connection with his 
signature, so that the publisher may have notice of the same. 

All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this kind, or any 
other business, should remember that the law as written is, that they can 
not be altered, varied or rescinded verbally, but if done at all, must be done 
in writing. It is therefore importa, i that all persons contemplating sub- 
scribing should distinctly under stand ^that all talk before or after the sub- 
scription is fnade is not admissible as evidence, and is no part of the contract. 

Persons employed to solicit subscriptions are known to the trade as can- 
vassers They are agents appointed to do a particular business in a pre- 
scribed mode, and have no authority to do it in any other way to the 
prejudice of their principal, nor can they bind their principal in any 
other matter. They cajinot collect money, or agree that payment may be 
made in anything else but money. They cannot extend the time of payment 
beyond the time of delivery, nor bind their principal for the payment of 
expenses incurred in their business. 

// would save a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if persons, 
before signing their names to any subscription book, or any written instru- 
meni, would examijie carefully what it is; if they cannot read themselves, 
call on some one disinterested who can- 

History of Pettis County. 


Signification of History — Kinds of History — Value as Instruction — Object of this Work — 
Task of the Historian and His Fitness — How and by Whom Collected and Compiled — 
Mistakes — Criticisms— Signification of a Name — How Pettis County got its Name — 
Sketch of Hon. Spencer Pettis. 

History, in its most general signification, is a narrative of events. It 
includes a record not only of national events and affairs in the world at 
large, but also an account of small districts, families, and of the lives and 
acts of individuals. History is of two kinds — narrative and philosophical. 
The former mere statement of facts as they occur, one after another; 
while the latter also comprehends deductions from those facts, and the 
relation of cause and effect. At first, history took the form of tradition, 
which is oral opinions or memorials handed down from father to son, or 
from ancestor to posterity, assuming the form of religious belief, much of 
which was obscure and mythical. 

Among the oldest examples of written history are sculptured inscrip- 
tions and records of acts of rulers, especially their victories, and are found 
on temples and pyramids of Egypt, Assyria, Greece, and Phoenicia. Herod- 
otus, the father of history, was born about the close of the fifth century, B. C, 
and his writings, so far as known, are the earliest that can be traced of his- 
tory, aside from the collections of Moses. Thucydides was the second 
great historian, but his writings approached more nearly the philosophical 
style than the writings of Herodotus. The ancient historians of Greece 
and Rome usually confined themselves to plain narrative, as Xenophon in 
his Anadasis, Ccesar in his Commentaries, and Livy in his History of Ro7ne. 
Tacitus showed his in portraying tyranny in its blackest colors. Eusebius 
was the first great ecclesiastical historian. 

Modern history has the tendency of critical rather than merely narra- 
tive. Many of the histories written within the last half century are won- 
derful monuments of critical research. In these days the historian is no 
longer a mere reporter, he must be prepared to analyze character, and to 
weigh events. He must seek his materials at the fountain head, must 
compare the private with the public actions of the characters he portrays, 
and present to his readers a picture of men and women which shall be 


accurate in minute detail, and yet embrace the remoter consequences of 
their actions. 

Annals are a chronicle divided into distinct years; biography, the his- 
tory of the life and character of a particular person; memoirs, an account 
of transactions in which the narrator bore a part; a romance, a fictitious 
tale; and chronicle, the narration of events when time is considered the 
chief feature. All these are closely related to and fall within the province 
of history. The writer of history includes within his subjects more, and 
a greater variety of, material than any other literary man, and history is a 
more fruitful source of practical instruction than any other branch of liter- 
ature. The pleasure and profit derived from careful perusal of the pages 
of history is unlimited. Histories are multiplying as the popular demand 
increases, for the chief object in making a book is its sale. All books, 
except, perhaps, the Bible, are made with the prime object of profit. 
Scientific works, works of fiction, histories, school books, books of poetry, 
newspapers, and all other periodicals, are issued with the full expectation 
of pecuniary profit to the publisher, and it is right that they should receive 
reward, for, in the strife for wealth and power, men would otherwise neg- 
lect the cultivation of the mind, and the production of hidden truths. No 
man would publish a newspaper for the sole purpose of conferring a ben- 
efit on his fellow; no man would publish a history for the sole object of 
glory, or through a philanthropic act, desiring to confer a blessing upon 
those into whose hands it chanced to fall. Literature, like all other occu- 
pations, must be suitably rewarded. It is not at all probable that the pub- 
lishers of this work would have undertaken such a great task unless they 
rightfully expected suitable remuneration. 

The history of Pettis county will be found to contain all, and far more 
than the publishers have promised or their friends expected. Mistakes 
and inaccuracies will occur. No history, nor any other book, not even 
the Bible, the best of all books, has yet been written without them. 
Books of the character of this history have been known in older States 
for several years. County, township, city, neighborhood, and even family 
histories have been compiled in most of the eastern States, including 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, California, and many 
western districts. The history of one of these counties combine the good 
qualities of many histories in one book, besides furnishing a personal 
sketch of rare worth and gratification. A short history of the State, 
which also relates to many national aftairs, then a detailed history of the 
county under many difterent heads, in such a manner that if the reader 
will make it a careful study he will be greatly pleased and profited. 

The historian should be a man of broad and generous views, free from 
prejudice. Such is a stranger who goes into a county to place in order its 
history. True, he meets with many obstacles which would not present 


themselves to one who has long resided among the scenes he desires to 
narrate; but the advantages possessed by the stranger are far greater 
than those possessed by the resident. The stranger has no friends to 
reward, and no enemies to punish. He enters upon his task free to select 
from the best and most reliable sources, those items of history which will 
interest the greatest number, without having his mind pre-occupied with 
a special subject or particular class of citizens. 

Just as in an important trial at law, he who enters the jury box least 
prejudiced by former knowledge of the case, makes the best juror; so 
the intelligent stranger can most impartially decide what is acceptable 
history, and what is not. The corps of historians who furnished this 
record of such facts as they have been able to obtain by diligent work, 
did so with no other motive than performing their task well; and fulfilling 
their promise to their patrons. That persons will harshly criticise this 
work, and that too, when the greatest array of facts testify to the correct- 
ness of the book, is conceded; but the value of a record like this will only 
be appreciated in future years, when a greater portion of its pages would 
have been lost or forgotten, had not a laudable enterprise rescued them 
from oblivion. To attempt a criticism on another is thought, by some, to 
show wisdom and culture; to such the following lines of Pope appro- 
priately apply: 

"Some have at first for wits, then poets, passed ; 
Turn'd critics next, and proved plain fools at last." 


Clustering around the name of an object are associate thoughts as 
immortal as the name itself. If, as has been said, " there is nothing in a 
name," then history is vain; for often a single name contains much history. 
The name Washington signifies to the mind more than any three syllables 
uttered by American freemen. A name is not merely a single sound or 
combination of sounds. It has perpetual existence. The person or thing 
may die or ^vanish away and be forgotten, but the name will live forever. 
Even the ideal picture of Homer, the greatest of poets, will fade from 
earth, but his name will not leave the pages of history till time shall be no 
more. So much importance is attached to the name of an object, that it 
becomes the first thing claiming attention, Immediately after the creation 
God brought every living thing unto Adam to see what he would call 
them. Nothing exists apart from its name, but the name exists perpetu- 
ally without the object. In this world there is very little unalloyed truth, 
but in the expression, " there is everythino in a name," we have a state- 
ment much nearer universal truth, than in the expression " there is nothing 
in a n*ame." 

For ages the names of heroes have been given to places and things. 


During the short history of America, its great men have been honored in 
the name of nmnberless counties, townships, cities, towns, municipalities 
and post-offices. The great name of Washington is met everywhere, from 
the capital oi the Nation, down to the smallest hamlet of a rural district. 
Franklin, Jackson, Lincoln, Grant and many other names applied to places 
are found in every section, and in every State of our Union. It may be 
asked why, if there be so much in a name, we do not give the most impor- 
tant name to the most important object. The reason of this is that some 
names are so much above any terrestrial object that they are never used 
n that connection. The appellations of Diety are too sacred to be given 
to mercenary individuals and perishable objects of the world. God holds 
no man guiltless who takes his name in vain. So exalted is the name of 
Christ that it is written, "at the name of Jesus, every knee shall bow, of 
things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth." 

In our State of Missouri, we have counties bearing the immortal names 
of Benton, Boone, Clay, Douglas, Franklin, Green, Harrison, Henry, 
Jackson, Johnson, Lafayette, Lincoln, Madison, Pettis, Washington, 
Webster, and many others. It has become a favorite custom to 
have a county and other smaller political divisions of territory 
known by the name of some individual, but a State or Nation is not thus 
named. Many names are given by accident. Some places take the name 
of a river, mountain or original tribe. Our language has become enriched 
by the new names which have crept into it, and by the modification of 
old ones. 

Hon. Spencer Pettis. — We herewith give a brief biographical sketch 
of the eminent man whose name this county bears. He was born in the 
State of Virginia in the year 1802, receiving an academical education, 
subsequent!}- studied law, commencing the practice of his profession at 
Fayette, Howard county, Missouri.. At an early age he displayed great 
abilit}'', and soon rose to the very best estimation of the people of his 
adopted State. At the age of twenty-seven years he appeared in the 
zenith of his political glory before the people, as a candidate to Congress. 
Prior to this date (1828), Missouri had sent but two representatives to 
Congress, Hon. John Scott, elected in 1820, serving six years, and Hon. 
Edward Bates, elected in 1826, serving two years. In this campaign 
there were three candidates for Congress: Edward Bates, a Whig, and 
Wm. Carr Lane and Spencer Pettis, Democrats, the latter of whom so 
equally divided the strength of the party that the election of Hon. Edward 
Bates was inevitable if both continued in the race. Finally, the question 
as to which of the two should retire was submitted to Col. Benton. He, 
without hesitation, decided that Lane should withdraw and Pettis con- 
tinue before the people. This fact was made known by sending and 
posting hand-bills throughout the State, for at that time there were no 


lines of telegraph and but few newspapers. The result of this election was 
that Pettis was elected by a handsome majority. Hon. Spencer Pettis 
was a warm friend of Col. Thomas H. Benton and an outspoken Demo- 
crat, who had earnestly entered the contest against United States banks, 
in harmony with Gen. Jackson. He served in the Twenty-first Congress 
from December 7th, 1829, to March 3d, 1831. 

During the administrations of Andrew Jackson (1820-1829), who was 
really the people's choice for president in 1824, when the house of repre- 
sentatives gave the office to John Q. Adams, the war against the United 
States National Bank by the military hero, whose great talents, inflexible 
honesty and iron will were unassailable, created considerable excitement 
throughout Missouri, and all over the Union. In 1830 politics was 
warmly discussed in Missouri. At that time Missouri contained but one 
congressional district, and the Hon. Spencer Pettis, a shrewd, talented 
young lawyer of St. Louis, was a candidate for re-election to congress. 
He was a supporter of Jackson's admmistration, and caustic and severe 
in his opposition to the national bank. No doubt the Hon. Spencer Pettis 
had become the most popular politicians in the State. At his last election 
he had a large majority over the Hon. David Barton, who had lately 
retired from the United State Senate, and had been brought forward by 
his friends for the lower house of congress. During the political canvass 
many personal controversies appeared in the public prints, some of which 
had a melancholy termination. It appears that Mr. Pettis had a personal 
quarrel with Maj. Thomas Biddle, then paymaster in the United States 
army, and a brother of Nicholas Riddle, then president of the United States 
bank. Another brother of his was Commodore Biddle, of the navy. 
Through the influence of the Hon. Thomas H. Benton, Mr. Pettis was 
prevented from going into a duel with Mr. Biddle until after the election, 
which was then the first Monday in August. After the election a chal- 
lenge passed from Mr. Pettis to Mr. Biddle, which was accepted, and 
the parties met on the sand bar, opposite the city of St. Louis, August 
27th, (Friday), 1831. It is said by old settlers that the river was lined by 
people on both sides to witness the tragedy. On account of Mr. Biddle's 
near-sightedness, the distance measured was five feet, so that when they 
presented their pistols they overlapped. The firing was simultaneous. 
Both were mortally wounded, and when notified of "this fact by the sur- 
geons, hke Hamlet and Laertes, they mutually forgave one another. 
Mr. Pettis died the next morning, and was buried on the following Sun- 
day, the day on which Mr. Biddle expired. Thus ended the career of 
one of the most prominent young men of Missouri. The following 
appears in the archives at Washington: "Spencer Pettis, St. Louis Co., 
Mo., elected August, 1828, for two years. Re-elected 1830. Killed in a 
duel with Biddle, August, 1831. Term of service, three years. " 


So dear was this young hero and champion of the people's rights in 
the memory of those who associated in forming this county out of Cooper 
and Saline counties, on January 26th, 1833, that the name of Pettis was 
bestowed upon it. Messrs. Joseph S. Anderson, of Cooper county, John 
Stapp, of Lafayette county, and John S. Rucher, of Howard county, 
were commissioners in 1834, to locate the county seat of Pettis. Accord- 
ingly they met at St. Helena, commonly known by the soubriquet of Pin 
Hook, or Wasson's Mill, in the following March, and in 1837, Gen. David 
Thompson, father of Mr. Mentor Thompson, now of Sedalia, assisted 
in " laying out " Georgetown, naming it for Georgetown, Ky., his old 

Soon after the duel between Pettis and Biddle was fought, the name 
Bloody Island was applied to the ground upon which the fatal tragedy 
took place. 

The name of Pettis is supposed to have formerly been spelled Pettus. 
Sir John Pettus, an English writer, was born in Suffolk, England. He 
became deputy governor of the royal mines, and published "The History, 
Laws, and Places of the Chief Mines in England and Wales," in the year 
1670. He died about A. D. 1690. 


Introduction — Habits and Characteristics of Pioneers — First Houses — Bedsteads — Manner 
of Cooking — Hominy Blocks — Early Mills — Farming — Hospitality and Traits of Early 
Settlers — Pin Hook Settlement — Flat Creek--Georgetown— *Early Manner ot Farming 
— Incidents — Names of Settlers. 

The early settlers, where are they ? 

They are falling one by one : 
A few more years may pass away, 

And leave but few or none. 

Since the period when the early settlements were made within the limits 
of what is now called Pettis county. Time, the great monarch of all things 
perishable, has made various changes. The ranks of families have been 
thinned and the surface of the earth materially changed. The slow and 
unobserved "old man with his sickle" has visited every dwelling, thrust- 
ing in his wiry blade regardless of nationality, home, or honor, so now 
numbers of the old pioneers sleep beneath the soil they once tilled. The 
writer is touched with the reverting thought of remembering many of 
the plain and hospitable men of the west, whose unsullied hearts and inter- 
minable energy of purpose, gave to this country its birthright, and its 
wholesome outlook in the dark days of hardships, who now rest from 
their labors. As long as the sands of time unceasingly roll, ma}^ the his- 


torian's pen incessantly recount the matchless worth of these pioneers, 
who cleared the way for the following generations. 

After spending considerable time in gathering materials, from records 
and old settlers, we find it impossible in these pages to give a full detail of 
the early settlements and pioneers of Pettis county. Every nation does 
not possess an authentic account of its origin, and many communities of com- 
paratively recent date, from whence their origin may be traced. The old 
Latins said, "/7?r5«« et haec olini mefmnisse Javabit^'''' which, means that 
perhaps it will be pleasant hereafter to remember these things. Never- 
theless, to be interested in such things is characteristic of the human race, 
and it comes particularly within the province of the historian to deal with 
the first causes. If at times these facts be lost, as is often the case when 
drawing from traditions, and the chronicler invades the realm of the ideal 
world and paints the missing picture, it should be accepted as pertment to 
the theme. The patriotic Roman was not content till he had famed the 
" First Settlers," although the story of their lineage was not so tasteful to 
the cultured patricians. 

One of the advantages of a new country, and the one usually least 
appreciated, is to be able to go to the beginning. Through this avenue 
the historian can trace results to their causes, and grasp the facts which 
have contributed to bring about events and mould characters. When we 
observe that a county has attained a certain position in contrast with other 
counties, we cast about for the reasons of the present conditions, by going 
to its early settlements and surroundings. In this way the changes 
which have produced the great enterprises of to-day may be accurately 

In the history of Pettis county we may trace, in some instances, the 
early settlers to their old homes in the older States, and in the countries 
of the Old World, from whence they came. We may follow the course 
of the Buckeye, Sucker, Hoosier, Knickerbocker, Green-Mountain, and 
Nutmeg boys in striking contrast with the Corncrackers, Tuckyhoes, 
Tarheels, Whelps, and Texas Rangers, as we arrange the annals of the 
pioneers for compilation. For more than a century the provincialisms of 
the different sections of the Union have been marked by a deep contrast. 
The sturdy sons of New England " guess it is rearing and education," 
while the Dixie boys " reckon it is raising and family caste." 

In this county and the west generally, the people have been, little by 
Httle, losing the tinge of their sectional bias, so that at this period it is dif- 
ficult to tell the difference. East, west, north, and south have been 
blended into harmony of feeling and purpose. The prejudices that once 
prompted different localities to become antagonistic have passed away. 
The customs, dress, language, diet, and sundry things peculiarly western 
are now quite different from those of the pioneers of Pettis county. 


Often the adventurer came to the west to " grow up" with the country, 
trusting only to his strong arm and willing heart to work his way on in 
the world. It was in this way many a penniless, ambitious young man 
secured a home in this county for his loving wife, and a good maintenance 
for his children. Here, fifty years ago, the pioneer hunter chased the 
deer, elk, and bear, where now are broad and well cultivated fields. It 
was by industry and economy that the pioneers left their children pleas- 
ant homes in many instances. 

Here we may see the path worn by the Missourian in his experience in 
a land which, to him, was a country far more preferable than that southern 
and eastern soil where he made his former home. We may see here the 
growth which came with knowledge, and the progress which grew upon 
him with advancement, and how his better nature was developed. The 
vanishing pride of Kentucky, or the vain-glory of other sections, brought 
here in an early day, have been modified since the advent of new measures 
in the crucible of democracy, forever eliminating servitude from the solu- 
tion, and establishing freedom and education in its stead. Others have 
been animated with the impulse to move on, after making themselves a 
part of the community, left for the west where civilization had not gone, 
some becoming wealthy returned to Pettis county, while many remained 
in their new homes. 

In this county there were but few of the distinctive New England men 
and women or Yankees, a class of people with abundant nerve and brain 
force which have poured into western and southern states since the war 
by thousands, swelling the population and wealth of those regions in ex- 
cess of any previous flow of emigration. This class brought with them a 
proclivity, inherent, submissive and courteous, which has tended to smooth 
the angles of western society and deaden the execrable feeling that had 
so long drawn the lines of sectional division. The agile New Englander 
will soon be a perfect Missourian and his offspring will tell the story of 
the adventure and feel ever thankful that they have a cheerful home in the 
favored spot of the west. In Pettis county may be found many an indus- 
trious, economical German, besides other nationalities — all of whom have 
contributed to modify types of men already living here. 

Those who have noted the career of the brave, strong men in subduing 
the wilds, overcoming the obstacles and withstanding the hardships of this 
county in early times, can but admit that the first settlers were worthy 
sons of illustrious sires. 

During the decade which comprehends the period prior to 1820, the 
history of this section was made up of the earliest stage of pioneer life. 
About all that we can gather from this time is drawn from tradition. In 
those days the people took but little care to preserve history; they were 
too busily engaged in making it. Historically speaking, those were the 


most important years in the growth of this section. It was then the 
corner-stone of all the county's history and prosperity was laid. How- 
ever, this period was not remarkable for its stirring events, if we leave 
out the admission of the State into the Union. It was, morover, a time of 
self-reliance, brave persevering toil, mingled with privations patiently 
endured through faith in the good time coming. Invariably, the first set- 
tlers were quite poor, mutually facing the same dangers and standing upon 
the same footing. 

All the experience of the early pioneers of this county goes far to con- 
firm the theory that, after all, happiness is pretty evenly balanced in the 
world. They had their privations and hardships, but they had, also, their 
own peculiar joys , If they were poor, they were free from the burden of 
pride and vanity, unless inherent in their nature, being exempt from the 
anxiety and care that always attend the possession of wealth. Other peo- 
ple's eyes cost them nothing. If they had few neighbors they were gen- 
erally on good terms. Envy and jealousy had never crept in. A com- 
mon interest and mutual sympathy bound them together with the closest 
ties. They were a little world to themselves, and the good feeling that 
prevailed was all the stronger, because they were so far removed from the 
dense populated cities of the east. 

A fine hospitable feeling existed among the pioneers, arising partially 
from their social state of welfare. There were no castes, no aristocracy, 
except an aristocracy of kind hearts and benevolence. They were bound 
together with a bond of sympathy begotten by the consciousness of com- 
mon hardships. 

In the early times, neighbors did not wait for an invitation or request 
to help one another. Whenever a settler's cabin was burned or blown 
down, no sooner was the fact known than the neighbors turned out to 
assist the unfortunate man in rebuilding his house. In this work they 
came with as little hesitation and as much alacrity as if they were all 
members of the same family, bound together by the ties of consanguinity. 
What was one man's interest was the interest of the whole community. 
It must be remembered that this feeling among the pioneers was, by no 
means, peculiar to Pettis county, although it was strongly illustrated here. 
It prevailed among all the old settlements of Missouri. The very nature 
of circumstances taught the settlers the necessity of dwelhng together in 
this spirit. It was their only protection. They had come, many of them^ 
far away from the well established leign of law, and settled in a new 
country, where the civil authority was yet feeble, and unable to aflbrd 
protection and redress grievances. Here in Pettis county, some of the 
old settlers lived quite a while before there was a single officer of the 
law in the county. Each man's protection was in the good will and 
friendship of those about him, and the one thing that any person might 


well dread, was the ill-will of the community; for it was more terrible 
than the law. The law has its squabbles and delays, but there is no 
squabbling or delaying at the court of public sentiment. It was no com- 
mon thing in early times for hardened men, who had no fear of jails, to 
stand greatly in awe of the indignant community. Such were some of 
the characteristics of the first settlers of Pettis county; nevertheless, they 
were generally peaceable, quiet law-abiding citizens, and for several years 
these pioneers had but few law-suits, and cared very little for anything 
except domestic affairs. They had no time to waste in neighborhood 
quarrels. Their charitable hand was ever open to welcome the stranger 
who had cast his lot with them, to share mutually what was in reserve. 

The first buildings of the county were not just like the log cabins that 
were afterwards erected. The latter was regarded as buildings of nota- 
bility, requiring some help and considerable labor and expense for those 
times. The first dwellings were a cross between pole cabins and Indian 
bark huts. Many of the pioneers thus began life in the west, but soon 
after this house-raising called numbers of the settlers together to assist 
each other in erecting substantial log houses. A few pioneers yet live,, 
who remember the happiest time of life as that when they lived in one of 
those plain but comfortable log houses. 

In the pioneer's house a window with sash and glass was a rarity, and 
an evidence of wealth and aristocracy which but few could afford. The 
windows were more often made by cutting out a log or taking out a few 
chinks. The doors were fastened with old-fashioned wooden latches, and 
swung on wooden hinges. These houses were tenements suited to the 
times. For friend, for neighbor or traveler the latch-string ahvays hung 
on the outside of the door. The pioneers were hospitable, entertaining 
visitors, even strangers without any charge. 

It is quite noticeable with what affection and attachment the old settlers 
speak of their log cabins. It may be doubted whether palaces ever shel- 
tered happier hearts than those who lived in rudely constructed log houses. 
The following is a brief descriptiou of the pioneer's dwelling: 

These cabins were of round logs and poles, notched together at the 
corners, ribbed with poles, and covered with boards split from a tree. A 
puncheon floor was laid down, a hole cut in the end of the building 
where a stick and mud chimney was built. In some houses a window was 
made by cutting out a hole in the side or end, which had no glass or trans- 
parency save the light of heaven. The cracks were stopped or chinked 
with blocks of wood and mud. The one-legged bedstead — now a piece 
of furniture of the past — was made by cutting a stick the proper length, 
boring holes in the logs of the cabin one and one-half inches in diameter, 
at right angles, and the same-sized hole corresponding for the triangular 
part which was fastened in the floor or ground, poles made the bed rails, 



and from pole to pole hickory bark was often interwoven or clapboard 
were laid across, and upon this structure a straw or shuck mattress was 
laid, and sometime a feather tick was placed still over this. The house- 
hold and kitchen furniture were all in the same little room. The conven- 
ience of the cooking stove was not thought of then, but instead, the food 
was prepared by the faithful housewife in pots, kettles, ovens, and skillets, 
on and about the big open fire place and frequently around the pedal ex- 
tremities of the husband, one of the so called " lords of creation," and legal 
sovereigns of the househould while he was indulging in his nicotine and 
poisonous luxuries of a cob pipe, and now and then chewing and squirting 
the juice of the " natural leaf," discoursing the issues of an election, or con- 
templating the probable results of a proposed hunting excursion. Often 
the very earliest settlers baked their bread on a board before the fire and 
called it "Johnnie cake." 

Those log cabins were not so bad after all. The people of to-day, famil- 
iar with cooking stoves and culinary u-tensils, would not be at home were 
they compelled to prepare a meal with no other conveniences than such 
as were found in the pioneer's log cabin. In very many instances rude 
fire places were constructed of mud and sticks, sometimes rough stones 
were laid for a hearth, jambs and back, the mud and stones to keep the 
sticks from catching fire, and the sticks to keep the mud from falling 

These fire places served for heating and cooking purposes, and also, 
ventilation. Around the cheerful blaze of these early fires the meals were 
prepared, and before the fireside the board was spread and the edibles 
relished with a piquancy that the envoy of Spain might envy. These 
viands, it must be remember were not such as would tempt the epicure, 
but such as afibrded the most wholesome nourishment for a class of people 



who were driven to exposure and hardships by their lot. Among them 
there were but few dyspeptics. 

Before there were mills of easy access, and even in some instances af- 
terwards, hominy blocks were used. These now exist only in the memory 
of the oldest settlers. But few of the present generation know any thing 
of hominy blocks. We give a brief discription: A tree of suitable size 
from eighteen to twenty inches was selected in the forest and felled 
to the ground. If a cross cut saw was convenient the tree was butted, /. 
e., the kerf or rough part taken off, so that it would stand steady when 
ready for use. If there were no saws in the neighborhood strong arms 
and sharp axes were ready to do the work. When the block was smooth 
at both ends the work of cutting out a hole commenced. This was done 
with an ax. When the cavity was sufficiently large a fire was kindled in 
and carefully guarded till the rough edges were burned out. When com- 
pleted the block resembled a druggist's mortar. A pestle was made of a 
suitable piece of wood for the purpose of beating the corn. Sometimes 
one hominy block accommodated an entire neigliborhood and was the 
means of staying the hunger for many months. 

Sometimes in cases of rare necessity when the snow was too deep to 
travel or swollen streams intervened between the settler's home and the 
mill, a grist mill was extemporized from a coffee mill, whereby sufficient 
corn was ground to furnish meal for the family. At other times a grater 
was made by pricking holes in an old piece of tin, and after the corn was 
softened somewhat by boiling in the ear, meal was grated. Numerous 
instances of this kind might be given to show how families and even whole 
neighborhoods subsisted in this way for days and even weeks. A long 
period of this kind occurred during the great snow of 1829. 

But few streams of the county had suitable mill sites. In a very early 
day a grist mill, water power, was erected on Muddy by James Wasson 
and called Pin Hook. A few horse mills were run in the older settle- 

The early settlements were confined to the wooded skirts of the little 
streams. Flat Creek and Muddy are the principal streams on which they 
first settled. In those days these streams furnished plenty of water to 
turn the mills in order to supply the demand for corn cake. Considera- 
ble fish were found in these streams then. 

It is supposed by the old settlers that since civilization came westward 
and utilized the soils and drained the bottom lands, that there is not so 
much rain as formerly. It is said by reliable old settlers, that for days 
and weeks, many of the creeks could not be forded. At that time there 
were no roads, bridges, ferry boats, and but few canoes, making travel 
very difficult in bad weather. Then even the 'smallest streams were ofi;en 
dangerous, making it no small undertaking to travel where so many 


treacherous streams had to be crossed. Then scarcely a week passed with- 
out some rain, and the streams were often swollen beyond the capacity of 
their banks, and would swim a horse where now we see luxuriant and 
fertile corn fields. 

Many of the first settlers went to Boonville for their milHng, which 
was the only place where merchandise was carried on for several years. 
At that time all the present State of Missouri west and north of the 
Osage river, and the old settled counties north of the Missouri river, was 
for many years, known as the " Boone's Lick country." The old settlers 
knew it by no other name. It received its name from a place called 
Boone's Lick, in what is now Howard county, situated about eight miles 
northwest of New Franklin, near the Missouri river. This place was 
visited by Daniel Boone at a very early date, finding several large salt 
springs where deer and other game resorted; he made this a favorite 
hunting ground. Here in 1807, Nathan and Daniel M. Boone, sons of 
the frontiersman, Daniel Boone, manufactured salt at Boone's Lick, and 
shipped it down the river to St. Louis. Several adventurers came to this 
section as hunters, but no one attempted to settle here until 1808, when 
Col. Benj. Cooper determined to make his home in this favored spot, but 
the territorial governor, Merriwether Lewis issued an order directing all 
frontier settlers to return since he could not afford them protection in case 
of an Indian war. In spite of all obstacles this section was not destined to 
be left forever under the reign of wild beasts and savage Indians. In 
those days all the territory including Saline, Cooper, and Pettis counties 
presented advantages for those seeking homes in rich land and healthful 
cHmate. Here the soil promised, with little labor, the most abundant 
harvests. The forests were filled with every variety of game, and streams 
with all kinds of fish. 

During the war of 1812, the Indians took sides with the British against 
the United States, committing many depredations. After this war the 
Sac Indians were driven ofT, but often made hunting visits and were 
friendly towards the settlers. 

When the first settlers came to this county wild game of all kinds was 
abundant, and so tame as not to be frightened by the approach of the 
white man. This game furnished the sturdy pioneers all their meat, and 
in fact, with all the provisions that they used, except their bread. At the 
advent of the white man, large numbers of deer,- turkey, bear, elk, and 
other wild animals were very plentiful, and to use the expression of an 
old settler, " they were as plentiful as domestic stock in our pastures, and 
could be killed just as easy." The settlers spent most of their time in 
hunting and fishing, as it was of little use to plant crops to be destroyed 
by the wild animals. 

The wild animals killed for food were not the only ones which filled 


the forests. Such terrible and blood-thirsty wild beast as the bear and 
the panther could be seen very often lying in wait tor an unwary traveler 
who ventured near their lairs. Capt. W. K. Ramey, when a mere strip- 
ling, out with his gun and dog, discovered three bears snugly covered 
with grass and weeds, early in the month of March, ere bruin had arose 
from his hibernation to take in the spring days. At first the Captain 
could not perceive what the pile of old grass meant, but by thrusting in 
his hand he found the bears which allowed him to put his hands on them 
to see if they were alive. After finding life in them he fired at the largest 
one, which fell to the ground after a few brief struggles. This brought 
the others, a yearling and a cub, out in the contest, the dog kept them at 
bay till a second shot brought the yearling to the ground, and then the 
cub tried to make his escape by taking to the wood, but he was pursued 
and treed, and a third shot from the Captain's gun brought him down. 
This was the Captain's initiation in bear fighting. Billy O'Brien killed 
an elk near the present village of Dresden, said to have been the largest 
ever killed in the county. When the head was severed from the body 
and stood upon the points of the horns, Mr. O'Brien rode under with his 
gun on his shoulder without stooping. This head and set of horns 
remained on the prairie for several years and more than one horseman 
has rode under the prongs. This is vouched for by Capt. W. K. Ramey, 
who was present when this enormous elk was slain, and killed four elk 
that day himself. Mr. O'Brien died in this county, and in 1850 his family 
moved to California. 

In 1818 Nimrod Jenkins and a few others settled near the Lamina 
river, in the northeastern part of the county, which then formed a part of 
Cooper county. Solomon Reed came from Crab Orchard, Ky., and set- 
tled in 1821 in what is now known as Pettis county. He was a genuine 
pioneer, all of his life having been spent on the outskirts of civilization. 
He was liberal in his dealings with the Indians, and always on familiar 
and friendly terms with them, and among them he bore the soubriquet of 
*' Pumpkin," owing to the fact that they could always get from him a 
supply of that vegetable, of which they seemed to be very fond. One 
year later Jesse Swope, Silas Jenkins, and Sylvester Hall located on Black- 
water. Mr. Hall is now living a few miles north of Knobnoster, John- 
son county, Mo. Soon after this settlement came Reuben E. Gentry, 
Thomas Osborne, Wm. O'Bannon, James Wasson, James Ramey and 
others, and settled on Muddy creek. A German settlement was made 
on Lake creek in 1831. 

A settlement was made on a spot near old Georgetown. Settlements 
were made on Muddy, and Flat creek. George Heard, Esq., built the 
first house in Georgetown, during the fall of 1835. He was the first 
teacher of the countv. 


Some of the first settlers were Thomas Wasson, John Dickerson, Judge 
Jas. Ramey, Capt. W. K. Ramey, Nathan A. Newbill, Jesse Swope, 
Hiram Swope, Abijah Hughes, Leonard Bouldin, Edward Speddin,Wm. 
C. Harrison, Henry C. Hall, Richard O'Bannon, Absalom McVey, 
Reuben E. Gentry, M. Emery, C. and W. Woods, Reece Hughes, J. M. 
Wooldridge, Andrew Forbes, Samuel Forbes, Maj. Wm. Gentry, Aaron 
Jenkins, Amos Fristo, Gen. Geo. R. Smith, John Montgomery, Mentor 
and Milton Thomson, Norah S. Rigg, Jesse Douglass, Aldea A. Glass- 
cock, Albion Robinson and many others some of which will appear 

History is but the unrolled scroll of prophecy, setting forth and recount- 
ing not only what is, but giving us gleams of that which is soon to follow. 

The early settlers who bore the brunt through all the dark and trying 
times of the development of this county shall never lose claims to. 
valor and noble deeds of charity. Whenever we read of the heroic 
and daring conduct of the hardy pioneer in procuring bread for loved 
ones, we can but reflect that his heart was more valiant than the soldiers 
who followed either a Napoleon or a Hannibal. 

An interesting comparison might be drawn between the conveniences 
which now tend to make the life of the farmer comparatively an easy one, 
compared with the farming of those days. A brief description of the 
accommodations possessed by the first tillers of the soil will not be amiss. 
The children of such illustrious sires should draw their own comparisons, 
which should forever silence the voice of complaint, often heard among 
grumbling farmers. 

The farming utensils of the early settlers were the bull-tongue colter, 
single shovel, and wooden mold-board plows. Then if a man owned a 
wooden board plow he was quite an aristocrat. With these simple imple- 
ments the plowman opened up his patches. These rude plows did good 
service and are awarded the honor of first stirring the soil of Pettis county. 

A few old settlers have lived to see the rough and crooked paths of 
pioneer life change to that of ease and comfort, with grand-children 
around, enjoying a thousand fold of the luxuries which have resulted from 
former arduous toils. The iron-nerved pioneers stood bravely by their 
condition, through storm and calm, ever thinking of the good time com- 

"When the forest should like a vision, 

And over the hillside and plain 

The orchard would spring in beauty, 

And the fields of golden grain. " 

The simple fare of the inhabitants was alike conducive to health and 
economy. When boarding houses were first established, ten cents was 
the bill for a meal. If the table was supplied with corn bread the boarders 


were satisfied. Flour was very scarce, and an unknown commodity to 
many families. But few of the young people of to-day know any thing 
about making the delicious and digestible corn cake, the pride of our 
grandmother's days. 

One of the peculiarities of pioneer life was a strange loneliness, which 
at first was a solitude of oppression to the young wife who had her happy 
home in the States. Months would pass often without seeing a face, out- 
side of the family circle. The isolation of those days has wrought such 
reticence upon some families, that generations cannot efface. The children 
of some families grew up quite rude. The girls of a few families were 
bashful and timid and in their homes perfect prudes. The hoiden was 
unknown. However, the better classes brought up their chidren with 
great vigilance, training them in home etiquette, domestic economy, and 
•love for religion. 

When the rights of the pioneers were threatened or invaded their 
timidity, or bashful nature vanished like a mist in a summer's sun, and their 
" muscles of iron and hearts of ftint" were ready for any emergency. The 
hospitality of this people was unbounded. During the campmeeting 
seasons neighbors, for miles around, would gladly entertain those from a 

Rough and rude though the surroundings may have been, these people 
were none the less honest, sincere, hospitable and kind in their relations. 
It is true, as a rule, and of universal application, that there is a greater 
degree of real humanity among the pioneers of any country than when the 
country becomes older and richer. Here exists a high regard for the 
sexes, and moral courage was one of the noble qualities of the women, 
whose chastity was never questioned. If there was an absence of refine- 
ment, that absence was more than compensated b}^ generous hearts and 
truthful lives. In fine the early settlers were themselves, — men and 
women, — bold, courageous, industrious, enterprising and energetic, abound- 
ing with an eternal hate for cowards and shame of every kind, and above 
all, falsehood and deception, cultivating a straightfoward line of policy and 
integrity, which seldom permits them to be imposed upon, or lead a life of 
treachery themselves. 

(.A4 Z/AM-- 




The Natural History of the County, including its Geological Formations ; its Paleontol- 
ogy ; its Conchology ; its Botany, etc., etc., with Partial Lists of Distribution of Species. 

The general natural history of the county will necessarily be very 
incompletely written at this time. There are not yet within its limits spe- 
cialists in all departments, and very little has been done here with this sub- 
ject by non-residents. Only partial lists can be made of the distribution 
of species, and to make a list of those which probably occur would 
be worse than useless. The facts that I shall state are to some extent 
from publications already made, but principally from personal observation 
and investigation. The question of establishing a Society of Natural His- 
tory for Central Missouri has been canvassed to some extent, and a gen- 
tleman of our city has expressed an intention of making a donation equiv- 
alent to some $3,000, if others would join with him in such amounts as 
would assure the permanency of the movement. Should this be done, 
more of our young folks would take an interest in and devote themselves, 
for a time at least, to some specialty, and one fact after another would be 
recorded, till at last the natural history of our county might be written 
with reasonable fullness. Central Missouri has so much that is not yet 
known, that a society which would encourage its members to patiently 
work, would be the means of creating interest and spreading knowledge 
of many things which are around us, but unnoticed or not understood. 
The amount of knowledge possessed by the people is too nearly like that 
of a man I met in an adjoining county, and of whom I asked if fossils, 
which I knew were abundant in the neighborhood, were near by. He 
answered that he thought they were, and then noticing a butterfly net I 
had in my had, he inquired if I caught them with the net. Meeting me a 
few hours after, his wife had the curiosity to stop me to learn what a fos- 
sil really was. 

In order to make a proper report of the geology of the county, personal 
visits to its different parts would be necessary, and these cannot at present 
be made. Of several of the formations I cannot speak with confidence; 
this is especially so of those which do not outcrop close to Sedalia. 

The fossils of the Chouteau limestone are not so well known as of other 
formations, and many new species from it will yet be described. There is 
opportunity for much work and study with these. The same is true of 
other subjects embraced in this paper, as will be seen from the incomplete- 
ness of the subjects as now presented. 



Within 'che limits of the county are found formations, extending from 
the Lower Silurian to the most recent. 

^latej'nai-y. — Of the Quaternary period, as described by Prof. Swallow 
in his Geology of Missouri, there is in the county no Bottom Prairie; and 
while the Bluti'is most abundant along the rivers, capping all the bluffs of 
the Missouri from Ft. Union to its mouth, and those of the Mississippi 
from Dubuque to the mouth of the Ohio, it also forms the upper stratum 
beneath the soil of all the high lands, both timber and prairie, of all the 
counties north of the Osage and Missouri. 

The Drift is immediately under the Bluft', and is of but small thickness in 
the county. A few granite boulders belonging to this formation occur in 
the north part of the county, which is on the extreme southern line of the 
drift formation, and about 400 miles from the nearest point from which the 
granite boulders could have been obtained. The alluvium is found all 
over the county, and in it have been found 


During the fall of 1879, Mr. R. A. Blair, of Sedalia, obtained from the 
Mosby farm, seven miles southeast from Sedalia, the remains of several 
mastodons. This animal is by the geologist considered modern, but the 
time when it became extinct is uncertain, though the probability is that it 
was before the present or historical period. Dr. Koch claimed to have 
found evidence that man was contemporary with it, but Prof. Dana shows 
that this evidence is altogether untrustworthy. The Sedalia remains 
were found in a spring marsh, within five feet of the surface. No shells 
were thrown out in the excavation ; ^corns and hickory nuts were close to 
the bones, but may have been there only a few years. The same is true 
of two or three Indian stone implements, one of which Mr. Blair thinks 
was lying under a part of the mastodon bones. This cannot, however, be 
used as an argument that they were deposited there before the mastodons 
came to that place to drink, and were mired down and unable to get out 
again. Until forty years ago the place around this spring was a marsh, 
and any small, heavy substance dropped there would soon sink to the bot- 
tom. In this case many wagon loads of rock were piled around a gum 
tree to make solid ground about the spring, and the pressure of these 
rocks would tend to force other stones under them still lower. While I 
would not say that these remains were not of animals contemporary with 
man, there certainly was no evidence found that they were so. 

Conant, in his " Foot-Prints of Vanished Races," gives a fanciful picture 
of man in the age of the mammoth and great bear, but if he had sufficient 
data of man in Europe from which to make it, he at least did not have 
similar proofs of man and the mastodon in America. 


Mastodon remains have been found in all parts of the world except 
Africa. In 1801, a skeleton almost complete was dug up in Orange 
county, New York; that in the Cambridge museum was obtained in New 
Jersey; that in the Boston museum, known as the Warren mastodon, at 
Newberg, New York, in a situation similar to the one at Sedalia; that in 
the New York State Museum at Cohoes, New York, and that in the 
Peabody Museum of Yale College in Orange county, New York. 

In Indiana thirty specimens have been found, always in marshes or 
other miry places, and more or less decayed. About 1840 Dr. Kock 
procured a large collection of bones from the banks of the Missouri 
river, and from these Prof. Owen constructed a nearly complete skeleton, 
which is now set up in the British museum. Specimens have been found 
at three places in this county, though at two ot these only a single tooth 
at each. At the Mosby place there were some half dozen individuals, 
and Mr. Blair's collection of bones and especially of teeth is large and fine, 
including all sizes. They probably belonged to Mostodon giganteus, 
Cuvier, the most common of all the species. 

Carbonj'ferous — Coal Measmes. — The southern and eastern boundary 
of the Lower Coal Measures as given by Prof. Broadhead, enters the 
State in Barton county, runs thence through Vernon and St. Clair counties 
to eight miles south of Clinton in Henry county, thence northeast to the 
Henry county line, thence northwardly through Pettis county on a line 
which has not been exactly laid down, but it probably includes the western 
fourth of the county. Half way between Dresden and Lamonte are the 
Newport and Westlake coal banks, the two shafts being close together 
and leading to the same bed. The coal is about fifteen feet below the 
foot of the hill on which the Newport shaft is sunk, and is nearly two and 
one-half feet in thickness. The following is the result of analyses made 
by direction of the State Geologist: 

Newport's. Westlake's 

Water 3.95 4.47 

Volatile 33.10 39.19 

Fixed Carbon 46.26 51.73 

Ash 16.69 4.61 

Color of ash Red Gray 

Specific gravity 1.347 1.319 

Sulphur 4.406 2.67 

In the northwest part of the county, two shafts have been sunk to coal, 
which varies from eighteen inches to three feet in thickness. It is but 
little above the Sub-carboniferous and fifty feet below the surface. It is 
stated that Chcetetes mtlleporaceus, Chonetes mesoloba^ Prodticius splcn- 
dens^ and S-pirifer Uneatus, have been found associated in no stratum 
except a hydraulic limestone belonging to the Lower Coal Series, so that 


these may be a sure guide in exploring this part of the coal measures. 
The first of these fossils has always been considered characteristic of and 
confined to the Coal Measures, but specimens that have been identified 
as belonging to it have been found at Sedalia associated with Chouteau 
fossils, and whether it belongs in that formation, or whether the Coal 
Measures were eroded from that part of the country where it is found, I 
am not satisfied. Wer2 it not that the specimens here are always small 
and apparently somewhat worn I would incline strongly to the former. 

In various parts of the State there are remarkable deposits of coal 
whose true position is not well understood. Sometimes the cannel and 
bituminous are found in the same bed. The coal is often of great thick- 
ness, and is found in ravines and cavities of denudation in rocks of difierent 
ages older than the coal measures. In the northeast part of the county 
a bed of coal nearly thirty feet in thickness occurs and is probably in a 
ravine in the Burlington limestone, or perhaps the same as one west of 
Sedalia, which is in the Chouteau. 

Chester Grouf. — What was formerly known in our geology as Fer- 
ruginous Sandstone is now determined to be a part of the Chester group. 
It occurs immediately under the coal measures and outcrops along its 
eastern Hmit. It is destitute of fossils, and in this county is a coarse, whit- 
ish sandstone. It is the upper formation of the Sub-carboniferous. 

Burlington Grotij). — With the exception of the above, the only epoch 
of the Sub-carboniferous that we have in the county, is the Burlington or 

Prof. Swallow in his report states that the Archimedes limestone, or 
as it is now generally known, the Keokuk, occurs in the county, thc)ugh I 
have never found it. The Burlington outcrops in various places in the 
north half of the county, but it is nowhere of great thickness. Some 
beds are made up almost entirely of plates and joints of crinoideans, and 
while the bodies of crinoids are not as plenty as at Burlington, Iowa, fine 
specimens are sometimes found, including a number of new species. The 
most of the beds are so solid that specimens can be obtained from them 
only when they happen to be but partly imbedded on the surface; yet 
several years collecting by the writer and Mr. R. A. Blair have given to 
each collection many fine and valuable crinoids, that of the writer having 
fifty species from the limestone, and forty species from the chert beds. 
In the two quarries next to the city on the north, limestone of this formation 
is found of irregular thickness, and not covering the entire surface. In 
each of these quarries it rests immediately upon the Chouteau, and no 
where exceeds four feet in thickness. 

At Georgetown the same bed crops out; also at the railroad cuts 
beyond Georgetown and beyond the bridge across the Muddy, at which 
latter place this formation is not more than fifteen feet thick. 


Prof. Broadhead made the following section on the Little Muddy north 
of Dresden: 

No. 1. — 10 feet cherty slope. 

No. 2. — 29 feet mostly coarse gray, shelly crinoidal limestone. 
No. 3. — 9 feet thick, beds of gray limestone, inclining to buff. 
No. 4. — 8 feet Chouteau limestone. 

And the following in the railroad cut close to Georgetown: 
No. 1.— Soil. 
No. 2. — Chert, mostly irregularly arranged, and much of it tumbled in 

with red clay. 
No. 3. — 8 feet yellowish shaly sandstone, with chert concretions. 
No. 4. — 4 feet gray limestone, with many crinoid stems, and interstratified 

with red clay. 
No. 5. — 3 feet rough concretionary chert bed with buff shaly partings; is 
interstratified with brown limestone, which contains chert concretions. 
No. 6. — Coarse crystalline bluish-gray limestone with Za-phrentis centralisy 
Orthis szuallovi\ O. mitchellmi, O. tnitchellini var burlingtonensis^ 
Spiri/er grtmesi, etc. 

In the cut north of the railroad bridge on the Muddy, the strata are 
much broken, there being on the same level beds of heavy spar or 
sulphate of barytes, gray limestone, green clay, red clay with chert, 
tumbled limestone and heavy bedded limestone with chert. Crinoids are 
abundant. Hadrophylluni glans, and other corals also occur. A few 
rods north of this the Chouteau limestone appears in the bed of the rail- 
road track. 

Over the Burlington limestone are chert beds which have not been 
observed in place. The large variety of crinoids and of other fossils 
agreeing with those found in the limestone, prove to what formation they 
belong. The fossils in the chert are hard to get out in perfect specimens. 
They are generally casts, and sometimes show internal structure, as for 
instance the spires of the sfirifer and the structural parts of crinoids. 
There is a larger variety of fossils in the chert than in the limestone beds. 

Chouteau Group. — This group was originally called Chemung by Prof. 
Swallow, and Prof. Hall gave it the same name in the Iowa reports; since 
that it has been called the Kinderhook group by others. It is better 
developed in Missouri than in any other State, and as it is not certain that 
it is equivalent of the New York Chemung, Prof . Broadhead proposes 
to retain the name of one of its divisions, that of Chouteau, for the group 
itself. He gives the following as its divisions: 
No. 1. — Chouteau limestone 100 feet. 
No. 2. —Vermicular sandstones and shales 75 feet. 
No. 3. — Lithographic limestone 55 feet. 

Prof. Swallow considered these as a part of the Devonian, but they are 


generally thought to be a part of the Sub-carboniferous. In the Chouteau 
limestone there are many fossils which are nowhere else found in the 
Sub-carboniferous, but the genera if not the species to which they belong 
are common in the Devonian. About two miles from the county line in 
Cooper county, Atryfa reticularis^ a Pentamariis and various corals and 
sponges like Devonian species occur, and while I have not seen the local- 
ity, Mr. Thomas R. Godby assures me that it is without doubt the Chou- 
teau limestone, and that the Vermicular sandstone is under it. Dr. White 
in the Hayden Annual Report for 1878, in describing a number of the 
Sedalia corals from this formation says: 

"Corals have hitherto been frequently met with in the Burlington, 
Keokuk, and Saint Louis divisions of the Sub-carboniferous series of the 
Mississippi Valley, but with the exception of Lithostrotion mamillare.^ 
which is in some places plentiful, and found only in the Saint Louis 
division, they have been confined mainly to the Zaphrentidge. In the upper 
and lower members of the Sub-carboniferous series, however, namely in 
the Kinderhook and Chester divisions, Actinoid corals of any kind have 
hitherto been rarely found. The discovery, therefore, of four new forms 
in the Kinderhook division is a matter of much interest. This interest is 
also increased by the fact that they are all of types which are unusual in at 
least American Carboniferous strata; and although there is no a friori 
reason why the presence of these types might not be expected in Carbon- 
iferous strata, according to our present knowledge such a group of corals 
is not without a certain Devonian facies. It is also an interesting fact that 
these corals occupy a very narrow horizon^ at the top of the Kinderhook 
division, just beneath the Burlington limestone, and that in all the 
remainder of the Kinderhook division corals are rare, if not altogether 
absent. This coral horizon seems to be a well-marked one; and from 
the fact that the corals which have been found in that division in Iowa 
and Illinois occupy an exactly similar horizon with that referred to in 
Missouri, it will probably prove to be one of considerable geographical 
extent. Up to this time the following ten species of corals have been 
found in that horizon in Missouri, Iowa and Illinois: Zaphrentis calceola^ 
and Z. acuta. White & Whitefield; Z. elliptica. White; Chonophylhwi 
sedaliense n. s.; Syringopora harveyiy White; Favosites {Michilinea?) 
divergenSy White & Whitefield; Michilinea placentay n. s.; M. expansay n. s.; 
Lepidopora typtty Winchell;and Lithostrotion microstyluniy n. s," 

In addition to the above there are at least half as many more species, 
and to finally decide the question, further investigation is required. 

Prof. Broadhead in one of the Geological Reports of Missouri, gives a 
section on the Muddy as follows: 
No. 1 — 15 feet slope from hill-top. 
No. 2 — 16 feet cherty slope. 

No. 3 — 52 feet of dull drab limestone with concretions of chert and com- 
pact quartz, with a bed of bluish-drab subcrystalline limestone near 
the upper part, in which occur a few fossils. 


No. 4 — 32 feet of dove and drab colored limestone, with some veins and 

concretions of calcite. 
No. 5 — 3 feet Cooper marble. 

He thinks that there are in this 84 feet of undoubted Chouteau lime- 
stone, and that the 15 feef of cherty slope may also be added to this, mak- 
ing 99 feet in all. In the quarries north of the city the rock becomes on 
exposure of a drab color, and the top layer is in places so soft that it 
crumbles. This same layer is found in the bed of the stream running 
through J. R. Barrett's fields adjoining the city, and from it I have 
g^Xh&vQd Zaphrentis calceola^ Michelinia expansa^Af. placenta, Chon&phyl- 
lum sedaliense, and other corals yet unnamed. At the same place I got 
the only entire trilobite I have seen from the county. It was a Proetus. 
In other beds of the Chouteau are Penlremites roemeri, Produdus mur- 
chisonianus, S-pir if er peculiar is, S. tnarionensis, Rhynchonella tnissoiiriensis^ 
R. cooperensis, Avicula cir cuius, and probably a score more species, 
part of which have not been identified, and a part are new. 

In the Anderson quarry in the northwest part of Sedalia, I took the 
following section : 
No. 1. — 2-| feet of soil and hard pan. 
No. 2. — 5 feet mostly of red clay filled with chert. 

No. 3. — 4i feet of Burlington limestone, in four layers separated by styli- 
litic joints, in places the joint almost or totally disappearing, and 
becoming as firm as a single bed. The upper layer is not as contin- 
uous as the others, and is more or less crumbly on its surface. It is 
only from this surface that fossils in good condition can be obtained. 
This formation is called Jire rock by the quarrymen. It contains a 
large number of species of crinoids; also Spirifer griniesi, S.forhesi, 
Orthis michilini, O. swallovi, Euomphalus latus, Pentreniites melo, P. 
sampsoni, Zaphrentis calceola, Z. elliptica, a fish tooth, &c. 
No. 4r. — 2| feet of yellowish rock locally called "bastard cotton rock." It 
hardens on exposure and is the top layer of the Chouteau limestone. 
At other places it contains a variety of fossils, but here few except 
Zaphrentis calceola and C ho tiophy litem sedaliense. 
No. 5. — 2 feet blue shale which on exposure is soon reduced to clay. It 

contains iron pyrites with a fucoid and Michilinia exfansa. 
No. 6. — 2 feet of blue limestone containing disseminated calcite. 
No. 7. — 4 feet of similar rock with many nodules of chert and concretions 

of calcite more or less crystalized. 

No. 8. — Gray flint, which has been drilled into 18 inches, but whose 

thickness is not known. 

Like the Burlington this has its chert beds which have been observed 

in place only in two localities, a quarry on the Georgetown road and 

another one close to it. In places the chert of these two formations are 


mingled, and in others they are separate. Chert beds are also found in 
the Lower Siluiran in the county. 

Prof. Meek states that on Heath's Creek outcrops of fifty to seventy 
feet of Chouteau are seen, surmounted by from twenty to fifty feet of 
Burlington limestone. In his geology of Saline county he gives the 
Chouteau as a part of the Sub-carboniferous, and in his geology of Morgan 
county he gives it as a part of the Devonian, showing that he was some- 
what undecided as to where he should place it. 

Cooper Marble. — The exact position of this rock has not been deter- 
mined, as no fossils have been found in it. Our State Reports make it a 
part of the Devonian, but Prof. Meek thought that it might prove to 
belong lower down. In the section on the Muddy, that we have given, 
there are seen fo be a few feet of this formation, and Broadhead found the 
same west of Sedalia. There are no fossils seen in it. 

Lower Silurian. — A large portion of the State south of the Missouri 
river belongs to the Lower Silurian, and is made up principally of the 
seven formations which Prof. Swallow considered as equivalent to the 
Calciferous sand -rock of New York. These beds contain very few fos- 
sils, and a part of them can scarcely be identified, except by knowing their 
relative position to other strata. 

The First Magnesian limestone is a " gray or buff, crystalline, cherty 
silico-magnesian limestone, filled with small irregular masses of soft white» 
or greenish yellow silicious substance, which rapidly decomposes when 
exposed, and leaves the rock full of irregular cavities, and covered with 
rough projecting points." 

Prof. Meek observed it in Morgan county, a few miles from the line, 
but it is thought that it is not found in this county. 

The Saccharoidal sandstone is the next formation below. It is usually 
a white friable sandstone, made up of globular concretions and angular 
fragments of limpid quartz. Sometimes it is a mass of slightly coherent 
particles of silex which very much resembles loaf sugar. It occurs in the 
county, but I have not the thickness of this or any ot the other formations 
of this system. 

The Second Magnesian limestone underlies the above, and is exposed at 
many places through the southern portion of the county. It consists of 
light grayish and flesh-colored concretionary layers, with beds of sand- 
stone and "cotton rock." In the adjoining county of Morgan it attains a 
thickness of 175 feet. 

The "cotton rock" of this formation is very soft when first taken from 
the quarry, and can be easily wrought. It is more durable than its 
appearance would indicate, as it hardens on exposure. The Capitol at 
Jefferson City, and Smith's Hall of our city, are built of this rock. This 
limestone is probably the lowest formation that outcrops in the county. 


In the " Geology from Sedalia to Kansas City," by Prof. Broadhead, 
the following summary is given: 

1. Sandstone, twenty feet. 

2. Cherts and clays, thirt}'' feet. 

Z. Burlington limestone, fifty feet. 

4. Chouteau limestone, ninety-nine feet. 

5. Cooper marble, fourteen feet. 

6. First Magnesian limestone, thirty-four feet. 
Total: 247 feet of rocks below the coal measures. 

It will be seen that this gives the First Magnesian Hmestone, but it was 
probably an oversight, and if not there should at least two formations 
lower than it be given, if it embraces the whole county. 

It is evident from the preceding statements that there is much yet to be. 
learned about both the geology and the paleontology of the county, facts 
which are not simply those of minor detail, but of great importance. The 
re-establishment of the office of State Geologist might help in this matter, 
and it is to be hoped that our legislature will soon make this an accom- 
plished fact, and appropriate sufficient funds to allow the reports that may 
be made to be an honor to the state. 


Building Stone. — The quarries north of Sedalia have furnished founda- 
tion stone principally, the best quality being from the Burlington beds. 
During the past summer large blocks of these were obtained for building 
the piers of the bridge across Flat Creek, and for the Water Works dam. 
The Magnesian limestone, which was in the piers of the old bridge, 
cracked and became worthless on exposure to the weather. The most of 
the Chouteau beds produce a rock which breaks with a conchoidal sur- 
face, and is difficult to get in good shape. There are, however, uniform 
layers of very hard limestone six miles east of Sedalia, on Fred Leuke's 
farm, from which the magnificient curbing and sidewalk flagging used in 
Sedalia are obtained. The curb-stones are from six to fourteen feet in 
length, while a thinner bed in the same quarry supplies rock of proper 
thickness for sidewalks, and slabs are taken out three to six by ten feet, 
so that no city can show finer curbing and sidewalks than SedaHa can. 

Lime. — In the neighborhood of Georgetown are several lime kilns, in 
which BurHngton Hmestone is made into excellent Hme. 

Clay.— On and near Little Muddy, north of Dresden, and two and one- 
half mile southwest of Dresden, are beds of clay, mostly ohve or white, 
sometimes tinged with red. They are fifteen to twenty feet thick, and 
several establishments, at Dresden, Lamonte, and Calhoun, are engaged 
in manufacturing pottery from them. In the northwest part of the county, 
below the coal measures, and above the Burlington, is chert, intermingled 


with potter's clay, and at the Railroad Hospital, in Sedalia, simiHar beds 
were passed through in digging a well; in these, the clay had the appear- 
ance of being decayed chert. 

Coal. — This has already been noticed. Efforts are now being made to 
find the extent of the field in the northeast part of the county, which has 
been found in places thirty feet thick. 

Lead. — Lead has been found in Missouri in the different formations 
from the Coal Measures to the Third Magnesian limestone. It occurs in 
various parts of the county, but has not yet been obtained in paying quan- 
tities. Some five miles south of Sedalia considerable prospecting was done 
in the Magnesian limestone, in three places. At one there was a vein six 
inches across, ten feet from the surface, but on reaching a bed of cotton 
rock at that depth the vein gave out. A few rods from this a shaft was 
sunk, starting from near the lop of a rocky bluft, and a depth of fifty feet 
was reached before rock was struck. It seemed to be a chimne}', but it 
proved to be a barren one. A short distance from this another shaft was 
sunk, upon a hill side, and large quantities of barytes taken out, but no 
ead. In Ritchie's addition to Sedalia there are deposits which are in the 
chert and dirt beds of the Burlington, and considerable mineral has been 
taken out in sinking wells and cisterns. In the southeast part of the county 
lead is found in many places, but it is not at present mined at any of 

Zinc. — The black jack of the miners occurs in the county, but so far as 
yet discovered only in small quantities. Mr. D. W. Bouldin sunk a shaft 
on Spring Fork, from which was taken a moderate quantity, including 
some very fine zinc crystals. 

Barytes. — The Narrow Gauge R. R. passes close by the place before 
mentioned, where sulphate of barytes occurs, and it might there be had in 
paying quantities. South of Smithton, in prospecting for lead, some very 
fine crystals of barytes, having a broad band of white on their edges, were 
lound, and at a point east of the water works, under similar circum- 
stances, the flat variety of crystal, having only a coating of white on the 
edge, was obtained, they being, in some cases, as much as four inches 
across. This latter form is rare, and the finest I have ever seen from any 

Emery. — A few years ago a company did some work in shipping 
emery from a bank in this county. It was at the time claimed to be of a 
superior quality, but for some reason there has been no work done for 
some years. 

Alarble. — In the north part of the county, on the Lamine river, there 
crops out from two to four feet of fine grained, drab, magnesian lime- 
stone, containing many disseminated particles of calcite. This rock admits 


of a fine polish, but would not look well after out-door exposure. It 
belongs above the First Magnesian limestone. 


The archaeology of Europe differs very materially from that of ours. 
There they have evidences of the earlier existence of man than what we 
have and the progress of the people through the stone age, the iron age^ 
the bronze age and up to a development higher than was attained by any 
of the peoples who inhabited within the limits of the United States can be 
traced. The early people of this country perhaps had not the time to pass 
through these different stages, or for some reason not now fully under- 
stood the people of a higher development were swept away by those of a 
lower. The former we, for want of a better term, call Mound Builders, 
and some of the mounds left by them are wonderful monuments of the 
industry if not skill of that people. Their remains "indicate that the 
ancient population was numerous and wide spread, as shown from the 
number and magnitude of their works, and the extensive range of their 
occurrance; that it was essentially homo geneous incustoms, habits, religion 
and government, as appears from the great uniformity which the works 
display, not only in respect to position and form, but in all minor particu- 
lars; and that the features common to all the remains identify them as 
appertaining t® a single grand system, owing its origin to a family of 
men, moving in the same general direction, acting under common impulses 
and influenced by similar causes." 

Their mounds indicate a large and warlike population, and to sustain it 
agricultural pursuits must have been extensively followed and our prairies 
may in the long past have been dotted over with fields of corn. The 
State contains some of the most celebrated mound remains of this people, 
and the implements and utensils taken from them have gone to enrich 
many an eastern collection. No mounds of this people are in this county 
so that its archaeology is not as interesting as that of many others. 

One locality, four miles from Sedalia, furnishes many specimens of stone 
implements which are supposed to belong to the mound builder period, 
and it is doubtless the site of a mound builder town or encampment. While 
this people may not have been resident in the county long enough to build 
mounds, or their circumstances and the causes for building them may not 
have operated for this here, yet they were doubtless resident within 
the limits of the county for a time at least. 

From the locality mentioned I have obtained some hundreds of speci- 
mens, including chipped and ground implements. The chert specimens 
are generally large rude implements of a variety of forms some of which 
are not common elsewhere. Some of the spear shaped ones are finely 
made. There are no arrow shapes and but one or two barbed implements. 


The axes are from two inches in length to very finely shaped ones of six 
pounds weight. The abundance of the specimens may be seen from the 
fact that the ground has been hunted over every time it has been plowed 
for five or six years and yet on a late trip made when there had been no 
rain after it had been plowed, I gathered seventy-five specimens in one 
hour's time, and in the same time after a rain I picked up ninety speci- 

In other parts of the county the ordinary Indian type implements are 
met with. 


The distribution and comparative abundance of land shells is controlled 
by the character of the soil and surface, the presence or absence of shade 
and moisture, and other causes. North of and near the Ohio river they 
are in great numbers, butthis is not so in this county. A few species are 
in comparative abundance in certain places, but as compared with the 
locality named nearly all of them are rare. The fact that we have a rather 
large number of species is evidence that there is something which is oper- 
ating here, that is not opposed to shell life and still is not con- 
ducive to its multiplication in individual numbers. The most of our 
species are common in the northern United States, though some species 
are of a southern character; for instance, the Btih'muhcs dealbatus is 
found, though in a limited area, a few miles from Sedalia, the most 
northern point, perhaps, to which it extends. 

The following list is made up from the results of the writer's collecting 
in the county, and while nearly complete is not entirely so: 

1. Hyalina arborca. Say, common. 

2. Hyalina viridula^ Mice, common. 

3. Hyalina minuscula^ Binn. 

4. Hyalina ligera. Say. 

5. Hyalina fiilva^ Dr. 

6. Helicodisciis litieata. Say. 

7. Macrocyclis concava. Say, rare. 

8. Patula solitaria. Say. These are about one-half the size of the 
same species as found in Indiana. 

9. P. alternata, Say. This is also smaller than the Indiana specimens, 
but there is not so much difference as in the last species. 

10. Strohila labyrinthica. Say, not plenty. 

11. Stenotrema hirsuta. Say, common. 

12. S. leaii, Ward, plenty. This fine little shell has generally been 
given as a variety of S. monodon. 

13. Triodopsis injlecta^ Say, common. 

14. Mcsodon albolabrts, Say, common. A large, light-colored, some- 
what flattened variety, similar to that found at Eureka Springs, Ark. 


15. M, elevata, Say, plenty. But little smaller than Indiana specimens. 

16. M. tkyroidcs, Say, plenty. 

17. M. claiisa, Say, not common. 

18. Bulimidus dealbatus. Say, not common. 

19. Pupafallax, Say, common. 

20. P. arniifera, Say, common. 

21. P. contracta^ Say, plenty. 

22. P. 

23. Vertigo 

24. Sticcmea ovalis, Gould, rare. 

25. S. Itneata, W. G. Binn, very rare. 

26. Tebennophortis carolinensis^ Bose. 

27. Carychiiim exgtmin, rare. 

Of Fresh Water Shells the species are not numerous, but the individ- 
uals are. The following have been collected: 

28. Lymncea columella^ Say. I found this shell with Planorhis 
ti'ivolvis^Physa gyrina dindSphce7-ium fartiuneiuni^m the fountain in Mr. 
O. A. Crandall's yard in Sedalia, they having hatched from eggs which 
came from Flat creek throught the pipes of the water works or a distance 
of two or three miles. 

29. L. hutmlis. Say. Two quite distinct forms, one nearly twice the 
size of the other, the smaller being the stronger and more solid shell. Each 
was found in but one locality. 

30. Physa gyrina. Say. This species varies greatly in the different 
streams. I found some very fine specimens on Spring Fork, with eroded 
apex, which have been identified by all collectors to whom they have 
been submitted, as P. hildrethiana^ though the same persons identified 
the younger and smaller specimens as gyrina. 

31. P. heterostrophe, Say, common. 

32. Planorhis bicarinatus, Say, common. 

33. P. trivolvis. Say, verv common. 

34. P. a minute species not identified. 

35. Aticylus tardus. Say, not plenty. 

36. Melantho decisa. Say, plenty. 

37. Amnicola porata. Say, plenty. 

38. Sphcerium sulcatum. Low, plenty. 

39. S. partumeiuin. Say, plenty. 

40. Pisidium variabilc. Prime, plenty. 

41. P. (undetermined) rare. 

Not having a reliable list of the UnionidcE I will not include them here. 


The only branch of Reptilia that has been locally studied is that of 


Testudinata. The following list will show a large number of species and 
varieties, several of which have not heretofore been published as inhabit- 
ing this state: 

1. Cisttido clausa, (Gm) Box Turtle. This is common. The three 
toed variety triungnis is generally found in the timber and is of more 
uniform color than typical specimens. It is also plenty. 

2. C. ornata, Ag, plenty. A single specimen of the variety frtuvgni's 
of this species was taken here. Prof. Beard of the Smithsonian Institute, 
obtained two from Southern Illinois. I have heard of no others with the 
above exception. 

3. C/irysemys pi'c^a, Ag., The Pictured Turtle. The species as 
found here differs very much from the eastern specimens, and is more 
nearly like the variety oregonensis. Some of the specimens are very 
beautiful in their marking. They are abundant. It has not been pub- 
lished as occurring so far west. 

4. Malacoclemmys geographic!is,Qo^Q, Map Turtle. 

5. M. lesueiin\ plenty. 

6. Pseudemys troostii., (Holbr), scarce. 

7. Pseiideinys elegans, (Wid), The Elegant Terapin, not uncommon. 

8. Pseudemys concinna, plenty. 

9. Aromochelys odoratus. Gray, The Musk Turtle or Stink Pot. 
This has been considered an eastern turtle, occurring as far west as 
Indiana, but it is very common here. 

10. Chelydra serfentina^ Schw, common snapping turtle. As in 
other parts of the country east of the Rocky mountains, it is here plenty. 

11. Asfidonectes spinifer, Ag., common soft-shell turtle. 

12. A. ferox^ a Southern soft-shell, but found here. 

This gives a total of more than one-forth of the species found in the 
United States. 

Of the lizards the Opheosaurus ventralis^ the Glass or Joint snake, 
occurs here. The popular belief that this "snake" can fall to pieces, and 
afterwards that the parts will come together is, of course, an error. The 
tail is, as in the case of all hzards, easily broken oft, and after being 
broken a new tail will grow out, but not so perfect as the first one. 

Scorpions have their habitation as far north as this, and while one or 
two cases have been reported of finding tarantulas here, I think they were 
not native. 


' No list of the birds found here has ever been made out, and there are 
but few notes that I can give of interest. Among the birds which breed 
here are the turkey buzzard and the great blue heron, there being a colony 
of the latter south of Smithton. Not unfequently birds from the coast are 
shot here, they being driven by storm, perhaps, or other cause, inland. 




In a small collection of eggs belonging to the writer is a set of albino 
blue bird eggs. About five days after they were taken from the nest the 
bird commenced laying another set, which were of the ordinary blue 

A flock of geese, belonging to ex-Marshal Kelly, of Sedalia, presents an 
interesting feature of malformations. In 1873 a gander had one of its 
wings so injured that it hung horizontally at right angles to the body, in 
the same manner as is not unfrequently seen in other flocks, as a result of 
injuries received. In 1874, one of the 3'Oung of the flock presented a 
wing similarly affected; the following year its oflspring showed the same 
features, and this has been continued to the present time. As many as 
two-thirds of the flock have at one time presented this peculiarity, some in 
both wings. Believing that it was a case of " the inheritance of effects of 
injuries," Mr. R. A. Blair published an account of it, and sent a copy to 
Mr. Charles Darwin, and received from him the following letter: 

Dear Sir : — I am much obliged to you for kindly informing me of the 
case of the goose. It seems to be a remarkable case of inheritance of 
effects of injury, and as such cases are very rare, it would be quite worth 
while to have the facts carefully examined. If you could obtain a wing, 
and would send it to me, I should be much obhged. The wing mfght be 
cut off at the joint with the body, and dried with feathers on, before a hot 
fire. To make the case of more value, it would be very advisable to 
ascertain whether the goose had any offspring before the injury, and if so, 
whether they were normal, and not malformed in any way. 

Dear sir, yours faithfully, 

Charles Darw^in. 

Mr. Blair then sent a wing of one of the geese, and received the follow- 
ing answer: 

Dear Sir : — You will think that I have been very neglectful in not hav- 
ing sooner thanked you for the wing of the goose, the photograph, and 
your last interesting letter; but I thought it best to wait until receiving 
Prof. Flower's report, and you will see b\' the enclosed the cause of his 
delay. If you are willing to take the trouble to get your interesting case 
thoroughly investigated, it will be necessary to procure from the owner 
the wings of half a dozen birds, some of them quite young"; and, if possi- 
ble, the old one which had his wing broken. They ought to be sent in 
spirits, and they had better be addressed to Prof. Flower, Royal College 
of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, and I had better be informed 
when they are dispatched. Should you be inclined to take so much trou- 
ble, I hope you will allow me to say "that I should be very glad to pay for 
the geese, and for the several other contingent expenses. Your first letter 
and Prof. Flower's had better be returned to me hereafter. There is one 
other point which ought, if possible, to be ascertained, viz: when the old 
gander had his wing broken, was it wounded so that blood was dis- 
charged? If wounded, did the wound suppurate? Did the wing heal 
quickly ox slowly? These are important points in relation to the inherit- 


ance of mutilations. Pray accept my best thanks for your kindness, and 
I remain, Dear Sir, Yours faithfully, 

Charles Darwin. 

A number of wings were then sent to Dr. Flower, who made a report to 
Mr. Darwin, in which he says: 

"The bones, muscles, and ligaments seem quite normal, except for this 
twisting on their axis, which exactly corresponds, as I mentioned before, 
to taU^es or club foot in man. The wings of the very little goslings being 
dried and very small could not be examined with any good result, but the 
most curious and unsatisfactory part of the whole thing is that the wing 
of the old gander, the supposedy^rs et origo of all the the mischief, is per- 
fectly normal, and presents no trace of ever having been injured in any 
way discoverable after the closest examination. It has certainly never 
been broken or dislocated, though, of course, we cannot be sure whether 
it may not have had a partial twist from which it has now recovered." 

With this letter and with the full and detailed report of Dr. Flower's 
assistant, Mr. Darwin wrote as follows: 

Dear Sir : — Professor Flower has suffered from a long illness, and this 
has caused much delay in the examination of the wings of the geese. But 
I received yesterday his report and letter which I inclose, as you may like 
to see them. I fear that there is no connection between the deformity 
and the injury. The owner when he saw several goslings thus deformed, 
a not uncommon form of quasi inheritance, remembered the accident, 
and naturally attributed the deformity to this cause. It has been proba- 
bly a case of "post hoc" and not "propter hoc". I grieve that you should 
have expended so much time, trouble and great kindness in vain. As for 
myself I am well accustomed in my experimental work to get definite 
results but once in three or four times, and thus alone can science prosper. 
With my renewed thanks, I remain Dear Sir, yours faithfully, 

Charles Darwin. 

While the thorough investigation this case received, showed it was not 
what at first supposed, it is still an interesting one, especially in view of 
Mr. Darwin's connection with it. On the other hand it does not seem to 
carry out the theory of Darwin that "only those variations which are in 
some way profitable will be preserved or naturally selected," as this pecul- 
iarity is one which is a positive disadvantage, and while those thus affected 
are not the "fittest," they still "survive." 


The late Mr. Hayhurst made extensive collections in Coleoptera 

and Lepidoptera, but after his death his collection was taken from the 
county and is probably now scattered. The writer has a few hundred 
species of coUeoptera taken around Sedalia, and this is now the only 
approach to a collection in the county. 

But few insects have either regular or occasional migratory habits, but 
in different countries there have been frequent occurrances of swarms of 


butterflies. So far as they have been traced in this country they have 
proven to be of the genus Daaiis archi^fus or the Archippus butterfly. 
In the latter part of September, 1878, a swarm of many thousands of them 
settled down in the yard of Col. A. D.Jaynes in Sedalia, and remained for 
some days almost covering the trees upon which they rested. 

For some years our State had the office of Entomologist, and Prof. C. 
V. Rile}' published nine annual reports, which have much of interest to 
farmers and to entomologists. The state honored itself in producing a 
series of reports more extensive than any other, and the general govern- 
ment has supplemented its work by issuing a full index of the set. 


More of our residents have made a study of this branch than of any 
other, as the subject has been taught in our public schools. Complete lists 
have not, however, been made out, and I will give onl}- that of the trees 
and shrubs: 

Prunus serotina^ wild black cherry. 
Pirns coronoria^ crabapple. 
Virhurmim -priinifoliiim^ black haw. 
Cratcegjis coccmea^ hawthorn. 
Asimina triloba^ pa paw. 
Diospyros virginiana, persimmon. 
Prunus americana^ red plum. 
Ruhis cajiadensis, blackberiy, 

Ribes , currant. 

Sambucus canadensis, elderberry. 
Mortis rubra, mulberry. 
Rubus occidentalism raspberry. 
Anielanchier canadensis, service berrv. 
Vitis cestivalis, summer grape. 
Vttis cordifolia, frost grape. ^ 

Coryhes aniericana, hazel. 
Carya alba, .common hickory. 
Carya sulcata, thick shell hickory. 
Carya -porcina, pignut hickory. 
Juglans nigra, blackwalnut. 
'Juglans cinerea, butternut. 
^lercus alba, white oak. 
^lercus -prinus, chestnut oak. 
^lercus rtibria, red oak. 
^lercus stellata, post oak. 
^lercus tinctorta, black oak. 
^lercus palusiris, pin oak. 


^lerctis hcterofhylla, Bartram's oak. 

Aesithis orJabra, buckeye. 

Gymnocladus canadensis, coffee tree. 

Celtis occidentoh's, hackberry. 

Sassafras officinale, sassafras. 

I^/uis ty^hina, sumac. 

ZantJwxyluni clava-iiercidia, prickly ash. 

Cornnsjlorida, dog wood. 

Ace?' saccharinum, sugar tree. 

Ace?' dasycarpuin, white maple. 

J^raximis a^nericana, white ash. 

Popnhis monilifera. cottonwood. 

JVegimdo aceroides, box elder. 

Ehnus ame7'icana, elm. 

JShmis/idva, slippery elm. 

Cari>imis caroliniana, iron wood. 
Tilia amcricana, bass wood. 
Ghdiischia triacanthos, honey locust. 
Plataniis occidentalis, sycamore . 
Salix nigra, willow. 

Rosa setigera, prairie rose. 

Cercis canadensis, red bud. 

Syniphoricar-pus vulgaris, coral berry. 

Not having sufficient data on other subjects I will not attempt to notice 
them, but hope that it will not be long till our growing and enterprising 
city will have man}^ who will devote themselves to local investigations, and 

1 am glad to know that the number of such persons is constantly 



Date of Organization — Treastise on County and Other Corporations — The Act Making 
Pettis County — Its BouLclaries — Named for Hon. Spencer Pettis — The Second Act — 
Name of Commissioners to Locate County Seat — The Law making St. Helena" the 
County Seat— The First Land Entry — First Deed Recorded— First Mortgage — Statutes 
of 1835 Defining County Boundaries — Area of County — Present Boundaries — The 
County Half a Century Old— Organization of Town of Georgetown — Organization of 
Schools — County Buildings — Township Organization — Description and Names of 

Pettis county was organized on the 26th da}- of January, 1833, by sev- 
erances effected from the counties of Saline and Cooper. 

Before proceeding to give the details of this organization, and formally 
presenting to the reader the actors who carried into effect the will of the 
people, it will be well to consider the county system and its operations in 
general. No person, till he has investigated the subject, is aware of the 
unity which pervades the plan or the principles of law and government in- 
volved. Pettis county is no exception to the rule, and what applies to 
county organization throughout the world, is pertinent more or less to one 
whose history we trace on these pages. Just as a student of law can bet- 
ter understand the statutes and codes of the youthful states of the Ameri- 
can Union, by a careful study of the ancient common law of England and 
civil law of Rome, so he can with greater pleasure and profit, follow the 
practical workings of county affairs, having first obtained a clear idea of 
what such an organization has been and is still considered to be. 

Counties are qiiasi corporations. The Latin word quasi signifies as if^ 
or almost. A county then is almost a corporation, or has certain features 
of a corporation. A corporation in the full acceptation of the term, is a 
body formed and authorized bylaw to act as a single person, and endowed 
with perpetual succession, as an expressl}- chartered city government, a 
bank or railroad company. Counties,townships, parishes, school districts, 
and some other political divisions of a county, are ranked as quasi corpora- 

In Great Britain and most of her colonies, a countv is a subdivision of 
territory corresponding to a province of Prussia, or a department of France. 
In the American Union, except Louisiana, which is divided into parishes, 
counties are divisions next in size and importance to states. This division, 
in England, is synonymous with the shire^ but not so in Ireland; this di- 
vision is said to have originated in England, under the reign of the ancient 
Saxon kings, though popularly attributed to Alfred the Great. England 
and Wales contain fifty-two counties, Scodand thirt3^-three, and Ireland 
thirty-two. The principal officers of a county in England are a lord lieu- 
tenant, a keeper of the rolls, a sheriff, a coroner, a receiver of general 


taxes, justices of the peace, an under sheriff, and a clerk of the peace. The 
lord lieutenant has command of the militia of the county, the keeper of the 
rolls, or ciistos retiilortim^ is custodian of the archives. The other officers 
perform such duties as are naturall}- indicated in their titles. The United 
States for local government and other porposes are divided into counties, 
townships, school-districts, and municipal corporations. In all the counties 
in the several states and territories, including the parishes of Louisiana, 
there are officers who superintend the financial affairs, a court of inferior 
jurisdiction, and, at stated times, the circuit court, or supreme court. As 
the state is subordinate to, and a part of the federal government, so the 
county is a part of the state, but possessing only such rights as are dele- 
gated to it by the statutory enactments. 

The people in each local division have entire control over the subjects 
in which they onl}'- are interested ; and the whole works together like an 
extensive system of machinery, wheel fitted to wheel. There is very little 
opportunity for the exercise of arbitrary power, from the lowest to the 
highest. Executive power may be changed by election or impeachment, 
if the officers are recreant to duty, or do not give satisfaction, and there 
are constitutional provisions for making improvements if the people think 
they should be made. Thus our country is secured against serious and 
protracted discontents for which there is no remedial law as in some coun- 
tries, where the internal disturbances interrupt progress, and destroy the 
resources of the nation. The value of any office, from that of a school 
director to county judge, governor, or president, is determined by the re- 
lation it bears to the public welfare; and when, in the opinion of the peo- 
ple, it ceases to be useful, there are means of laying it aside according to 
law. This is true democracy. 

The powers and rights of counties go no further than defined by statute, 
though it is provided that each is a body corporate with capacity to sue 
and be sued, to purchase and hold land within its own limits, and for the 
use of its inhabitants, subject to the power of the general assembly over 
the same, to make such contracts, and purchase and hold real estate and 
personal property, and to make such orders and regulations for the dis- 
position of such property as maybe deemed conducive to the best interests 
of the people. 

When the general assembly deemed it necessary, or to the interest of 
the people to organize a new county, the first was to pass an act defining 
the boundaries and assigning a name to the new^ political division. 

The citizens living in the portions of Saline and Cooper counties, from 
which Pettis county was formed, were set off^ by the following act: 
Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Missouri, as follows : 

All that portion of territory, lying and being south of Saline county 
proper, in the State of Misseuri, and which has heretofore been attached 


to Saline county for all civil and military purposes, and also a part of the 
territory now composing^ the counties of Cooper and Saline, included 
within the following boundaries, to- wit: Beginning on the range line 
dividing ranges twenty-three and twenty-four, (the line now dividing 
Saline and Lafa3^ette counties), at the northwest corner of section nine- 
teen, in township forty-eight; thence running due east with said section 
line, to the range line between ranges nineteen and twenty; thence due 
south with said range line, to the middle of the main channel of the river 
Osage; thence up said river Osage, in the middle of the main channel 
thereof, to the southeast corner of Lafayette county; thence due north, 
with the range line dividing Saline and Lafayette counties to the begin- 
ning, be, and the same is hereby declared a separate and distinct county, 
to be known and called by the name of Pettis county. 

The courts to be holden in said county, shall be held at the house of 
James Ramev, until the tribunal transacting county busmess for said 
county shall fix a temporary seat of justice for said county; and the 
county courts to be holden in said county, shall be held on the third Mon- 
days in February, May, August and November. 

It shall be the duty of the governor, so soon as it shall be convenient 
after the passage of this act, to appoint judges of the county court for the 
said county, who shall hold their offices until the next general election in 
eighteen hundred and thirty-four, and until their successors be duly elected 
and qualified. 

All taxes now due the counties of Saline and Cooper, by citizens resid- 
ing in the county of Pettis, shall be collected and paid to said counties of 
Saline and Cooper, in all respects, as if this act had not passed. 

This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage. 
January 26, 1833. 

At this time the name of Hon. Spencer Pettis, who served the people 
as a member of congress when Missouri was but one congressional dis- 
trict, was fresh in the memory of the friends of this new county, hence its 

After the county was organized, the seat of justice was temporarily 
kept at St. Helena, which commonly bore the name of Pin Hook, till 

The following is an act in regard to the southern boundary of Pettis 
county, and selecting commissioners to locate the seat of justice: 

Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Missouri, as fol- 

The following shall be, and is hereby established as the permanent 
southern boundary of Pettis county: Beginning on the range line dividing 
ranges twenty-three and twenty-four, the line now dividing Lafayette and 
Pettis counties, at the southwest corner of township forty-four; thence 
due east with said township line to the eastern boundarv of Pettis county. 

Joseph S. Anderson, of Cooper count}^, John Stapp, of Lafa3'ette county, 
and John S. Rucker, of Howard county, be and they are hereby appointed, 
commissioners to select and locate a site for the permanent seat of justice 
within and for the county of Pettis: provided., hoivcvcr, the said commis- 


sioners shall select and locate said site within three and a half miles of the 
geographical center of the said county of Pettis. 

The said commissioners shall meet at St. Helena, in the said county of 
Pettis, on the first Monday of March next, for the purpose of carrying mto 
effect the provisions of the second section of this act; and before entering 
upon the duties hereby required, shall severally take an oath, as is 
required by the third section of an act, entitled an act to provide for 
organizing counties hereafter established, approved January 14th, 1825; 
and the said commissioners, circuit and county courts, shall perform all 
the duties, and be governed in all cases by the provisions of the above 
recited act; and in case vacancies should occur, by death, resignation or 
otherwise, of said commissioners, the vacancy shall be filled agreeably to 
the provisions of the said act. 

The temporary seat of justice for Pettis county shall remain at St. 
Helena, until the permanent seat of justice is located, and a house provided 
suitable to hold court. December j, iSj^. 

Owing to the fact that the county records containing the buisness trans- 
actions of the county courts for the first few years of the county's history 
having been destroyed or carried away, the historian must seek the most 
reliable source outside of the missing books. 

Daniel Klein made the first government entry in the county, July 16, 
1823. The first deed was put on record June 14th, 1833, from Middleton 
Anderson to Andrew Anderson. The first mortgage is dated July 9, 
1834, and was made by E. B. Rathburn to George Gill. Qualified 
office seekers were hard to find here in the organization of the county. 

In the statutes of Missouri, approved February 20, 1835, defining 
county boundaries, the following appears: 

Pettis: beginning at the southwest corner of Saline county; thence east 
to the range fine between nineteen and twenty; thence south to the line 
between townships forty-three and forty-four; thence north to the begin- 

Since then the boundary lines have been changed. Its greatest width 
is twenty-four miles, and its greatest length twenty-nine miles, containing 
672 square miles, or an area of 430,080 acre. Since the boundaries w^ere 
originally fixed, there has been an addition of twenty-four sections from 
townships 4 and 3, in ranges 22 and 23. This is on the southern end of 
the county. Now the county begins in the northwest corner of section 19, 
township 48, range 23, and extends east on township line to the northeast 
corner of section 24, township 48, range 20, thence south on the range 
line to the southeast corner of section 36, township 44, range 20, thence 
west on the township line to the southwest corner of section 31, township 
44, range 21, thence south on range line to the southeast corner of section 
12, township 43, range 22, thence west on township line to the southwest 
corner of section 7, township 43, range 23, thence north to the place of 

As will be noted elsewhere elaborately, this county has passed through 



many changes. However, it has been fortunate enough to retain its good 
reputation and hold itself faithful for every emergency during the half a 
century through which it passed. The turmoils of internecine war did 
not blast this corporation, neither was it reluctant to duty, for during that 
struggle, those who could, assisted in holding together the common ties 
and interests of a county that citizens mutually hold sacred in self-defence 
and the protection of home and property. The fruits of this they now 


Heath's Creek. 

Elk Fork. 

Mt. Sterling No. 1. 

Mt. Sterling No. 2, 

Washington No. 1. 

Washington No. 2. 


Flat Creek No. ] . 

Flat Creek 

No. 2, 


The town of Georgetown was incorporated by an act of the General 
Assembly of Missouri, January 4:th, 1860. The first board of councilmen 
was organized with the following appointed members: John H. Griffin, 
Wilkins Watson, Thomas E. Staples, John Hancock, Elias Bixby, B. F. 
Hughes, and James H. Brown, who were to hold their office till their suc- 
cessors were elected and qualified. 


This town continued to grow from the time it was laid off as the county- 
seat in 1837, up to the breaking out of the war in 1861. Three chartered 
seminaries existed here with good success at different times. The county 
seat was changed to Sedalia in 1865, and since that time Sedalia has con- 
tinued to be the seat of justice of Pettis county. St. Helena remained the 
county seat until 1837, when Georgetown succeeded to the honor, and 
continued so till Sedalia took it away. Clifton Wood was the first mer- 
chant of Georgetown, and has been identified with Pettis county much of 
his time since. 

The first school district was organized November 6th, 1838, by the 
following order of court: 

There shall be established in congressional township No. forty-six of 
range twenty-one in Pettis county, a board of trustees, whose duty it shall 
be to superintend all schools which are or may be established in said con- 
gressional township, according to law. For the present there shall be 
established in said township one school district, which shall be known by 
the name and style of Washington School District No. one. William I. 
Westerfield, Oswald Kidd and Willis P. Ellis, are appointed by this court 
a board of trustees of said Washington School District No. one, and such 
other districts as may hereafter be established by law, to continue in 
office until the legal termination of their appointments. 

At this date public schools were initiated, and the seeds of popular 
education planted. 

The following is an order of court under date May 6th, 1839, organiz- 
ing a township for school purposes: 

Congressional township forty-five of range twenty-three is incoiporated 
by the name and style of Christian School District. Thomas Brooks, 
Jesse Pemberton, and George W. Glass, having each contributed one 
dollar for school purposes in said school district, are appointed trustees of 
said district. 

This county has always given marked attention to her educational 
interests. Prior to the organization of school districts, schools were 
taught in families as private institutions. From the organization of the first 
school of the county, others have followed until the present condition of the 
cause of education in Pettis county is indeed very good. This speaks 
well for the people and their county officers. Much depends on selecting 
men qualified to organize and successfully care for schools. 

As will be seen from the following quotations from the Circuit Court 
records, there was but little business at first: 

Pettis Circuit Court, 5^"(y Term, 1^33-, State of Missouri, to wit : 

At a circuit court begun and held at Pettis court house within and for 

the county of Pettis, on the second Wednesday of July, it being the 8th 

day of said month, in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred 

thirty-three : 

Were present — the Hon. John F. Ryland, Judge of said court; Aaron 

Jenkins, Sheriff', and A^os Fisher, Clerk. 


The sheriff returned the venire issued to the present term, with a panel 
of jurors summoned, to wit: 

Anthony Fisher, Isaac Hedrick, John O'Baunon, Middleton Anderson, 
Henry Anderson, Athel Wolf, Samuel Read, Oliver L. Q. Brown, 
Manan Duran, Levi Oolneal, Hugh M. Doneghe, Daniel Lynn, George 
Kelly, John Brown, Jolly S. Parish, Carvin Carpenter, Clinton Young, 
Alfred Brock, Henry Small. James Scott, Thomas Martin. 

The grand jury having received their charge from the court retired, and 
soon returned, having nothing to present, were discharged. James H. 
Birch and Henderson Young, two licensed attorneys, were enrolled as 
such by the clerk. 

The following appears on the record of this day's business: 
William H. Head, ) 

vs. V Appeal from justice court. 

Jame Williams. ) 

Dismissed at the request of the parties. 

The following is the verbathn at literatim of the record of this session 
of circuit court in the year 1833: 

At a circuit court begun and held at Ramey & Wason's Mill, the 
temporary seat of justice within and for the county of Pettis, in the State 
of Missouri, on the second Monday in November, being the eleventh day 
of said month, was present the Honorable John F. Ryland, judge of 
said court. 

The sheriff returned into court the following named persons as sum- 
moned by him as a venire for a grand jury, whereupon Reuben E. Gentry 
was sworn as foreman, and the following persons as members of said 
grand jury: Meshac Willis, Adam Scott, Andrew S. Bryant, Abraham 
McCormack, William Mosely, Samuel Miller, David McFarlam, George 
Gibson, William Glass, William Ragan, Michael Bird, John Birch, 
Oswald Kidd, Allen Tate, William M. Johnson, Jonathan Tussy, Zadoc 
Powell, and Jacob Hall, who, after receiving their charge from the court, 
retired to consider their presentments. 

John Tramell, ) Appellant. 

vs. \ On appeal. 

Thomas Chew. ) Appellee. 

The plaintiff and appellant, John Tramell, moved the court for leave to 
enter a non-suit in this cause, which is granted him, and thereupon the 
plaintiff is called, etc., and judgment against him for costs of suit in both 

The grand jury return into court, and presented the following bill of 
indictment, viz.: 

' ( Indictment: Assault with intent to kill. A 

Thomas Chew. ( true bill. 

And having no further business, were discharged by the court. 
Ordered by the court, that a capias issue against Thomas Chew, on the 
indictment aforesaid. 

Ordered, that court adjourn until court in course. 

•John F. Ryland. 



When the county was organized there was but little use for a multiplic- 
ity of clerical officers. For man}^ years the sheriff performed the office 
of sheriff and collector. The county clerk was clerk of both the county 
and circuit courts, and ex officio county recorder. 

Other county officers, whose salaries were meager, were employed and 
paid -per diem. 

In many instances the courts were almost nominal. At that early day 
men felt more interest in the welfare of their neighbors and prosperity of 
the county than they did in disintegrating lawsuits. When there is some- 
thing worthy to be done citizens have no time to waste in petty quarrels. 


Bowling Green. 

Elk Fork. 

Mt. Sterhng. 


■ • 

Flat Creek. 


In 1833 the population of the county would not exceed 600. 


Up to the year 1844 there were but five municipal voting^ precincts, 
which were as follows: 

Elk Fork, with place of voting at the house of M. G. Pemberton. 

Blackwater, with place of voting at the house of Samuel Fisher. 

Flat Creek, with place of voting at Higgins & McCormack's mill. 

Bowling Green, with place of voting at the house of James Lacy. 

Mt . Sterling, with place of voting at Georgetown. 

The general elections were held, prior to 1869, on the first Monday in 
August. For the year 1838 we here append the names of the judges of 
election for the five townships then organized: 

Elk Fork. — Byrd Hawkins, Francis Talbert, and Thomas P. E. Rees. 

Blackwater — John Fisher, Jr., Montiville Huff", and Isaiah Prigmore. 

Flat Creek — David B. Hume, Giles L. Williams, and Pemberton 

Bowling Green —George Small, James Marlen, and Larkin Erwin. 

Mt. Sterling — Richard Byrd, Elijah Taylor, and William McCormack. 

In those days the polls were kept open one, two and three days, giving 
plenty of time for every man to vote. 

Soon, following 1844, the larger voting precincts were divided, and 
where two precincts bore the same name they we known as " No. one" 
and "No. two." Washington and Heath's Creek townships were soon 
added to the list of voting places, so by 1850 there were fourteen voting 
precincts in the county. Lake Creek was added after 1859. Sedalia was 
organized about 1866 as a voting precinct, and now the county has six- 
teen municipal townships, and sev'enteen voting precincts. 

Quite soon after the county was organized steps were taken to erect 
suitable county buildings, at the county seat — Georgetown. Prior to this 
date (1837), the business of the county was dispatched in an old frame 
building at Pin Hook. 

The following law was enacted, January 29, 1835, by the general 

There shall be erected in each county, at the established seat of jus- 
tice thereof, a good and sufficient court-house and jail. 

As soon as the court-house and jail shall be erected, and the circum- 
stances of the county will permit, there shall also be erected one or more 
fire-proof buildings, at some convenient place or places, near the court- 
house, in which shall be kept the offices of the recorder and the clerks of 
the several courts of such county. 

Accordingly, Gen. Geo. R. Smith, the founder of Sedalia, and James 
Ramey, men who were always alive to the county's interests, took the 
contract for building a brick court-house. They completed this building, 
a fine edifice for those da3'S, at a cost of $4,000, and here justice was dis- 
pensed until 1862, when the business of the county was transacted in 


The following order appears on record at the county clerk's office under 
date of February 6, 1873: 

Whereas, The legislature of Missouri did, at the adjourned session of 
the 26th General Assembly, 1872, pass a law, which law was approved 
March 18, 1872, allowing counties in said State to adopt township 
organization, and further providing for the county courts to divide the 
counties so adopting said township organization into townships. And, 
whereas, the county of Pettis did, on the 5th day of November, 1872, by 
a majority vote, adopt township organization. 

It is therefore ordered by the court, that Pettis county be divided into 
townships, as follows, said townships to be known by numbers: 

Township No. /, (Heath's Creek). — To include all that portion of town- 
ship 48, range 20, that belongs to Pettis county, and all of township 47, 
range 20, and bound as follows: Commencing at the northeast corner of 
Pettis county, and running thence west, on county line, to the northwest 
corner of section 19, township 48, range 20; running thence south, on 
range line, to the southwest corner of section 31, township 47, range 20; 
running thence east, on the township line, to the southeast corner of sec- 
tion 36, township 47, range 20 ; thence north on county line to the place 
of beginning. 

Township No. ^, (Longwood). — To include all that portion of township 
48, range 21, that belongs to Pettis county, and all of township 47, range 

21, bound as follows: Commencing at the northeast corner of section 24, 
township 48, range 21, running thence west on count}'- line to the north- 
west corner of section 19, township 48, range 21; running thence south on 
the range line to the southwest corner of section 31, township 47, range 
21; running thence east on township line to the southeast corner of section 
36, township 47, range 21; running thence north on range line to place 

Township No. J, (Houstonia). — To include all that portion of township 
48, range 22, that iDelongs to Pettis county, and all of township 47, range 

22, bound as follows: Commencing at the northeast corner of section 24, 
township 48, range 22, running thence west on county line to the north- 
west corner of section 19, township 48, range 22; running thence south on 
the range line to the southwest corner of section 31, township 47, range 
22; running thence east on the township Hne to the southeast corner of 
section 36, township 47, range 22; running thence north on range line to 
the place of beginning. 

Township No. ^, (Blackwater). — To include all that portion of town- 
ship 48, range 23, that belongs to Pettis county, and all of township 47, 
range 23, bound as follows: Commencing at the northeast corner of sec- 
tion 24, township 48, range 23; running thence west on the county line to 
the northwest corner of Pettis county, running thence south on the county 
line to the southwest corner of section 31, township 47, range 23; running 
thence east on the township line to the southeast corner of section 36, 
township 47, range 23; running thence north on range line to place of 

Tozvnship No. 5, (Lamont). — To include all of township 46, range 23, 
bound as follows: Commencing at northeast corner of said township 46, 
range 23; running thence west on township line to the northwest corner of 
same township and range, running thence south on county line to the south- 


west corner of same township, running thence east on the township line, 
to the southeast corner of same township; thence north on range line to 
the place of beginning. 

Tozvnshif No. 6, (Dresden). — To include all of township 46, range 22, 
bound as follows: Commencing at the northeast corner of said township 
46, range 22, running thence west on township line to the northwest corner 
of same township; thence running south on range line to the southwest 
corner of same township; running thence east bn the township line to the 
southeast corner of same township; running thence north on range line to 
the place of beginning. 

Totu}ishif IVo. y, {C^d^iv). — To include all of township 46, range 21, 
except the six sections on the south side of said township, bound as fol- 
lows: Commencing at the northeast corner of said township 46, range 21; 
running thence west on township line to the northwest corner of said town- 
ship; running thence south on the range line to the southwest corner of 
section 80, same township; running thence east on the section line to the 
southeast corner of section 25, same township; running thence north on 
the range line to the place of beginning. 

Township jVo. S, (Bowling Green). — To include all of congressional 
township 46, range 20, bound as follows: Commencing at the northeast 
corner of said township 46, range 20; running thence west on the town- 
ship line to the northwest corner of same township; running thence south 
on the range line to the south w^est corner of same township; running 
thence east on the township line to the southeast corner of same township; 
running thence north on the range line to the place of beginning. 

Townshif No. q, (Smithton). — To include all of congressional township 
45, range 20, bound as follows: Commencing at the northeast corner of 
said township 45, range 20; running thence west on the township line to 
the southwest corner of same township; running thence south on the range 
line to the southwest corner of same township; running thence east on the 
township line to the southeast corner of same township; running thence 
north on the range line to the place of beginning. 

Tozunship JVo. lo, (Sedalia). — To include congressional township 45, 
range 21, except that portion lying south of Flat creek; also, to include 
six sections o?l of the south side of township 46, range 21, bound as fol- 
lows: Commencing at the northeast corner of section 36, township 46, 
range 21; running thence west on the section line to the north-west cor- 
ner of section 31, same township; running thence south on the range line 
to the south-west corner of section 19, township 45, range 21; running 
thence east on section line to the south-east corner of section 19, township 
45, range 21, Flat Creek then being the south line of said township; 
from said south-east corner of section 19, township 45, range 21, running 
east to the range line, near the south-east corner of section 13, township 
45, range 21, thence north on range line to the place of beginning. 

Township JVo. //, (F'rairie). — To include all of congressional township 
45, range 22, bound as follows: Commencing at the northeast corner of 
said township 45, range 22; running thence west on the township line to 
the northwest corner of same township and range, running thence south 
on the range line to the southwest corner of same township; running 
thence east on the township line to the southeast corner of same town- 
ship; running thence north on the range line to the place of beginning. 


Tozvnship No. 12, (Elk Fork). — To include all of congressional town- 
ship 45, range 23, bound as follows: Commencing at the north-east cor- 
ner of said township 45, range 2;); running thence west on the township 
line to the northwest corner of same township; thence south on the 
county line to the southwest corner of same township; running thence 
east on the township line to the southeast corner of same township; run- 
ning thence north on the range line to the place of beginning. 

Tozvnshi-p No. ij, (Green Ridge). — To include all of congressional 
township 44, range 23, and all of that portion of township 43, range 23, 
that belongs to Pettis count}^ bound as follows: Commencing at the 
northeast corner of township 44, range 23, running thence west on the 
township line to the northwest corner of same township; running thence 
south on the county line to the southw^est corner of Pettis county; thence 
running east on the county line to the southeast corner of section 12, 
township 43, range 23; thence north on the range line to the place of 

Tozviishif No. /^, (Washington). — To include all of congressional 
township 44, range 22, and all of that portion of township 43, range 22, 
that belongs to Pettis county, bound as follows: Commencing at the 
northeast corner of township 44, range 22, running thence west on the 
township line to the northwest corner of same township; running thence 
south on the range line to the southwest corner of section 7, township 
43, range 22; running thence east on the county line to the southeast cor- 
ner of section 2, same township and range; thence north on the range line 
to place of beginning. 

Toxunship No. /j, (Flat Creek). — To include all of congressional town- 
ship 44, range 21, and all that portion of township 45, range 21, lying south 
of Flat Creek, bound as follows: Commencing at the range line near the 
southeast corner of section 13, township 45, range 21, running thence 
west with Flat Creek to the southeast corner of section 19, township 45, 
range 21; thence west on the section line to the southwest corner of same 
section (19); running thence south on the range line to the southwest 
corner of section 31, township 44, range 21; running thence east on county 
line to the southeast corner of section 36, township 44, range 21; running 
thence north on the range line to the place of beginning. 

Toxunshif No. i6, (Lake Creek.) — To include all of congressional 
township 44, range 2(», bound as follows: Commencing at the northeast 
corner of said tow^nship 44, range 20, running thence west on the town- 
ship line to the northwest corner of same township; running thence south 
on the range line to the southwest corner of same township; running 
thence east on the county line to the southeast corner of Pettis county; 
running thence north on the county line to the place of beginning. 

These municipal townships continue as here stated, except a voting 
precinct formed from portions of townships Nos. 2 and 3, forming the 
precinct of Hughsville. 

As will be found further on, this county did not retain the township 
system law very long. However, nothing was of any importance urged 
against the organization. Under that law the people were more directly 
their own rulers. Much of their business was at home. In States where 
the township organization has existed for years, schools and general pros- 
perity is there most observed. 
















Z ' 
























Cedar, No. 7. 

Lamonte, No. 5. 

Dresden, No. 6. 

Bowling Green, 

No. 8. 

Sedalia, No. 10. 


Elk Fork, No. 12. 

Prairie, No. 11. 

• • ■ 

• • • 
• • • • 

Smithton, No. 9. 

Flat Creek, 

No. 15. 

Lake Creek, 

Green Ridge, 


No. 16. 

No. 13. 

No. 14. 



The following order of court made April 9, 1873, the law which allowed 
the county to be divided into judicial districts: 

Whereas, the General Assembly of the State of Missouri did pass 
an act (which act was approved March 24, 1873),entitled an act "To more 
fully provide for the ori^anization of counties into municipal townships, 
and to further provide for the local government thereof, and repealing all 
former acts relating thereto." And, whereas, article 17 of said act pro- 
vides that the county court of each county having adopted the township 
organization law of this State, at their first meeting after the passage of 
this act, shall proceed to district their respective counties into four compact 
districts for judicial purposes. It is, therefore, ordered by the court, that 
Pettis county be divided into four (4) districts, as follows: Townships Nos. 
1, 2, 3 and 4 shall constitute district No. 1, or Heath's Creek district; 
townships Nos. 5, 6, 11, 12, 13 and 14 shall constitute District No. 2, or 
Washmgton District; townships Nos. 8, 9, 15 and 16 shall constitute Dis- 
trict No. 3, or Bowling Green District; townships Nos. 7 and 10 shall 
constitute District No. 4, or Mt. Sterhng District. 

The election following the adoption and districting of the county, five 
county judges were elected, one from each district and one from the 
county at large. 

This new organization of the county was an experiment, which proved 
to be of little avail. Only a few years of its trial were sufficient to con- 
vince the people that the old land-marks of their fathers' were preferable. 
Men think and act often as their fathers have acted. 

At present the county has three judges. Maj. Wm. Gentry is president 
of the county court. * 

This system is generally adopted over Missouri now, and is generally 

Under date of July 17, 1877, after the township system was repealed, 
the county court made the following order: 

Ordered by the court, that the municipal townships in Pettis county, 
remain as they now exist, also that the road districts that have been estab- 
lished by the township boards, remain as so established, and that, 

Towmship No. 1, be named and known as Heath's Creek township; 
that township No. 2, be named and known as Longwood tow^nship; that 
township No. 3, be named and known as Houstonia township; that 
township No. 4, be named and known as Blackwater township; that 
township No. 5, be named and known as Lament township; that town- 
ship No. 6, be named and known as Dresden township; that township 
No. 7, be named and known as Cedar township; that township No. 8, 
be named and known as Bowling Green township; that township No. 9, 
be named and known as Smithton township; that township No. 10, be 
named and known as Sedalia township; that township No. 11, be named 
and known as Prairie township; that township No. 12, be named and 
known as Elk Fork township; that township No. 13, be named and known 
as Green Ridge township; that township No. 14, be named and known 
as Washington township; that township No. 15, be named and known as 



Flat Creek township; that township No. 16, be named and known as 
Lake Creek township. 

Justices of the peace and constables were appointed for each township. 
James Wasson, James Ramey, Reuben E. Gentry and George Heard, 
were among the pioneer justices. 

The names and events which most naturally belong to this chapter have 
been given and we proceed to the consideration of other themes, fervently 
hoping that future generations may maintain the honor due the memory 
of their fathers. 


Political History — Whigs and Democrats — Definitions of Parties, Law and its Functions — 
Know-Nothing Party — Parties in 1860 — Missouri Prefers to Remain Loyal — Test Oath 
of 1865 — Democrats in Power in 1872 — Names of Pioneer Whigs and Democrats — 
Bell and Everett Party Successful in 1860— Incidents of the Late War — Election Re- 
turns of 1880— Official Directory. 

When Pettis county became a member of the commonwealth of Mis- 
souri in 1833, there were two active, distinctlv defined political parties, 
known as whigs and democrats. 

A brief sketch of these rival parties is pertinent here. The name whig 
is of Scotch derivation. It is thought by some to come from the word 
whey, a drink which the Scottish Covenanters used, or from whiggam, a 
term in Scotland used in driving horses, and zvhiggimore, one who drives 
horses, contracted to zvhig. In 1848, a party of Scotch marched to Edin- 
burgh to oppose the king and the duke of Hamilton, and therefore the 
name whig was applied to the opponents of the king. Some writers claim 
that the word zuhig originated from the initial letters of "we hofe in 
God,'''' as a motto of the club from which the whig party took its rise. 

The whig party of England originated in the seventeenth century, dur- 
ing the reign of Charles I, or II, when great contests existed respecting 
the royal prerogatives and the rights of the people. Those who supported 
the king in his high claims were called tories, and the advocates of popular 
rights were called whigs. 

During the American Revolution (1775-1783), the whiQ^s were the 
friends and supporters of the war ensuing, opposed to the toriessLnd royal- 

The whigs as a political party in the United States originated from 
fragments of the old federalist party in about 1829, as opposed to the demo- 
crats. Their first success was the election to the presidency of Gen. Wm. 
H. Harrison, This party, generally speaking, favored tariff, gradual 
emancipation of negro slavery, and a strong central government. In brief, 
they were the federalists in principle. In 1853 this party ceased to be 


known, and soon a new party, composed principally of abolitionists 
known as the republican party, which sprang into existence as by magic, 
and elected Hon. Abraham Lincoln into 1860 to the presidency, and they 
have held the reins of government in the United States ever since. At times 
the name radicalhdiS been appropriatel}'^ given to this party on account of 
its original and extreme progressive measures. In fine, this party is the 
terminus of the old federalist party as opposed to Jefferson, having really 
borne three names. 

Democrats were first known as a political party in the United States in 
1829, when Gen. Andrew Jackson was elected by them to the presidency, 
and they have continued as a distinct political party ever since. This party 
was organized out of the disintegrations of the old Republican party that 
made Thomas Jefferson President in 1800; and although Jefferson's ideas 
of government transaction were the germs of the Democratic party, yet it 
did not receive its present name till the time of Jackson. Patrick Henry, 
the revolutionary patriot and Virginia statesman, had no doubt much to 
do in sowing the seeds from which the Democratic party has grown. 
The principles of this party have always been to give as much liberty to 
the people as possible, making the people the sovereign power of the 
nation. The word is of Greek derivation, and signifies the whole people 
rule. Its principles are further enunciated as opposed to high taritT, pro- 
tection of state rights, and the protection of citizens in their property. Its 
principles have been advocated in the United States ever since the days of 
Henry and Jefferson in opposition to the Federalists, Whigs and Republi- 
cans. Virtually, the Democrats held the power in this government for 
about sixty years, and although Republicans have had almost complete 
control e-ver since, the year 1860, the Democrats have never given up their 
principles, nor have they ceased to strive for victories. 

Political parties are divisions of the people differing as to how the gov- 
ernment shall be administered. A party, then, in its strictest sense, is any 
number of persons confederated, by a similarity of objects and opinions, 
in opposition to others. 

Soon after the death of the Whig party the Know-nothing party sprang 
into existence. This was sometimes called the American party on account 
of its principles being opposed to foreigners having anything to do in the 
making and administrating of the laws of the Union. In 1855, this party 
was thoroughly organized in Missouri. 

We intend, in these few pages devoted to the political history of Pettis 
county, to present some of the more prominent features of the administra- 
tion of oflicers placed in authority, by the suffrages of the people, together 
with the operations of law regulating elections, and the support of candi- 
dates by the different political parties. 

Law is a rule of action. Law, in a political sense, however, signifies a 


rule of human action. In a particular state, " it is a rule prescribed by the 
supreme power in the state, commanding what is right, and forbidding 
what is wrong. " The constitution of a state is the fundamental law, and 
is delineated by the hand of the people. 

The ballot signifies the ball, or ticket, by which persons vote at an elec- 
tion. To ballot signifies voting by ballot, i. e., by ballot or ticket. Form- 
erl}^ voting was altogether viva voce, /. e., by the voice, — the elector 
designating by name the person voted for. This continued to be the cus- 
tom in Pettis county till 1860; now, elections are generally made by ballot 
The name of the person voted for is written or printed on a white ticket, 
and deposited in a box. 

While all government is professedly for the good of the people, it is, 
nevertheless, a fact that nearly all the governments ever established have 
been in the interests of an individual or class. Our fathers, in establish- 
ing this government, admitted the superior rights of no man or class. It 
was carefully arranged to exclude all titles of nobility, and, with a single 
exception, placed all men on the same level. This one exception, negro 
slavery, was swept away during the tempest of civil war, which broke 
out in 1861, and closed in the spring of 1865. 

At the introduction of the Know-nothing party in 1855, it unsettled both 
the old parties, receiving most of its strength from the Whigs. This party 
increased rapidly, till in 1856, Hon. Thomas P. Akers, of Lexington, 
Lafayette county, was elected on that ticket, to congress, from this dis- 
trict. Hon. Thomas P. Akers was a very eloquent speaker, and, though 
too young to enter the house of representatives when elected, he became 
twenty-five, and was granted a seat when congress met. After returning 
from congress he entered the practice of law, and during the cjvil war 
was secretary of the gold board in Wall street. He was the inventor of 
the safety valve for steam engines, and died at the close of the Tilden and 
Hayes campaign in the fall of 1876 — supposed to have over-exercised his 
vocal organs in the state campaign of Indiana in behalf of the Democrats. 

In 1860 party lines were completely broken up. The two national Dem- 
ocratic tickets in the field were the Douglas and Breckenridge parties. 
The Constitution-Union party nominated Bell and Everett for president 
and vice-president. The Republicans put in nomination Abraham Lin- 
coln. Consequently the Democratic party was divided; however, the 
Douglas Democrats carried the da}^ in Pettis county, with the Bell and 
Everett next. Hon. Abraham Lincoln received only two votes in the 

When the war asserted itself, in 1861, all former party affiliations were 
severed. Many men who were staunch Democrats, with ultra pro-slavery 
principles, became open and avowed Union men; while others, who had 
been born and brought up in the north, and looked upon suspiciously. 


immediately espoused the cause of secession. The old part}^ affiliations 
had nothing, whatever, to do in determining which side a man would take- 
Soon after the beginning of the war the Republican party began to grow; 
and from those two despised electors of 1860, numbers increased, and by 
1862 the county was Republican, and continued to hold the power till 

In 1861, March 4th, Gov. Stewart's successor, C. F. Jackson, was 
inaugurated. Gov. Jackson, a secessionist, favored a State convention, 
composed of delegates from all parts of the State, to decide the position 
of Missouri. The most noted resolution passed by that convention, 
which was in March, insisted that Missouri should remain a mem- 
ber of the Union, declaring that secession was a dangerous political 
heresy. This, then known as the Sixteenth district, sent John F. Phillips, 
Samuel L. Sawyer, and Vincent Marmaduke as delegates to the State 
convention to decide whether Missouri should withdraw from the Union. 
Gen. Sterling Price, who then was regarded as a Union man, was chosen 
president, and Samuel A. Lowe, of Pettis county, secretary of the conven- 

The revised constitution of Missouri, which went into operation July 4, 
1865, prohibited all disloyal citizens from the elective franchise. The 
"Test Oath," or "Iron-Clad Oath," as it was more properly called, was 
required of every one who had anything to do with public affairs. 

Under the operations of this oath, ministers, lawyers, teachers, and all 
office-holders and electors were required to take the test oath prior to 
exercising the functions of their offices. To enforce this oath, as applied 
to voters, a registration law was enacted, creating the office of registrar? 
by which every person who intended to vote at an election was required 
to write his name and subscribe to the oath. It can be easily seen how 
this unlimited power could be abused by the army of registering officers, 
and in many instances men of unquestionable honesty and integrity, pos- 
sessing all the rights of citizenship, were precluded from exercising the 
right to vote, in order to gratify the whim or caprice of some narrow- 
minded partisan. 

After the liberal Republicans carried the State and county, in the fall of 
1870, all restrictions were removed. Many of the disfranchised rebels 
joined the Democrats, and in 1872 this party took possession of the State 
and county again, after a lapse of about twelve years. 

At all the early elections, prior to the war, voting was done vive voce, 
on the first Monday of August. Mr. Mentor Thomson, an esteemed 
pioneer of the county, states that in the early years of the county's history 
men went to the polls to stay all day, eat ginger bread, drink hard cider, 
etc., and have a jolly time. In some places the polls were kept open two 
or three days, in order to allow every voter a chance to exercise the elec- 


tive franchise. Amone^ the old-line Whigs we find the names of Geo. R. 
Smith, Dr. Joe Fox, Jolin M. Sneed, Reuben E. Gentry, Richard Gentry, 
Andrew Forbes, Marcus Calmes, Maj. J. S. Hopkins, Dr. James R. 
Hughes, Col. T. H. Houston, V. Chilton, Geo. Anderson, Col. Crawford* 
W. H. Powell, and Capt. Samuel Montgomery. 

Among the Democrats were: Judge James Ramey, Geo. Heard, 
Judge Thos. Watson, Reece Hughes, Dr. Geo. W. Rothwell, Ebenezer 
MaGoffin, Hon. John R. Born, Dr. Thos. E. Staples. 

In 1860, the Bell and Everett party carried the county by a handsome 
majority. Col. Jno. F. Phillips was one of the presidential electors of this 
party. Hon. F. E. Cravens was elected county representative for this 

Capt. Sam'l Montgomery raised the first company of Union soldiers of 
the county, and Dr. Joe Fox the first secession company, in 1861. 

Col. Jno. F. Phillips, the county's most valorous soldier and statesman, 
organized his regiment, 7th Missouri cavahy, in 1861. Col. Phillips was 
always found at his post of duty during the civil strife; returning to his 
county, his own congressional district, through the Democratic party, gave 
him the highest honors the sovereignty of the people could bestow upon 

Dr. E, MaGoffin is said to have shot the first Union soldier of the 
county. This was in 1861. 

Col. Jeft'. Thompson, of the Confederate army, marched into Sedalia in 
1864, planted his guns near the cemetery, and fired over the city. At the 
alarm, Col. John D. Crawford, who, with a squad of militia, was sta- 
tioned in Sedalia, fled to Flat Creek, where it is said that they took 
refuge. Gen. Jeff'. Thompson entered the town and after pillaging and 
supplying his soldiers with goods and provisions, he captured what horses 
he could and left the city. His most dastardly act was taking from a 
lady's possession a handsome sword, a souvenir presented to Col. John F. 
Phillips by his own regiment, and not returning the same as was due mil- 
itary courtesy. 

Many are the thrilling scenes and trials borne by those who tried to 
stay at home during the rebellion. The bad acts do not belong to one 
side only. In both armies were bad, designing men. Often hves were 
taken for mere trifles, and others tortured or imprisoned. Thos. Hughes 
is mentioned as being taken away from home for his southern proclivities 
and imprisoned at Alton till his health failed, after which they set him free, 
but being too feeble he never reached home. 

In some localities houses were burnt and whole families of women 
and children thrown out in the cold, unwelcome world, penniless, without 
fi-iends or a morsel of bread. Miss Puss Whitley, a brave and noble 
minded girl, is said to have been often equal to the emergency when the 



desperadoes were in her neighborhood. She could use fire arms as well 
as her tongue. She replied to them, when they attempted to burn her 
home and drive her from the county: "Burn it, if you dare, I'll stretch a 
tent over the ashes," then giving them a volley of hot lead. 
















































1 : 







Lieut-Governor. . . 

Sec'y of State 

State Treasurer.. . 

Stale Auditor 

Att'y General 

Keglster of Lands 

Judge Sup. Court 

R. R. Commi88''r 


Circuit Clerk 


Prosecuting Att'y, 
Probate Judge.. ., 







Co. Judge, E. Dist. 
Co. Judge, W. Dist 
Stock Law 

1 Hancock, Dem.. 

< Garfield, Rep. . . . 

( Weaver, G 

( Oriitenden,lDem 

. .< Dyer, Rep 

( Brown, G 

I Campbell, Dem. 

\ Blair, Rep 

/ Fellows, G 

McGrath, Dem... 

Broadwell, Rep.. 

Jones G 

I Chappell, Dem.. 
■I Dallmeyer, Rep . 

( Lowrey, G 

1 Walker. Dem. . . 

< Thompson, Kep. 
r Marquis, G 

I Mc In tyre. Dem.. 

< Harding.^Rep 

/ McGindley, a .. 
( McCulloch, i>em. 
■\ Herenden. Rep.. 

Matney. G 

Ray, Dem 

Karnes, Rep 

Bland, G 

( Pratt, Dem 

< Barnes, Rep 

I Alexander, G 

j Phillips, Dem... 

( Rice, Rep 

I Houston, Dem.. . 

K Shirk, Rep 

( Crandall, G 

( Ingram, Dem 

{ Fletcher, Rep... 

I Hoes. G 

I Hopkins, Dem.. 
-J Moses, Kep. . .. 

I Potter, G 

J Heard, Dem 

/ Bridges, Rep 

i Lacy. Dem 

"( Sloane, Rep. . . 
i Conner. Dem. . . , 

{ Ford. Rep 

( Franklin. G 

i Gentry, Dem 

-! Phipps, Kep.. . . 

( McClure. G 

1 Walker. Dem . . . 

\ Lower. Rep 

( Page, G 

King, Dem 

Bronson, Rep... 
J Monroe, Dem.. . . 

I Hewetr, Kep 

( Clopton, Dem. . . 
^ Fowler, Rep.. . .. 

( Evans, G 

j Blocher, Dem. .. 

( Baker, Rep 

I Purdue, Dem. . . 

\ Hall, Rep 

( Elliott, G 

\ Ye.s 


11G9 94 

93 17 
1047 124 
117H 92 

93 18 
1046 124 













If. 75 


11 --'S 

































































82 65 



21 1 

80 64 


















































111|76|120| 81 
112 94 

78 6: 









112 75 


120! 76 



131 22 ll'i 




























































1 1 













106 73 


8| 3 

























































































32 138 










101 37 
89 121 

























































229 125 










I ■'' 


































































69 175 74 





























































































2895 438 
2457 ... 

306 . . . 
2911 454 
2i56 ... 

24.571 . . . 

310 . . . 
















30 2428 























59 1608 

:Mi ;i8 


l:«8 138 
1110 ... 




In all the following elections from 1872, the Democrats have been suc- 
cessful, with a few exceptions, when the Greenbackers and Republicans 
coalesced. The ex-rebels hav^e <^enerally gone with the Democrats. The 
Democratic majority is now about 400. A good feeling exists between 
the political parties. 

The following is the record of the first marriage of the county: 

State of Missouri, ] 
County of Cooper, f 

I hereby certify that on the 26th day of March, 1838, I solemnized the 
right of matrimony between William P. Burney, of Cooper county, and 
Sallie Ann Barnes, of Pettis county. Given under mv hand this 5th day 
of May, 1833. James" L. Wear, P. G. 

The second marriage contract record is as follows: 

This is to certify that on the twenty-eight day of March, in the year of 
our Lord, eighteen hundred and thirty-three, Nathaniel Newbill and Sarah 
Swope, of the County of Pettis, and State of Missouri, were lawfull joined 
in the bonds of matrimony by me. Elijah Taylor, J. P. 

In 1866 P. G. Stafford was elected State Representative. 
In 1870 Allen O'Bannon was elected State Representative. 

OFFICIAL directory. 

In giving the official directory of Pettis county we find no little trouble 
in arranging the names and dates, from the fact that no record of the elec- 
tions have been preserved. It has been extremely difficult to determine 
when some of the county officers commenced the functions of their offices. 
The records have been carefully consulted, and with the aid of those 
remembering, a few of whom held the offices to which their names have 
been attached, the roster can be relied upon as substanially correct. 
Every clerk of the county court should be required, by law, to keep an 
election book and official directory, which would greatly aid in the trans- 
action of business, and which would grow more and more valuable in 
years to come. It should be remembered in consulting this directory that 
the dates indicate the beginning and close of the term of office. It also 
shows the election of some who did not serve. 


Aaron Jenkins, appointed 1833 — 1834 

Wm. R. Kemp, elected 1834—1836 

Wm. R. Kemp, re-elected 1836—1838 

Willis P. Ellis, elected 1838—1838 

M. G. Pemberton, elected 1838—1840 

M. G. Pemberton, re-elected 1840—1840 

Willis P. Ellis, appointed 1840—1842 

Wm. R. Kemp, elected 1842—1843 


Wm. R. Kemp, appointed 1843 — 1814 

Wm. H. Killebrew, elected 1844—1846 

Wm. H. Killebrew, re-elected 1846—1848 

James Kemp, elected 1848 — 1850 

James Kemp, re-elected 1850 — 1852 

Wm. H. Killebrew, elected 1852. .1854 

Wm. H. Killebrew, re-elected 1854-1855 

Finis E. Cravens, appointed 1855 — 1856 

Finis E. Cravens, elected 1856—1858 

Wesley McClure, elected 1858—1860 

Wesley McClure, re-elected 1860—1862 

H.J. McCormack, elected 1862—1863 

John Hubbard, appointed . 1863 — 1864 

Wm. H. Porter, elected 1864—1866 

Wm. H. Porter, re-elected 1866—1868 

Wm. P. Paff, elected 1868—1870 

Wm. P. Paft; re-elected 1870—1872 

H. J. McCormack, elected 1872—1874 

L.S. Murray, elected 1874—1876 

L. S. Murray, re-elected 1876—1878 

L. S. Murray, elected 1878—1880 

Moses S. Conner, elected 1880 — 1882 


This office was connected with the Sheriff till in 1877. 

J. A. C. Brown, elected 1878— 1880 

R. H. Moses, elected 1880—1882 

1872— Vote for Congressmen: 1,735 votes for Hon. S. S. Burdett; 2,060 
for Col. T. T. Crittenden. The same year John P. Strather was elected 
State Senator and John T. Heard Representative. 

1874. — Votes for Governor stood: C. H. Hardin, 1,736; Wm. Gentry, 
1,998. Votes for Cono-ressmen stood: John F. PhiHps, 2,060; James H. 
Lay, 1,632. 

1876.— Votes for President: Samuel J. Tilden, 2,832; R. B. Hayes, 
2,100; Peter Cooper, 3. For Governor: John S.Phelps, 2,778; G. A. 
Finkelnburg, 2,129. State Senator elected, J. S. Parsons; Representative, 
Dr. J. P. Thatcher. Criminal Circuit Judge elected, W. H. H. Hill. 


Amos Fristoe, appointed 1833 — 1835 

Amos Fristoe, elected 1835—1841 

Amos Fristoe, re-elected 1841 — 1847 

Albion Robertson, elected 1847—1853 

Rob't R. Spedden, elected 1853—1857 


Sam'l A. Lowe, appointed 1857—1859 

Sam'l A. Lowe, elected 1859—1865 

Thomas E. Bassett, appointed 1865—1867 

S. A. Yankee, elected 1867—1870 

R. H. Moses, elected 1870—1874 

R. H. Moses, re-elected 1874—1878 

Henry Y. Field, elected 1878—1882 


Jesse Joplin, appointed 1835 — 1836 

Mentor Thomson, elected 1836—1838 

Mentor Thomson, re-elected 1838—1840 

Mentor Thomson, re-elected 1840—1842 

Mentor Thomson, re-elected 1842 — 1846 

Mentor Thomson, re-elected 1846—1-848 

Mentor Thomson, re-elected 1848-1850 

Mentor Thomson, re-elected 1850 — 1852 

Mentor Thomson, re-elected 1852 — 1854 

Mentor Thomson, re-elected 1854 — 1856 

Mentor Thomson, re-elected 1856 — 1858 

Mentor Thomson, re-elected 1858 — 1860 

Mentor Thomson, re-elected 1860—1862 

Mentor Thomson, re-elected 1862 — 1864 

Mentor Thomson, re-elected 1864—1866 

Wm. J. Pace, appointed 1866—1867 

Wm. J. Pace, elected 1867—1868 

W. H. Hewitt, elected 1868—1870 

W. H. Hewitt, re-elected 1870—1872 

Thomas Monroe, elected 1872 — 1874 

Thomas Monroe, re-elected 1874 — 1876 

Thomas Monroe, re-elected 1876-1880 

Thomas Monroe, re-elected 1880 — 1882 


Solomon J. Lowe, appointed 1847—1850 

John M. Glasscock, appointed 1850 — 1851 

George Heard, appointed 1851^ — 1855 

George Heard, appointed 1855 — 1856 

George Heard, appointed 1855 — 1858 

Wm. C. Ford, elected 1858—1861 

Thos. J. Montgomery, appointed but refused to qualify 1861 — 1861 

Chan. P. Townsley, appointed 1862—1863 

O. P. Hatton, appointed 1853—1865 

O. P. Hatton, appointed 1865—1866 


John G. Riley, elected but refused to qualify 1866 — 1S67 

S. S. Vinton, appointed 1867—1868 

Jas. S. Porter, elected 1868—1869 

D. H. Petefish, appointed 1869—1871 

J. F. Tobias, appointed 1871—1872 

John Elliott, elected 1872— 187i 

John Elliott, re-elected 1874—1876 

John R. Clapton, elected 1876—1880 

John R. Clapton, re-elected 1880—1882 


Aldea A. Glasscock, appointed 1853 — 1855 

Aldea A. Glasscock, appointed 1855 — 1857 

Aldea A. Glasscock, appointed 1857 — 1860 

Wm. C. Westlake, elected ••••... 1860—1861 

The office abolished and county clerk acted 1861 — 1865 

H. P. Thomson, appointed 1865 — 1868 

A. J. hampson, elected 1868—1870 

A. A. Neal, elected 1870—1872 

W. C. Westlake, elected 1872—1875 

Wm. F. Hansberger, elected com 1875—1877 

Joseph Kingsley, elected 1877—1879 

Gen.J. B. Van Petten, elected 1879—1881 

R. M. Scotten, elected 1881—1883 


James Ramey, appointed 1833 — 1838 

Elijah Taylor, appointed 1833—1838 

Wm. A. Miller, appointed 1833—1838 

Wm. A. Miller, elected 1838—1842 

Thomas Wasson, elected 1838—1842 

James Brown, elected 1838—1842 

Thomas Wasson, re-elected 1842 — 1847 

William Scott, elected 1842—1847 

Henry M. Rubey, elected 1842—1847 

William Scott, re-elected .1847—1850 

Thomas Wasson, re-elected 1847—1850 

John S. Brown, elected, 1847—1850 

Henry Rains, appointed 1850 — 1851 

James T. Walker, elected 1850—1851 

A. M. Forbes, elected 1850—1853 

John S. Brown, elected 1851—1853 

Samuel Dudley, appointed 1851 — 1854 

Mentor Thompson, appointed 1851 — 1854 


Hampton P. Gray, appointed 1853 — 1854 

Wm . Scott, appointed 1854—1854 

A. M. Forbes, elected 1854—1856 

A. M. Coft'ee, elected 1854—1856 

Wm. Gentry, appointed 1855 — 1856 

H. P. Gray, elected 1856—1858 

Wm. Gentry, elected 1856—1865 

Thomas Ferguson, elected 1856—1864 

Jacob Yankee, elected 1860—1866 

Wm. D. Erwin, appointed 1864—1866 

J. W. Beeman, appointed .1864—1866 

A. M. Wright, appointed 1866—1870 

J. W. Beeman, appointed 1866—1770 

E, W. Washburn, appointed 1866—1870 

Allen O'Bannon, appointed 1868—1870 

Thos. W. Phillips, elected 1868-1872 

A. M. Wright, elected 1870—1872 

Charles Richardson, elected 1872—1873 

John M. Sneed, elected 1873—1875 

A. B. Codding, elected 1873—1875 

O. M. Harris, elected 1873—1875 

D. H. O'Rear, elected 1873—1875 

WilHam Boeker, elected 1873—1875 

V. T. Chilton (vice Sneed, resigned), appointed 1873 — 1875 

John G. Sloan (vice Codding, deceased), appointed 1873 — 1875 

E. Canady (vice Harris, resigned), appointed 1873 — 1875 

J. Q. Tannehill, elected 1873—1875 

W. C. Gibson, elected 1873—1875 

W. C. Gibson, re-elected 1875—1878 

W. C. Gibson, re-elected 1878-1880 

John Baker, elected 1878—1880 

J. Q. Tannehill, elected 1878—1880 


Ambrose K. Boggs, elected 1838—1842 

Samuel C. Potts, elected 1842—1844 

Oswald Kidd, elected 1844—1848 

Oswald Kidd, re-elected 1848—1850 

Jas. G. Bridges, elected 1850 — 18.54 

Robert Dickson, elected 1856—1858 

Jas. G. Bridges, elected 1858—1860 

Wm. T. Roberts, elected 1860—1862 

Jas. A. Blakemore, elected, (resigned) 1862—1862 


M. P. Edwards, appointed 1862— 1S65 

Wm. P. Jackson, appointed 1865 — 1867 

Thomas Lacy, appointed 1867 — 1867 

John Shanafelt, appointed 1867 — 1868 

W. A. Mayfield, elected 1868—1870 

John H. Kehn, elected 1870—1872 

Cyrus Goodrich, elected 1872—1874 

W. H. Evans, elected 1874—1876 

W. H. Evans, re-elected 1876—1878 

J. B. Jones, elected 1878—1880 

Willis P. King, elected 1880—1882 


Amos Fristoe, appointed 1833—1835 

Amos Fristoe, elected 1835—1841 

Amos Fristoe, re-elected 1841 — 1853 

Robert Stedden, elected 1853—1858 

Samuel A. Low^e, appointed 1858 — 1859^ 

Samuel A. Lowe, elected 1859 — 1865 

John W. Christian, elected 1865—1866 

Florence Crandall, appointed 1866—1868 

Bacon Montgomery, appointed 1868 — 1870 

E. P. Kent, elected 1870—1873 

Henry Lamm (vice Kent, resigned), appointed 1873 — 1874 

J. C. Wood, elected 1874—1880 

Benton Ingram 1880—1882, 

With probate jurisdiction: established, 1867; abolished, 1873. 

R. G. Dunham, appointed 1867—1870 

John S. Cochran, elected 1870—1874 

W. H. H. Hill, elected 1874—1874 


George Heard, appointed 1863 — 1865 

Manetho Hilton, appointed 1865—1865 

O. C. Sabin, appointed 1865—1866 

Chan. P. Townsley, appointed 1866—1867 

Jno. S. Cochran, appointed 1867—1868 

B. G. Wilkerson, appointed 1868—1869 

B. G. Wilkerson, appointed 1869—1870 

B. G. Wilkerson, appointed 1870—1871 

B. G. Wilkerson, appointed 1871—1872 

Frank Houston, elected 1872—1874 


Frank Houston, re-elected 1874—1876 

Geo. P. B. Jackson, elected 1876—187^ 

Geo. P. B. Jackson, re-elected 1878—1880 

G. C. Heard, re-elected 1880—1882 


(Established 1873.) The probate judge is ej-q^ctc clerk of his court. 

W. H. H. Hill, elected 1873—1874 

W. H. H. Hill, re-elected— resigned 1874—1875 

H. P. Townsley, elected 1875—1876 

John A. Lacy, elected 1876—1882 


Bacon Montgomery, appointed 1867 — 1870 

E. P. Kent, elected 1870—1872 


(Prior to the electioo of 1866, circuit court clerks performed the duties of recorders. 

Florence Crandall, elected 1866—1870 

J. D. Crawford, elected 1870-1874 

J. D. Crawford, re-elected 1874—1878 

Samuel W. Richer, elected 1878—1882 

John W. Conner, (vice-Richey, deceased, 1 year) 1882 — 1882 

(OflSce established 1846.) 

Solomon J. Lowe, appointed 1847 — 1818 

Reece Hughes, elected 1848—1856 

Reece Hughes, re-elected 1856 — 1858 

Reece Hughes, re-elected 1858 — 1860 

Reece Hughes, re-elected 1860—1862 

H;ram Thornton, elected 1862—1864 

Hiram Thornton, re-elected 1864—1866 

J. G. Beck, elected 1866—1868 

J. G. Beck, re-elected 1868—1870 

Henry Suess, elected 1870 — 1872 

Adam Ittel, elected 1872—1874 

Adam Ittel, re-elected 1874—1876 

J. C. Thompson, elected 1876—1878 

R. T. Gentry, elected 1878—1880 

R. T. Gentry, re-elected 1880—1882 


Alexander M. Christian, elected 1844 — 1848 

Albert G. Branham, elected 1848—1852 


Albert G. Branham, re-elected 1852—1854 

E. C. Bouldin, elected 1854—1856 

O. P. Hatton, elected 1856—1858 

John Dejarnatt, appointed 1858 — 1858 

James McCormack, appointed 1858 — 1858 

James Whitfield, appointed 1858—1859 

T. W. Gresham, appointed 1858—1858 

Richard Gentry, appointed (refused to serve) 1859 — 1858 

Clifton Wood, appointed, (refused to serve) 1859 — 1859 

E. MaGoffin, appointed, (refused to serve) 1859 — 1859 

S. B. Hoss, appointed, (refused to serve) 1859 — 1859 

Joseph B. May, appointed 1859—1860 

T. W. Gresham, appointed 1859—1860 

John S. Brown, appointed 1859 — 1860 

T. W. Gresham, elected 1860—1862 

John W. May 1859—1860 

E. C. Bouldin, appointed 1863—1864 

John W. Simpson, appointed 1863 — 1865 

Wm. D. Ewin, appointed 1864—1865 

William Dixon, appointed, (failed to qualify) 1865 — 1865 

John Hubbard, appointed 1865—1866 

C. C. Crawford, appointed 1865—1866 

C. C. Crawford, elected 1866—1868 

C. C. Crawford, re-elected 1868—1870 

A. P. Morey, elected 1870—1872 

W. E. Middleton, elected 1872—1873 

(Office abolished 1873. Reestablished 1877.) 

W. E. Middleton, elected 1878—1880 

Walker, elected 1880—1882 


Introductif)n — First Records — Habits of First County Officers — Tiie Missing Records — The 
Assessors from 1838-1844 and their Salaries— An Exhibit of County Revenue of 1837 — 
Licenses of 1850— Treasurer's Report of 1850— State School Fund— Rate of Taxation of 
1854— Railroad Bonds— Assessment of 1881 and 1882. 

The financial history of any county bears a direct relation to its wealth 
and resources, and gives a correct view of its prosperity. In the earlier 
days of the history of Pettis county there was but little trouble with 
county finances. The county had no bonds or debts and the citizens' 
annual taxes were comparatively a small sum to what are now imposed 
upon the inhabitants. Then but few books were required to keep the 


financial records of the county. The financial work of the county for the 
first few years after its organization in 1833 covered so little ground that 
it took but little effort to keep the books in proper shape. 

In the first years of the county's existence, assessors were appointed by 
the county court and paid per diem for their services. One man could 
easily take hold of this work and perform it well in about one mouth. 
The greatest difficulty was riding horseback over the wide prairies from 
one residence to the other. In the same .way the county collector was 
appointed and required to call upon all tax-payers of the county at their 
residence in order to collect the assessments. 

In those days but few sought office for the mere salary, since the 
remuneration was by no means adequate to the toils required. Then 
honest men alone were put in office, to w^ork more for the interests of the 
people than for themselves. It was reserved for a later and another gen- 
eration to seek office for its spoils, and Pettis county has shared the com- 
mon fate of many of her sister counties in this respect. However, there is, 
perhaps, no county in the state of Missouri, which has preserved its 
records in better chirography. 

In former years, political contests, while excited so far as regards state 
and national issues, had nothing common with local elections. Personal 
vituperation and insidious attacks by politicians upon character were not 
then so prevalent as now. Now politics is carried from the highest to the 
most menial offices of the land. Then persons were sought to fill offices. 
The civil war in this county did not make men dishonest, but only 
developed what was in the men. The men who have used the public, 
funds for private ends have been forever silenced when they apply to the 
majesty of the people for their suffrages. 

During the early history of the county, revenues were light. However, 
the rate of taxation was very little, if any, less than at present. For the 
first few years of the county's existence the expenses ranged from three 
hundred to one thousand dollars -per anmcm. The books were not kept 
in a very systematic manner, and it is difficult now, even as it must have 
been then, to be able to determine accurately the condition of the county 
finances. In those days the people w^ere honest enough to do much of 
their work orall}'. They managed to keep the machinery of the county 
in motion and contract no large debts. 

In this treatise it is our object to give a brief, clear and concise report 
of the financial operations of the countv, before and after the civil war, 
that the reader may have an insight into some of the more salient features 
of the Pettis county finances. To many of the older settlers these reports 
will appear homelike, while to the immigrant they will be interesting 
because of their novelty. 

By turning the leaves of the financial records, the historian finds that 


the county during the first twenty years of its existence had but little 
need of revenue except for the erection of public buildings, and the pay 
of its officers. At a glance the observer will perceive that for more than 
a score of years prior to the civil war, the county affairs were economi- 
cally managed, and the taxes, not every year light, were considerable less 
than at present, and the valuation of all kinds of property was many 
times smaller than now. 

The county court records are missing from Jan. 26, 1833, to Nov. 6, 
1837, about four years. Those who remember, say these records were 
kept in a small book quite well worn when last noticed. 

The first session of county court as nov/ appears on record, bears date 
Nov. 6, 1837, with Jesse Pemberton, president of the court, Thomas 
Jopling and James McCormick, associate justices, Wm. R. Kemp, sheriff', 
and Amos Fristoe, clerk. 

In 1839, the assessor, Willis P. Ellis, assessed the county in twenty- 
nine days, receiving for his services two dollars fer diem, making a salary 
of fifty-eight dollars. 

In 1840, John R Phillips, assessor, was allowed for assessing county 
for state purposes, thirty-four dollars, and the same amount for county 
purposes, amounting to sixty-four dollars, making a salary augmented by 
six dollars over the previous year. 

In 1841, Nathaniel A. Newbill, assessor, assessed the county in thirty- 
five days, receiving for his services one dollar ^^r diem from the state and 
the same wages from the county, amounting to seventy dollars. 

In 1842, Alexander M. Christian, assessor, assessed the county in forty 
days, receiving eighty dollars for his services. 

In 1843, Nathaniel A. Newbill, assessor, assessed the county in forty- 
six days, at two dollars ^er diem, amounting to ninety-two dollars for the 
entire work. 

In 1844, Nathaniel A. Newbill, assessor, assessed the county in forty 
days, for which he was paid the sum of eighty dollars. 

The revenue of the county was quite small until the prairie farms 
began to be opened, which was about 1850. Since then work of the 
county assessors has been greatly increased, so that at present the office 
is elective, and requires an active, intelligent assessor, and several deputies 
to perform the labor within the limited time assigned him by the law. 
His salary now amounts to about S600, very fair pay since it does not 
require more than about one-third of the year to attend to his legal official 
duties. At present Mr. J. W. Walker is the efficient county assessor, a 
gentleman who attends well to his office. 

In 1850, James Kemp, sheriff', collected the following licenses for the 
county : 


Merchants' license $63.91 

Peddlers' license - ] 0.00 

Phj'sicians' license 12.50 

Lawyers' license 2.50 

Total amount $88.91 

In 1837, Albion Robertson, count}- treasurer, showed that on the 17th 
day of August, 1836, there was in his hands the following: 

In bonds $1,537.03^ 

Interest on same 334.60 

Cash on hand : 95.00 

Cash subsequently received 522.25 

Total amount on hand $2,188,881 

Paid Thos. Wasson, bridge commissioner 200.00 

Balance on hand $2,288. 88^ 

For the year 1837, the amount of county revenue collected was: 

For county contingent expenses $150.68 

For county public buildings 588.86 

Total amount $739.54 

Wm. R. Kemp, collector, presented to the county court the amount of 
insolvents and dehnquents for the year 1837, as follows: 

For state purposes $6.40 

For county purposes 9.60 

Total $16.00 

In 1837, the amount of revenue collected, less the expenses, was $365.87. 

The following shows the financial standing of the county in 1850: 

(Reece Hughes, the treasurer of the county of Pettis; June 30, 1850; in account with Pettis 
county : 


Dr., To amount received from James Kemp, collector $1,005.00 

Dr., To balance as per report, June, 1849 23.23 

Dr., To amount received state military fund 176.98 

Total $1,206.13 


By amount per warrants $850.15 

By amount paid witness fees 85.00 

Balance due Pettis county $ 260.98 



Dr., To amount received per warrants $ 161.50 


Dr., To am't rec'd from state treasurer since last settlement. $ 626.95 
Dr., To am't rec'd from state treasurer since last settlement. 599.50 

Total $1,226.45 


By am't expense to get money Irom Jefferson City, twice, 

deduct ." $ 10.00 

By amount loaned on security $1,216.45 


Dr., To am't rec'd, distribution, in 1849 $ 497.25 

Dr., To am't rec'd, distribution, in 1850 250.72 

Total $ 747.97 

Cr., By am't paid organized townships $ 459.75 

Balance to credit of schools $ 288.22 


remains in the hands of the borrower, as the previous year. 

The county school funds, consisting of fines and penalties.. $ 5.00 
Road and canal fund 2.00 


The following is James Kemp's settlement as sheriff of Pettis county, in 
1851, lor licenses due the state of Missouri: 

Physicians' license $ 2.50 

Dramshop license 15.00 

Merchants' license 2.07 

Attorne3'S at law license 2.50 

Total amount ." $22.07 

In an early day the county officers were required to give bonds for 
faithful duties, as at present, and they were generally faithful to their 

For the year 1854 the county tax was fixed at one-sixth of one fej- cent., 
and the railrood tax one-half -per cent., and the poll tax was twenty-jive 
cents, for county purposes. In this year A. G. Branham, assessor, 
received $155 for his services as county assessor. 

The following year, 1855, one-ffth per cent, was levied on the property 


set forth in the assessor's book for county purposes, the poll tax, iwenty- 
iive cents on each poll assessed, and one -per cent, was levied for railroad 
purposes. For this year, E. C. Bouldin, county assessor, received for his 
services $221.30. 

In the year 1857, the sum of $530 fell due Pettis county, from the sale 
of 500,000 acres of land donated by congress. Reece Hughes was 
appointed by the court to receive the same. 

For the year 1856, only $180 revenue was received from Hcenses. 
Since that dav the county revenue has swelled to hundreds of dollars. 

In 1858, Reece Hughes, county treasurer, showed, in an exhibit, that 
$13,896.97 had been collected for railroad purposes, 

November 1, 1853, A. A. Grasscock was appointed, for two years, 
county school commissioner, and required to give a bond of $1,500. 

In 1870 the assessed value of real estate of the county was $5,328,556; 
personal property, $949,352; true valuation of personal and real estate 
propertv, $5,000,000; taxation not national, $77,263; bonds issued, $35,- 
000; other debts for 1870, $15,000. 

In 1873, during the panic, very many persons became bankrupt, and 
property of all kinds decreased in value, in many instances more \\\-ax\ fifty 
■pej' cent. Mortgaged farms were sold, and numbers of families who lived 
in opulence only a few years previous were now homeless, and to make 
the picture still darker, no avenue of business was open for them to make 
a Hvelihood. 

It was not till the year ls52 that the project of locating a railroad 
through Pettis county was much agitated. Among the leading men in 
this scheme we mention Gen. Geo. R. Smith, Maj. Wm. Gentry, Reece 
Hughes and George Heard. In the year 1853 the county court ap- 
pointed Gen. G. R. Smith agent, to subscribe for shares of the Pacific 
Railroad Company. Accordingly, he subscribed for seventeen hundred 
shares, of one hundred dollars each, amounting to the magnanimous sum 
of $170,000.00. Of the bonds issued subsequently, $100,000.00 was pay- 
able twenty years after date at the rate of six per cent, per annum. The 
$70,000.00 was to be paid at any time when the road was located. Gen. 
Geo. R. Smith had authority from the Pettis county court to act as a di- 
rector in all business pertaining to the interests of Pettis county. 

In 1855 the county borrowed of C. & W. Wood, George Heard, W. H. 
Powell and David Thomson, sufficient money to pay the amount of 
assessments due the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company. 

The Pacific railroad bonds have been all paid by the county. The 
bonds vi^ere subscribed in good faith and the people expected to realize 
something from the investment, but owing to a change of hands and gen- 
eral unfairness on the part of tlie bondholders, they realized nothing. 
At present the outstanding bonds of Pettis county do not amount to more 


than $25,000, and the people should congratulate themselves in so wisely 
throwing off the burden of debt so recklessly imposed and saddled upon 
them during the few years following the close of the civil war. The 
enormous taxes and general dishonest management of the county finances 
from 1S65 to 1873, brought about a retrenchment in salaries and a great 
change in the political management of the county. 

The following shows the assessment list of personal property for the 
year 1881, as given in the abstract by the county assessor, W. E. 

Number of horses, 8,455, valued at $ 357,589. 

Number of jacks and jennets, 64, valued at 3,990. 

Number of mules, 2,604, valued at 92,383. 

Number of neat cattle, 28,442, valued at 399,441. 

Number of sheep, 28,984, valued at 36,905. 

Number of hogs, 31,156, valued at 65,622. 

Money, notes, bonds and other credits, 447,544. 

All other personal property, 574,299. 

Total valuation, ^1,876,544. 

Total banks' valuation 226,246. 

Total Building and Loan Associations — valuation, 104,978. 

Total amount, $2,208,000. 

The abstract of real estate for the year 1881, as given on the assessor's 
book, is as follows: 

Total valuation of farming lands, , $3,232,035. 

Total valuation of town lots, 1,572,739. 

Total amount, $4,804,774. 

Grand total of all property, $7,012,774. 

By 1876 the count}- began to improve from the downward tendencies 
thrown upon it by the dull times of 1873-1875. The value of all property 
has been increasing gradually to what it is now. 

An estimate of the valuation of the personal propert}^ as given by J. W. 
Walker, county assessor for the year 1882: 

Number of horses, 8,871, valued at. . . . .• $ 325,505. 

Number of jacks and jennets, 55, valued at 3,670. 

Number of mules, 2,658, valued at 130,570. 

Number of neat cattle, 29,040, valued at 466,705. 

Number of sheep, 36,675, valued at 57,457. 

Number of hogs, 27,293, valued at 64,293. 

Money, notes, bonds and other credits, 525,296. 


Amount received by corporate companies, 372,270. 

All other personal property , 516,676. 

Total amount, $2,462,644. 

The assessor returned a list of 2,637 dogs (perhaps one-third the number 
in the county) property which is a nuisance to the county. The value of 
sheep and other property destroyed by fostering and breeding the canine 
species is far in excess of all the damages assessed and collected from the 
owners of dogs. 

Estimated value of real estate for 1882: 

Farm lands $3,496,625. 

Alphabetical lists, 118,475. 

Town lots, 1,626,225. 

Railroad lands and lots, 78,985. 

Total, $5,320,310. 

Grand total, $7,782,954. 

The pay of county officers is at present as follows: County treasurer's 
salary is $1,500, and one-half of one -per cent, of all school funds that pass 
through his hands. The county prosecuting attorney receives about $750 
■per annum., and fees. The county clerk is not allowed to retain upwards 
of $1,500, after this term, and his deputy is allowed $750 ^^tr anniini. The 
probate judge and county recorder are paid out of fees of the office. The 
collector deducts a certain per cent, of his collections for his salary. The 
county school commissioner collects $1.50 from each applicant for a cer- 
tificate to teach, and receives from the county court about $50 for making 
his annual report to the state superintendent of public schools of Missouri. 
The circuit clerk, county surveyor, and constables are paid out of fees of 
the office. The sheriff' is allowed pay for actual work. The representa- 
tive receives $5.00 per diem for seventy days session, after which only 
$1.00 per diem. The office of recorder is perhaps, at present, the most 
lucrative in the county. The three county judges receive $3.00 ^^r die7n., 
and mileage for actual service. 

The citizens of the coimty suffered considerable from legalized plunder 
during the interval that the dominant political party kept them from the 
polls. So great was the pressure in this and many other counties of the 
state, from 1865 to 1872, under the management of the county system, that 
the township system was hailed with joy. When the new officers were 
elected that year (1873), they made it part of their duty to investigate the 
proceedings of the old courts, especial!}- all of its financial transactions, in 
order to verify the people's wrongs. Here was a general overhauling and 
upturning of the conduct of the past office-holders. The township system 


performed its mission of wiping out frauds and introducing reform and 
retrenchment in officers' salaries, and in 1877, the people went back to the 
old plan of county organization. The township system did not by any 
means prove a iailure or inoperative, but on the contrary, was the greatest 
preservative of the people's rights. 

Notwithstanding the cry of retrenchment and reform, the levies on 
property of all kinds appear to be growing astonishingly high as the 
county becomes better developed. Without taxation we cannot have good 
public improvements. The people of Pettis county are learning that 
money, properly and judiciously appropriated for public purposes, is not 
thrown away, but tends in many ways to bring back to them its value 
increased many fold. 

The levies for the year 1882 are comparatively Hght, when we take into 
consideration the great wealth of Pettis county, her superb natural 
resources, all estimated to be upwards of $12,000,000. For this year the 
levy for state and county purposes is $1.05 on the hundred. The school 
levies in the several districts vary from twenty cents to $1.00 on the hun- 
dred, and average about forty-five cents on the hundred. 

Mr. R. H. Moses, present efficient county collector, collected $150,000 
revenue for 1881. This offiee has already become one of immense busi- 

The county poor farm, situated in Flat Creek township, and consists 
of fifty acres of land, of about the worth its name gives it. Paupers are 
kept here at an expense of $1.35 per week to the count}^ 


Law— Its Origin and Authority— The Seat of Justice for Pettis County— Early Courts— 
Tlieir Authority and Jurisdiction— History of Pettis County Court— History of the Cir- 
cuit Court— History of the Criminal Court— History of the Court of Common Pleas 
and Probate — List of Circuit Judges from First— Roll of Attorneys since Organization 
of County — Present Resident Attorney's Roll— List of Foreign Attorneys- Personal 

Law. — When " the earth was without form and void, and darkness 
was upon the face of the deep, and God said let there be light," — that 
mandate was the first assertion of Supreme authority, and its execution the 
effect of supernatural power exercised in bringing order out of chaos, and 
establishing natural laws for the government of the material universe. It 
was the supernatural operation of physical force upon material things — 
the creation of a new order of natural tendencies, and in its relation to mat- 
ter, the beginning of law on earth. The decree of the Almighty that man 
should have dominion over every living thing, delegated judicial powers 
and functions to the human race, and the punishment of Adam and Eve 


for disobedience was the exercise of judicial authority by the Creator, and 
established a precedent for the guidance of mankind in the enforcement of 

The sages and patriarchs of early ages were the law-givers and judges 
for their people, but they depended largely upon divine inspiration and 
guidance in matters of great moment; and upon their representations of 
the will of the Supreme Being, as revealed to them for the government of 
mankind, human laws were based, moulded and fashioned. Since Moses 
delivered the law engraven on tablets of stone to the children of Israel, 
the Ten Commandments have never been improved upon; and to-day the 
laws of all civilized nations contain their essence — forbidding what is there 
prohibited, and permitting onh^ what is there allowed for man to do. 
From analogy, therefore, we may reason, that the just laws of all civilized 
nations are of Divine origin — that their vindication and enforcement is by 
Divine authority, and that the judicial tribunal which is uncorrupted by 
bribery or uninfluenced by prejudice or passion, as far as human wisdom 
can go, represents the will and authority of the Divine Being. 

The reign of law, order, peace and prosperity, or violence, bloodshed, 
anarch}^ and ruin, are the lessons of history respecting the existence and 
enforcement, or the entire absence of Just laws in nations of past ages, 
leaving upon every reflecting mind the unpleasant impression, that man is 
by nature a rebel and an outlaw, and without the refining influences of 
civilization is the most vicious and depraved of all creatures. Civilization 
is the fruit of just laws honestly and intelligently administered, and the 
moral and intellectual standard of nations and communites may be correct- 
ly determined by an investigation of the character of their laws and the 
degree of impartiahty and faithfulness with which they are executed. 

It is a matter of history, that from time immemorial, lawyers have been 
the law-makers of the world, and the sole instruments of legal administra- 
tion; and again, reasoning from analogy, the fact is clearly and conclu- 
sively established, that the intelligence, culture refinement and moral worth 
of every community, are faithfully represented by its courts and bar. 

No country in the world possesses a better legal code than the United 
States. The legitimate oflspring of the popular will, founded upon prece- 
dents and forms of English law antedating the reign of Alfred, and 
crowned by the eternal principles of right and equal and exact justice, 
they are equal to every emergency, and meet every requirement. There 
can be no wrong that they are powerless to right — so far as human power 
can go in that direction, and no grievance that they cannot redress within 
the bounds of reason and justice. 

To day, whatever may be said to the contrary, Missouri is the peer of 
an}' of her sister states in the completeness and wisdom of her laws, and in 


this connection whatever may be said of Missouri appHes with equal force 
and appropriateness to Pettis county. 

Early Courts. — Owing to the incompleteness of the early records, it is 
not possible to give as complete a history of the courts of Pettis county as 
we had contemplated, but we have succeeded at the cost of much labor 
and money, in obtaining very satisfactory information from old settlers, 
and can therefore give such facts as are of primary importance to the legal 
fraternity, and of especial interest to the general reader. 

The early courts were of the most primitive character, and judicial 
procedure in accordance with the simplest forms, unburdened by the com- 
plex technicalities of the present day. The proceedings in court trials 
partook largely of the character of courts-martial, being arbitrary and 
strictl}^ in accordance with both letter and spirit of the law. Jury trials 
were conducted according to the simplest forms — the jury, as a matter of 
fact, acting merely as a board of arbitration. The court dockets were 
not cumbered with long lists of causes, based upon theoretical law points, 
for the judges promptly declined to consider causes not strictly within the 
bounds of equity. The result was that the business of the courts was 
dispatched with rapidity and promptness, and conclusions reached by the 
shortest and simplest methods. 

The Seat of Justice. — By act of the legislature of Missouri, January 
26th, 1833, Pettis county was organized, comprising all the territory 
within the present eastern, northern and western boundaries, and extend- 
ing south to the middle of the Osage river. The house of James Ramey 
at St. Helena, now known as Pin Hook Mills, situated eight miles north 
and one mile east of Sedalia, was designated as the place where the courts 
should be held, until the tribunal transacting business for the county 
should establish a temporary seat of justice. * • 

The act also created a county court, designated the times of its meeting, 
and empowered the governor to appoint temporary judges. 

By act of the legislature, December 3d, 1834, the temporary seat of 
justice for Pettis county was continued at St. Helena, until the permanent 
seat of justice should be selected and established, and Joseph S. Anderson 
of Cooper count}^, John Stapp of Lafayette county and John Rucker of 
Howard county, appointed commissioners to select a site for permanent 
seat of justice. 

By authorit}^ of the act above mentioned, the business of the county was 
transacted at St. Helena, until 1837, when by act of the legislature George- 
town, three miles north of Sedalia, was selected as the permanent seat of 
justice for Pettis county, and a large substantial brick building was erected 
for the accommodation of the courts and county officials. The frame 
work of the building consisted of massive beams of hewn timber framed 
together with great care and skill and firmly anchored in the walls. 


Forty-three 3^ears that grand old building stood there, — breasting the 
storms — unshaken; and the children, who played within the shadow of its 
walls had become mothers and fathers, with gray hair and time-furrowed 
faces. Forty-three years — nearly half a century — and the men who had laid 
its foundation and reared its walls, who had framed its massive timbers 
and fashioned such parts into a symmetrical whole, were bowed with age, 
or had passed into another life. A generation had been born and had 
passed away, and a wilderness had been transformed into a country teem- 
ing with human life and energy, and then the walls of that historic temple 
of justice, that through all these years had looked down upon scenes of 
festivity and gloom, of joy and woe, of peace and war; that had echoed 
to the tread of armed men and the eloquence of orators pleading for 
justice were dismantled and leveled by ruthless hands, and carried away 
to Sedalia, to be used in the construction of a stable. 

"To what base uses must we all return 

•S* •P T* V 

Imperial Czar dead and turned to clay, 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away; 

O, that the earth which held the world in awe 
Should patch a wall to expell the winter flaw." 

Georgetown remained the permanent seat of justice for Pettis county 
from 1837 to 1865, when by act of the state legislature it was removed 
to Sedalia, its present location. 

The County Court, — The act of the legislature of Missouri, January 
26, 1833, which provided for the organization of Pettis county, and the 
establishment of a temporary seat of justice, also created the county court, 
and empowered the governor to appoint judges therefor, to serve until 
the general election in the county, which was ordered to be held in 1834. 
As before mentioned, the place selected temporarily for the transaction of 
the business of the county, was St. Helena, and times for holding the 
county courts, the third Mondays in February, May, August and Novem- 

In compliance with the above act, the governor appointed James Ramey, 
Elijah Taylor, and Wm. A. Miller judges of the county court, and the 
first session was held on the third Monday in February following. 

Roster of the County Court. — From its organization to the pres- 
ent time (1882), including the abov^e named, and the years of service, the 
following changes have occurred in the ;perso?inel oi the court: 

In 1833 three judges were appointed, viz: 

James Ramey, appointed 1833, served until 1838. 

Elijah Ta3dor, appointed 1833, served until 1838. 

Wm. A. Miller, appointed 1833, served until 1838. 

Wm. A. Miller, elected 1838, served until 1842. 


Thomas Wasson, elected 1838, sers^ed until 1842. 
James Brown, elected 1838, served until 1842. 
Thomas Wasson, elected 184:2, served until 1847. 
Wm. Scott, elected 1842, served until 1847. 
Henry M. Ruby, elected 1842, served until 1847. 
Wm. Scott, elected 1847, served until 1850. 
Thomas Wasson, elected 1847, served until 1850. 
John S. Brown, elected 1847, served until 1850. 
Henry Rains, appointed 1850, served until 1851. 
James Walker, elected 1850, served until 1851. 
A. M. Forbes, elected 1850, served until 1853. 
John S. Brown, elected 1851, served until 1853. 
Samuel Dudley, appointed 1851, served until 1854. 
Mentor Thomson, appointed 1851, served until 1854. 
Hampton P. Gray, elected 1853, served uutil 1854. 
Wm. Scott, elected 1853, served until 1854. 
A. M. Forbes, elected 1854, served until 1856. 
A. M. Cofley, elected 1854, served until 1856. 
Wm. Gentry, appointed 1855, served until 1856. 
H. C. Gray, elected 1856, served until 1858. 
Wm. Gentry, elected 1856, served until 1865. 
Thomas Ferguson, elected 1856, served until 1864. 
Jacob Yankee, elected 1860, served until 1866. 
W. D. Erwin, appointed 1864, served until 1866. 
J. W. Beeman, appointed 1864, served until 1866. 
A. M. Wright, appointed 1866, served until 1870. 
J. W. Beeman, appointed 1866, served until 1870. 
E. W. Washburn, appointed 1866, served until 1870. 
Allen O. Bannon, appointed 1868, served until 1870. 
Thomas W. Phillips, elected 1868, served until 1872. 
A. M. Wright, elected 1870, served until 1872. 
Charles Richardson, appointed 1872, served until 1873. 

* John M. Sneed, appointed 1873, served until 1875. 
f A. H. Codding, appointed 1873, served until 1875. 

* O. M. Harris, appointed 1873, served until 1875. 

D. H. O'Rear, appointed 1873, served until 1875. 
William Boeker, appointed 1873, served until 1875. 
V. T. Chilton, appointed 1873, served until 1875 
John G. Sloan, appointed 1873, served until 1875. 

E. Canadv, appointed 1873, served until 1875. 
J. Tannahill, elected 1873, served until 1875. 



fW. C. Gibson, elected 1873, served until 1880. 

John Baker, elected 1878, served until 1880. 

J. Q. Tannahill, elected 1873, served until 1875. 
•J. Q. Tannahill, elected 1878, served until 1880. 

John Baker, elected 1878, served until 1880. 

The present judges are: Wm. Gentry president, J. W. Purdue, and John 
Baker; H. Y. Field, clerk. Times of meeting, first Monday in each month, 

The present count}^ officers are: B. H. Ingram, clerk of circuit and 
criminal courts; H. Y. Field, county clerk; M. S. Conner, sherift'; R. H. 
Moses, collector; J. W. Conner, recorder; G. C. Heard, prosecuting attor- 
ney; R. T. Gentry, treasurer; J. W, Walker, assessor; Dr. W. P. Kingj 
coroner; John A. Lacey, judge of probate. 

Circuit Court. — By act of the legislature of Missouri, February 9th, 

1833, Pettis county was placed in the Fifth judicial circuit, consisting of 
the counties of Carroll, Clay, Clinton, Ray, Jackson, Layfette and Saline, 
but by act of March, 17th, 1835, the legislature created the Sixth judicial 
circuit, consisting of the counties of Benton, Barry, Green, Polk, Rives and 
Morgan, to which Pettis was also assigned. 

The several terms of the circuit court held in Pettis county from its 
organization to the present time (1882) were as follows: 

First term: St. Helena, July 8th, 1838. John F. Ryland, judge; Aaron 
Jenkins, sheriff'; Amos Fristoe, clerk. 

List of grand jurors: Henrv Anderson, foreman; Anthony Fisher, 
John O'Banon, Middleton Anderson, Athel Woolf, O. L. Q. Brown, 
Marion Duran, Levi Odneals, Hugh M. Donehe, Daniel Lynn, George 
Kelly, John Brown, Corvin Carpenter, Clinton Young, Alfred Brock, 
Henry Small, James Scott, Peter Fisher, Henry Rains, Hiram Scott and 
Thomas Martin. 

The record state that no bills were found by the grand jury, and the only 
business transacted by the court was the case of Wm. Pleald vs. James 
Williams, appealed from justice's court. Entr}': "Dismissed at the request 
of the parties." The remainder of the business transacted b}^ the court, 
consisted merely of the enrollment of James H. Birch and Hon. Henderson 
Young (afterwards iudge of that court), as members of the Pettis county 
bar. Length of term, one day. 

The second term, November 11th, 1833, and third term, March 10th, 

1834, were held at St. Helena. Ryland, judge; Jenkins, sheriff, and Fris- 
toe, clerk. Lasting one day each, and no important business transacted. 

The fourth term, July, 1834, and fifth term, November 10th, 1834, were 
held at the same place as above mentioned, lasting two days each. Ryland 
judge; Wm. R. Kemp, sheriff'; Fristoe, clerk. 

Sixth term, held at St. Helena. Ryland, judge; Kemp, sheriff'; Fristoe, 
clerk. Term, one day, March, 1835. 


Seventh term, held at St. Helena, September 17th, 1836. Hon. Charles 
H. Allen, judge; Wm. R. Kemp, sheriff; Amos Fristoe, clerk. Term, 
two days. 

Eighth term, held at St. Helena. Allen, judge; Kemp, sheriff; Fristoe, 
clerk. Term, six days. 

Ninth term, held at St. Helena, September 15th, 1836. Allen, judge; 
Kemp, sheriff; Fristoe, clerk. Term, one day. 

Tenth term, held at St. Helena, March, 1837. Hon. John F. Ryland 
presented his commission as judge of the Sixth judicial circuit, and Henry 
Childs presented his commission as circuit attorney for same. Kemp, 
sheriff; Fristoe, clerk. Term, one day. 

Eleventh term, held at St. Helena, July, 1837. Ryland, judge; Kemp, 
sheriff; Fristoe, clerk. Term, two days. 

Twelfth term, held at St. Helena, November 20th, 1837. Ryland, 
judge; Kemp, sheriff; Fristoe, clerk. 

Thirteenth term, held at Georgetown, March 19th, 1838. Ryland, 
judge; Kemp, sheriff; Fristoe, clerk. 

Fourteenth term: July 16th, 1838. Ryland, judge; Willis P. ElHs, 
sheriff; Amos Fristoe, clerk. Wm. B, Almond presented his commission 
as prosecuting attorney of the Sixth circuit, signed by Lillburn W. Boggs, 

Fifteenth term: November 19th, 1838. Ryland, judge; Mason G. 
Pemberton, sheriff'; Amos Fristoe, clerk. 

Sixteenth term: March 16th, 1839. Ryland, judge; Pemberton, sheriff'; 
Fristoe, clerk. 

Seventeenth term: July 19th, 1839. Ryland, judge; Pemberton, sheriff; 
Fristoe, clerk. 

Eighteenth term: November 28th, 1839. Officers, same as preceding 

Nineteenth term: March 26th, 1810. Officers, same as"; preceding 

Twentieth term: July 30th, 1840. Officers, same as preceding court. 

Twenty-first term: November 26th, 181:0. Officers, same as preced- 
ing court. 

Twenty-second term: March 2oth, 1841. R3dand, judge; Pemberton, 
sheriff; Fristoe, clerk; H. Young, prosecuting attorney. 

Twenty-third term: November 25th, 1841. Officers, same as preced- 
ing term. 

Twenty-fourth term: March 31st, 1842. Officers, same as preceding 

Twenty-fifth term: July 25th, 1842. Ryland, judge; W. P. Ellis, sheriff; 
Fristoe, clerk. 


Twenth-sixth term: December 1st, 1842. Ryland, judge; Wm. R. 
Kemp, sheriff; Fristoe, clerk 

Twenty-seventh term: July 10th, 1843. Foster P. Wrioht, judge; 
Kemp, sheriff; Fristoe, clerk. 

Twenty-eighth term: December 11th, 1843. Wright, judge; Kemp, 
sheriff; Fristoe, clerk. 

Twenty-ninth term: April 8th, 1844. Officers, same as preceding 

Thirtieth term: October 7th, 1844. Wright, judge; Wm. H. Kille- 
brew, sheriff; Fristoe, clerk. 

Thirty -first term: April 7th, 1845. Wright, judge; Killebrew, sheriff; 
Fristoe, clerk. 

Thirty-second term: April 26th, 1846. John F. Ryland, judge; Kille- 
brew, sheriff; Fristoe, clerk. 

Thirty-third term: December 7th, 1847. Officers, same as preceding 

Thirty-fourth term: April 24th, 1848. Ryland, judge; James Kemp, 
sheriff^; Fristoe, clerk. 

Thirty-fifth term: October 23d, 1848. Officers, same as preceding 


Thirty-sixth term: April 28th, 1849. Hon. Henderson Young, judge; 

James Kemp, sheriff; Fristoe, clerk. 

Thirty-seventh term: July 23d, 1849. Officers, same as preceding 

Thirty-eighth term: October 22d, 1849. Officers, same as preceding 

Thirty-ninth term: October 21st, 1850. Young, judge; James Kemp, 
sheriff'; Fristoe, clerk. 

Fortieth term: April 21st, 1851. Officers, same as preceding term. 

Forty-first term: October 27th, 1851. Officers same as preceding term. 

Forty-second term: April 27th, 1852. Young, judge; Wm. H. Kille- 
brew, sherift; Fristoe, clerk. 

Forty-third term: November 1st, 1852. Officers same as preceding 

Forty-fourth term: May 2d, 1853. Young, judge; Killebrew, sheriff; 
Robert R. Stedden, clerk. 

Forty-fifth term; October 31st, 1853. Officers same as preceding term. 

Forty-sixth term: May 1st, 1854. Officers same as preceding term. 

Forty-seventh term: October 30th, 1854. W. F. Wood, judge; Kille- 
brew, sherifi'; Stedden, clerk. 

Forty-eighth term: May 1st, 1855, Wood, judge; Finis E. Cravens, 
sheriff; Robert R. Stedden, clerk. 


Forty-ninth term, October 29th, 1855. Officers same as preceding 

Special term : July 22d, 1856: Officers same as preceding term. 

The record states that Sheriff Cravens, having reported to Judge 
Wood that the county jail was inadequate for the safe keeping of the 
large number of criminals confined there, the special term of court was 
called in order to bring thtm to trial. 

Fiftieth term: October 27th, 1856. 

Russell Hicks presented his commission, by appointment, as judge of 
the Sixth judicial circuit, signed by Gov. Sterling Price, vice-Wood, re- 
signed. The other officers of the court the same as the preceding term. 

Fifty-first term: April 27th, 1857. Hicks, judge; Cravens, sheriff; 
Stedden, clerk. 

Special term: July 20th, 1857. Officers same as preceding term. 

Fifty-second term: November 2d, 1857. Hon. Russell Hicks pres- 
ents his commission from Gov. H. Jackson, as judge of the Sixth judicial 
circuit, by virtue of election. Officers same as preceding court. 

November term, 1859. R. G. Smart presents his commission as judge 
of the Sixth judicial circuit, signed by Caleb Jackson, governor, and dated 
October 30th, 1859. 

November term, 1860. Court adjourned to court, in course. After- 
wards the following entries appear: 

"Pettis circuit court, Monday, April 9th, 1861. His honor. Judge Ps.obt. 
T. Smart, not appearing, court stands adjourned until to-morrow 

"Tuesday, April 30th, 1861. His honor, Robt. G. Smart, not appear- 
ing, court stands adjourned until to-morrow morning." 

"Wednesda}^ May 1st, 1861. His honor, Robt. G. Smart, not appear- 
ing, the court, by law, stands adjourned until court in course." 

Cases filed in vacation: February 9th, 1861; October 26th, 1861; Jan- 
uary 2d, 1862; January 30th, 1862. 

April term, 1862: Hon. John S. Tutt, presiding. 

Ordered by the court that all members of the bar, jurors and officers of 
the court be required to take the oath as prescribed by the state 

Court adjourned to court in course. 

November term, 1863: Hon. John S. Tutt, presiding. Court adjourned 
November 7th, to court in course. Term, 7 days. 

May term, 1864: Hon. John S. Tutt, judge. Adjourned, May 7th, to 
court in course. Term, 7 days. 

May term, 1865: Judge, Jno. S. Tutt. Term, one day. Court ad- 
journed to June 12, 1865. 


June 12, 1865: Judge, Jno. S. Tutt. Court adjourned, June loth, to 
court in course. 

October 30, 1865: Judge, Jno. S. Tutt, presiding. Court adjourned to 
court in course. 

January 25, 1869: Hon. Chas. P. Townsley, presiding; Maj. Wm. 
Warner, circuit attorney; Bacon Montgomery, clerk; Wm. P. PaiT, sheriff. 
Adjourned to court in course. 

May term, 1874: Hon. Wm. T. Wood, presents his commission as 
judge of the Sixth judicial circuit. 

January term, 1881: J. P. Strother presents his commission as judge 
of the 6th judicial circuit. Elected to serve from January 1, 1881, to Janu- 
ary 1, 1887. 

Explanatory. — From the 52d term, November 2, 3857, Hon. Russell 
Hicks, presiding. We have not given in detail the various sittings of 
court; the proceedings being uninteresting and of no practical value. We 
have furnished only an outline of the judicial terms, passing over the or- 
dinary court proceedings and mentioning merely the most important 

Resolutions of the Bar on the Death of Judge R. Hicks. — Now 
at this day comes the committee appointed by the meeting of the bar in 
regard to the death of the late Honorable Judge Russell Hicks, and pre- 
sent the following resolutions adopted by said meeting; and it is ordered 
by the court to be spread upon the records of this court, which is as fol- 

Whereas, Judge Russell Hicks has, since the last adjournment of this 
court, been called from his earthly labors, and whereas the deceased had 
for a great number of years prior and up to the time of his death occupied 
an honorable and exalted position, both at the bar and on the bench of this 
judicial circuit; and recognizing in his life, his practice of law, his wise 
and impartial administration of justice, while on the bench, an example 
worthy of emulation in the younger members of the profession, and 
willing as we are to pa}- that tribute of respect, which is due to his great 
ability and long and honorable career, therefore, be it 

Resolved., by the members of the bar of Pettis county, that in the death 
of Judge Hicks the bar of the sixth judicial circuit and of the whole state 
of Missouri, have been deprived of a wise counselor, an able and success- 
ful practitioner and a man of great genius, and extraordinary mental en- 
dowments, and that we owe and all join in heartily acknowledging that 
whatever eccentricities of character he may have possessed, he was in the 
practice of his profession a man of pre-eminent ability, and of untiring ener- 
gy — a lawyer, who, in all the branches of his profession, studied and prac- 
ticed the law as the most perfect science; was indefatigable in his labors, 
zealous in the cause of his clients, and successful in the highest degree in 
his practice. 

Resolved., that a copy of these resolutious be presented to the Circuit 


^'^'my ^>^^^i^ 

/^ — 



Court of Pettis county, and the court requested to spread the same upon 

the records of the court. / t at t 

( JNO. Montgomery, Jr., 

Committee^ \ O. A. Crandall, 

{ L. L. Bridges. 

Resolution on the Death of R. P. Garrett. — Now, on this day, 
comes N. F. Short, appointed at the meeting of the bar, to present the 
resolutions of condolence to the widow and relatives of R. P. Garrett, 
deceased, and presents the same to the court. 

Thereupon it is ordered by this court that the same be spread upon the 
records, which is done as follows: 

Whereas, Providence, whose ways are past finding out, has removed 
from our number and association our esteemed friend and professional 
brother, Richard P. Garrett, in the springtime of a young life and pro- 
fessional career, therefore 

Resolved., That we deplore his death as the loss of a rising member of 
the profession, as a kind and generous friend; a christian gentleman in all 
the walks of life, and as a husband and father, whose loss to his inconso- 
late wife and child, that cannot be estimated. 

Resolved., That we tender to the family of the deceased our sincere 
sympathy and condolence, and commend them to the keeping of Him 
who doeth all things well, and who tempereth the wind to the shorn 

Resolved., That the judges of the several courts of record in this county, 
be requested to order a copy of these resolutions spread upon the records 
of their respective courts. 

Resolved., That a copy of these resolutions be presented to the bereaved 
widow and parents of the deceased. 

Resolved., That a copy of these resolutions be published in the several 
city and St. Louis papers. 


W. Y. Pemberton. 

Circuit Judges. — The following is a complete roster of judges who 
have presided over Pettis Circuit Court, since the organization in 1833: 
Ryland, Jno. F.; July 8th, 1833, to Sepi. 17th, 1835. 
Allen, Chas. H.; Sept. 17th, 1835, to March, 1837. 
Ryland, Jon. F.; March 1837, to July 10th, 1843. 
Wright, Foster P.; July 10,1843, to April 20th, 1845. 
Ryland, Jno. F.; April 20th, 1846, to April 23rd, 1849. 
Young, Henderson; April 23rd, 1849, to Oct. 30th, 1854. 
Wood, Jno. F.; Oct. 30th, 1854, to Oct. 27th, 1856. 
Hicks, Russell; Oct. 27th, 1856, to Nov., 1859. 
Smart, Robert G.; Nov. 1859. 
Tutt, Jno. S.; April 28th, 1862,to Jan. 25th, 1869. 
Townsley, Chas. P.; Jan. 25th, 1869, to May 4th, 1874. 
Wood, Wm. F.; May 4th, 1874, to Jan. 1st, 1881. 
Strother, J. P.; Jan. 1st, 1881, to Jan. 1st, 1887. 


Courts of Common Pleas and Probate. — By act of the legislature 
of Missouri, March 13th, 1867, the court of common pleas for Pettis 
county was established, and R. G. Durham appointed judge of that court 
by Gov. Thomas C Fletcher in April following. Judge Durham was an 
active, intelligent official, and served very creditably to January 2d, 1869, 
and was succeeded b}'- John S. Cochran, who was elected for four years. 

By an act of the legislature, March r2th, 1870, the court of common 
pleas was invested with original jurisdiction as court of probate, and the 
county clerk was made ex-officio clerk of probate. 

In 1873, Judge Cochran was succeeded by W. H. H. Hill, but by act of 
the legislature, March 8th, 1873, the common plea jurisdiction of the 
court was abolished, leaving only probate jurisdiction, and the judge was 
made clerk of his own court; all other business was transferred to the 
circuit court. 

As judge of probate. Judge Hill was succeeded by H. P. Townsley, 
who was succeeded, January 1st, 1877, by John A. Lacy, for the term of 
four years, under the following circumstances: 

In 1876, by authority of a special act of the legislature, certain counties 
(including Pettis) elected judges of probate for four instead of two years, 
resulting in a change of the time of election of probate judges in those 
counties to the middle of the term in all other counties. In order, there- 
fore, to establish uniformity in length of term and time of holding elections 
for probate judges in all the counties of the state, the legislature, in con- 
formity with the new constitution of the state, passed an act making the 
tenure of probate judges in Pettis and the other counties in which elections 
were held in 1876, as aforesaid,Vz^(9 years fo7' one term, beginning January 
1st, 1881, and four 3^ears thereafter. 

Under the provisions of this act therefore, the election of probate 
judge in Pettis county took place, and Judge John A. Lacy was re-elected 
to serve from January 1st, 1881, to January 1st, 1883. 

The Criminal Court. — The territory within the jurisdiction of the 
criminal court comprises Pettis and the other counties composing the 
Sixth judicial circuit, and also Johnson county. It was established by act 
of the legislature, March 18th, 1875, and in January, LS75, W. H. H. Hill, 
of Sedalia, was appointed judge thereof, and under that appointment 
served until January, 1877. By election in 1876, Judge Hill was made 
his own successor for a term of four years, but died in September, 1880. 

Judge Hill was a very competent official and a useful and valued citizen. 
He was young, talented and cultured, a faitful student of science, learned 
in the law, an indefatigable worker in his profession, of excellent moral 
character, and charitable and generous to a fault. His disease was soften- 
ing of the brain, occasioned by excessive mental labor, and during the last 
months of his illness he was almost entirely helpless. His misfortune was 


deeply regretted by all who knew him, and his sad and untimely death 
was mourned by the entire community. 

Judge Hill was succeeded as judge of the criminal court, by John E. 
Ryland, of Lexington, who was appointed by Gov. Phelps for the unex- 
pired term. During his incumbency by appointment, Judge Ryland be- 
came very popular with both bar and people, by reason of his pre-eminent 
executive ability, his uniform kindness, courtesy, dignified bearing and 
just rulings, and by election in 1880 was made his own successor for the 
term, beginning January 1, 1881, and ending January 1, 1885. 


Andrews, E. A., enrolled May, 1877. » 

Almon, W. B., enrolled March, 1838. 
Barrett, A. M., enrolled May, 1853. 
Bassett, T. E., enrolled November, 1865. 
Bissett, W. F., enrolled July, 1869. 
Beatty, J. H., enrolled October, 1870. 
Bell, C. H., enrolled January, 1876. 
Birch, Jas. H., enrolled July, ]833. 
Birch, Thos. C, enrolled March, 1831. 
Boyd, Saml., enrolled May, 1860. 
Bottsford, Jas. A., enrolled August, 1866. 
Bothwell, J. H., enrolled July, 1871. 
Bowen, J. T., enrolled January, 1881. 
Burk, Edmund, enrolled November, 1858. 
Burdett, S. S., enrolled January, 1874. 
Bradford,' Lee, enrolled January, 1873. 
Bridges, L. L., enrolled January, 1870. 
Brown, Jas. H., December, 1872. 
Bryant, John, enrolled April, 181:4. 
Bryant, J. M., enrolled April, 1814. 
Blackford, Jason, enrolled October, 1870. 
Carter, Jas. E., enrolled x^ugust, 1866. 
Condu, L. D., enrolled February, 1866. 
Cochran, Jno. S., enrolled May, 1865. 
Cochran, S. H., enrolled May, 1874. 
Current, W. H., enrolled September, 1873. 
Crandall, O. A., enrolled May, 1865. 
Crews, T. W., enrolled April, 1855. 
Chilton, Chas., enrolled December, 1842. 
Clutter, J. J. W., enrolled April, 1862. 
Davis, Tilton, enrolled January, 1861. 
Davis, Wm., enrolled April, 1845. 


Davis, Sam'l, enrolled September, 1874. 
Dengle, Wm. B., enrolled April, 1848. 
Debold, H. M., enrolled May, 1864. 
Duber, Adolph, enrolled May, 1873. 
Doan, Fletcher M., enrolled May, 1874. 
Draffin, J. W., enrolled November, 1853. 
Early, T. C, enrolled May, 1877. 
English, Jas. L,., enrolled November, 1873. 
Ewing, H. C, enrolled January, 1866. 
Felix, Jas. D., enrolled May, 1875. 
Fisher, Allen D., enrolled September, 1873.- 
Finklinburg, Geo. A., enrolled July, 1869. 
Fields, Wm. H., enrolled January, 1856. 
Fields, Curtis H., enrolled November, 1858. 
Firebaugh, Jas. J., enrolled May, 1865. 
Ford, Wm. C, enrolled November, 1859, 
Foster, W. F., enrolled May, 1876. 
Freeman, S. W., enrolled April, 1852. 
Fyke, M. A., enrolled January, 1877. 
Gauss, Robt., enrolled May, 1874. 
Garrett, R. P., enrolled January, 1869. 
Gordon, C. M., enrolled August, 1866. 
Gray, A., enrolled May, 1873. 
Griffin, C. R., enrolled September, 1873. 
Glasscock, Jno. M., enrolled April, 1857. 
Glasscock, A. A., enrolled March, 1840. 
Hall, Wm. A., enrolled April, 1844. 
Harrison, C. J., enrolled May, 1874. 
Hallowell, Jno. W., enrolled November, 1859. 
Hardin, E. R., enrolled November, 1853. 
Hardin, C. A., enrolled April, 1858. 
Hawley, Chas., enrolled, February, 1867. 
Heard, Geo., enrolled September, 1835. 
Heard, Jno., enrolled September, 1835. 
Heard, Jno. T., enrolled April, 1862. 
Heard, G. C, enrolled April, 1871. 
Hereford, T. H., enrolled April, 1845. 
Henning, Jno. R., enrolled April, 1857. 
Hilton, M., enrolled April, 1865. 
Houston, F., enrolled July, 1869. 
Hutchison, J. L., enrolled November, 1859. 
Hutchison, S. H., enrolled April, 1804. 
Johnson, W. P., enrolled March, 1867. 


Johnson, J. H., enrolled July, 1871. 
Jones, Geo. T., enrolled May, 1878. 
Jones, J. L., enrolled May, 1875. 
Kidd, Chris. G., enrolled October, 1860. 
King, E. L., enrolled July, 1869. 
King, Austin, enrolled January, 1870. 
Kirby, T. J., enrolled May, 1876. 
Land, G. O., enrolled September, 1880. 
Lacy, Graham G., enrolled January, 1882. 
Lacy, John A., enrolled 1872. 
Ladue, Josh,, enrolled July, 1868. 
Lamm, Henry, enrolled January, 1872. 
Lee, Bradford D., enrolled January, 1873. 
Leet, D. M., enrolled March 1867. 
Leland, Jno. D., enrolled-November, 1857. 
Leighton, Geo. E., enrolled June, 1865. 
Levens, H, C, enrolled January, 1882. 
Leftwitch, W. M., enrolled April, 1852. 
Letcher, Wm. H., enrolled April, 1851. 
Lowe, S. A., enrolled May, 1865. 
Marvin, A. C, enrolled July, 1843. 
Marvin, E. R., enrolled September, 1873. 
Majors, Benj., enrolled July, 1843. 
Mathews, Stanley, enrolled September, 1876. 
Means, Mark, enrolled March, 1843. 
Mithers, Henry M., enrolled January, 1879. 
Miller, Jno. G., enrolled March, 1838. 
Moore, J. W., enrolled June, 1867. 
Musser, R. H., enrolled February, 1872. 
Muir, Wm. D., enrolled April, 1848. 
McComas, H. C, enrolled September, 1873. 
McClung, Chas., enrolled May, 1876. 
McFeaters, W. S., enrolled January, 1868. 
McGirk, Andrew, enrolled March, 1834. 
McNutt, Dewitt, enrolled July, 1837. 
Napton, Chas. M., enrolled January, 1878. 
Obannon, M. W., enrolled April, 1845. 
Outwait, J. H., enrolled February, 1868. 
Owens, Sam. H., enrolled April, 1866. 
Parker, Thos. G., enrolled September, 1874. 
Palmer, J. R., enrolled April, 1848. 
Patterson, Wm., enrolled July, 1838. 
Pierce, J. H., enrolled September, 1874. 


Pierce, Jno. M., enrolled November, 1860. 
Pigg, Jno. A., enrolled April, 1848. 
Pickett, A. J., enrolled May, 1876. 
Pickrell, W. A., enrolled January, 1873. 
Powell, Jno. T., enrolled April, 1848. , 
Phillips, Jno. F., enrolled April, 1862. 
Quarrels, C. B., enrolled July, 1837. 
Ramsey, Lewis, enrolled December, 1843. 
Randall, Wm. H. T., enrolled January, 1872. 
Ready, Geo. W., enrolled Jul}', 1869. 
Ready, Jno. A., enrolled July, 1869. 
Redford, W. M., enrolled May, 3 873. 
Ruse, Dee, enrolled May, 1865. 
Ruse, Richard, enrolled November, 1837. 
Robinson, Wm. H., enrolled April, 1848. 
Robinson, B. F., enrolled April, 1851. 
Richardson, B. R., enrolled January, 1880. 
Ryland, Jno. E., enrolled June, 1865. 
Sampson. A. J., enrolled May, 1865. 
Sampson, F. A., enrolled May, 1858. 
Sangree; P. H., enrolled February, 1869. 
Scantling, W. H., enrolled September, 1879. 
Sinnett, H. C, enrolled October, 1866. 
Smith, Geo. R., enrolled March, 1873. 
Smith, Irwin B., enrolled September, 1866. 
Smith, E. J., enrolled May, 1874. 
Smith, J. A., enrolled January, 1870. 
Smith, J. S., enrolled January, 1866. 
Smith, O. S., enrolled January, 1877. 
Smith, David S., enrolled May, 1865. 
Sneed, R. C, enrolled January, 1876. 
Snoddy, W. W. S., enrolled May, 1865. 
Shields, D. P., enrolled Januarv, 1868. 
Staftbrd, P. G., enrolled January, 1872. 
Steele, R. W., enrolled Januarv, 1872. 
Stevens, J. L., enrolled April, 1848. 
Steward, Robt., enrolled December, 1843. 
Stover, Jno. M., enrolled November, 1865. 
Talbot, G. A., enrolled May, 1860. 
Terbert, J. W., enrolled May, 1865. 
Tompkins, Benj., enrolled January, 1843. 
Townsley, C. P., enrolled October, 1860. 
Tutt, J. A. S., enrolled April, 1845. 


Tuttle, Wilber, enrolled October, 1874, 
Thornton, Chas. A., enrolled April, 1848. 
Troxell, J. R., enrolled May, 1854. 
VanLeaton, M., enrolled September, 1874. 
Vest, Geo. G., enrolled November, 1853. 
Vose, S. A., enrolled July, 1867. 
Wade, W. P., enrolled May, 1871. 
Wallace, H. C, enrolled April, 1848. 
Wallace, H. H., enrolled October, 1870. 
Walker, Wm. M., enrolled October, 1870. 
Walker, P. B., enrolled November, 1858. 
Walkins, Norman, enrolled January, 1880. 
Ward, Abraham, enrolled October, 1848. 
Wear, D. W., enrolled April, 1862. 
Welsh, Aikman, enrolled November, 1857. 
Wilkerson, B. G., enrolled February, 1867. 
Williams, E. A., enrolled September, 1872. 
Winston, Jas., enrolled July, 1873. 
Wright, Foster P., enrolled October, 1851. 
Wood, L. T., enrolled January, 1868. 
Yearaan, M., enrolled April, 1862. 
Young, H., enrolled December, 1845. 
Young, Henderson, enrolled July, 1833. 


Burnett, G. W., Montgomery, John, 

Bell, C. H., Phillips, Jno. F., 

Bothwell, J. H., Phillips, Emmet, 

Bridges, L. L., Sangree, P. H., 

Crandall, O. A., Sampson, F. A., 

Current, W. H., Scott, A. C, 

Durham, R. G., Shaw, V. E., 

Fast, W. A., Shirk, W. S., 

Fisher, A. D., Sinnet, H. C, 

Heard, G. C, Sloan, J. G., 

Houston, F., Sloan, Wm. A., 

Hoy, Thos. P., . Smith, E. J., 

Jackson, G. P. B., '^ Sneed, R. C, 

Jackson, C. L., Snoddy, W. W., 

Lamin, Henry, Steele, W. D., 

Lucy, J. A., Trumbull, L. M., 

Leet, D. M., Vest, Geo. G., 

Levens, H. C, Vest, Geo. P., 


Longan, Geo. F., Wikerson, B. G., 

McClung, C. M., Yeater, C. E. 

McLean, Jas. S. 


The following are members residing in Sedalia: 
Ezra J. Smith, Jno. F. Phillips, 

W. S. Shirk, Geo. P. B. Jackson. 

The State Bar Association was organized Dec. 29th, 1880. 


A. W. Anthony, Versailles, Missouri. 

E. A. Andrews, St. Louis, Missouri. 
R. O. Boggers, Harrisonville, Missouri. 
Ed. Buskee, California, Missouri. 
Isaac W. Boulware, Fulton, Missouri. 
D. C. Hunter, Nevada, Missouri. 

G. L. Hayes, Brownsville, Missouri. 
Thos. Holmes, Cambridge, Missouri. 
S. G. Kelley, Knobnoster, Missouri. 
G. C. Land, Warrensburg, Missouri. 
Jno. F. Merr3'man, St. Louis, Missouri. 

B. R. Richardson, , Missouri. 

R. H. Stephens, St. Louis, Missouri. 

F. P. Sebree, Marshall, Missouri. 
T. A. Spurlock, , Missouri. 

H. M. Withers, Kansas City, Missouri. 
T. O. Williams, Windsor, Missouri. 
W. W. Williams, Boonville, Missouri. 

Jno. Osgrove, 

M. K. Chapman, 


F. A. Sampson. — Admitted to practice in the courts of Pettis county 
and state, on examination in 1868; held the office of United States Com- 
missioner from 1869 to 1873; commissioned by Gov. Silas B. Wordson as 
representative from Missouri to the World's Exposition at Vienna in 1873; 
graduated wdth the degree of A. B. in 1865, at the college of the city of 
New York; in 1868 received the degree of A. M., and graduated at the 
law school of the University of New York in 1868, delivering the class 

A.J. Sampson. — Graduate of the Mount Union College, Ohio, class of 
1862; admitted to practice in the courts of Pettis county and state in May, 
1865; served as city attorney, city registrar, county school commissioner, 


and attorney for the board of education for the 7th congressional district 
of Missouri. Afterwards served as attorney general of the state of Colo- 
rado, from 1876 to 1878. 

John A. Lacy. — Admitted to practice in the courts of Pettis county 
and the state in 1872, on license from the supreme court of Virginia; 
has held the office of probate judge from January, 1877, six years. 

Geo. p. B. Jackson. — On presentation of his license from the supreme 
court of Louisiana, was admitted to practice in the courts of the state in 
1871; in 1876 was elected to the office of prosecuting attorney for Pettis 
county for a term of two years, and in 1878 re-elected and served with 
marked ability and faithfulness. 

Henry Lamm. — In January, 1872, he was admitted to practice in 
Pettis county and state courts, and served as circuit clerk of Pettis county 
in 1873 and 1874. Graduated in the Law Universit}^ of Michigan, class 
of 1869; is associated in practice with P. H. Sangree. 

Ezra J. Smith. — Admitted to the bar at Osceola, Mo., in 1866, where 
he continued in the practice of law for eight years; was enrolled in the 
Pettis county bar in 1874, and removed to Sedalia the same year; was a 
member of the law firm of Burdette & Smith, of Osceola, from July, 1868, 
to June, 1874, and was subsequently associated in practice at SedaHa with 
W. S. Shirk; has an extensive practice in the federal and supreme courts, 
and in the counties of St. Clair, Cedar, Vernon, Polk, Hickory, Benton, 
Henry and Bates. 

W. S. Shirk. — Graduated at the Mount Carroll Seminary, in Illinois; 
graduate of the law school, Albany, New York, class 1865; admitted to 
practice in the supreme court, at Chicago, in 1865, and engaged in the prac- 
tice of law at Warsaw, Benton county, Missouri, from 1865 to 1879; was 
circuit attorney from 1866 to 1874, and judge from 1874 to 1877 of the 7th 
judicial circuit of Missouri; was enrolled as a member of the Pettis county 
bar in 1867, and removed to Sedalia in 1879. 

P. H. Sangree. — Graduate of the Dickinson Seminarv, Williamsport, 
Pennsylvania, and admitted to the bar at Huntingdon, Penns3dvania, in 
1867; enrolled in the Pettis count}^ bar in 1869, and served with marked 
ability as attorney for the city of Sedalia in 1875, 1876, 1878, and re- 
elected in 1882. 

John Montgomery, Jr. — Admitted to the Pettis county bar at the 
May term in 1868; deputy circuit clerk in 1862, under S. A. Lowe; assist- 
ant general attorney of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway, for Mis- 
souri, from January, 1873, to June, 1881; engaged in cases of W. J. 
Tucker vs. J. G. Gest, and Poeppers zs. M., K. & T. Railway, which he 
carried to the supreme court. Both leading cases in the Missouri Reports. 


Mr. Montgomery is one of the leading railway attorneys in the state, and 
has one of the largest and best libraries in the city. 

John G. Sloan.— Was admitted to practice in the courts of Missouri 
at Sedalia in 1862, on license from the supreme court of Illinois; served as 
city justice of Sedalia from 1872 to 1876, and county judge from 1876 
to 1878. 

H. C. Sinnett.— Graduated at Granville Acadamy, Ohio, and the Deni- 
son University in Licking county, Ohio, and also graduated at the Cincin- 
nati Law School, class 1861; was admitted to the bar of Pettis county, 
January, 1866; is a lawyer of ability and has a general practice. 

B. G. WiLKERSoN. — A graduate of Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, 
class 1860; was admitted to practice in the courts of Ohio at Columbus, 
March term of the supreme court, 1862; was enrolled in the Pettis county 
bar at the February term of the circuit court, 1867; appointed attorney for 
the city of Sedalia in 1869 and served to 1870; was again appointed city 
attorney in 1874, and was appointed county attorney in 1868 and served 
in that capacity for five years. 

G. C. Heard. — Attended Lebanon Law School, Lebanon, Tennessee; 
admitted to the bar in 1871; elected attorney for the city of Sedalia in 1877 
and served to 1878, and in 1880 elected county attorney for a term of two 

W. H, Current. — A graduate of Munice Academy, Delaware county, 
Indiana, of the class of 1862, and state institute, at Indianapolis, class of 
1866; he was admitted to the bar of Pettis county in 1872. 

George F. Longan. — A graduate of the State University at Columbia, 
finishing his course of study there in 1878 ; he studied law and was admitted 
to the bar of Pettis county in 1880; in 1881 he served the city of Sedalia 
as city attorney. 

O. A. Crandall. — Is one of the representative self-made men in the 
profession; he received his education in the common schools of the coun- 
try; read law under Col. S. J. K. Handy, of Cincinnati, Ohio, for a time, 
and finished reading as he could purchase the books necessary; he was 
admitted to the bar on examination, by Judge J. A. S. Tutt, of the circuit 
court of Pettis county, in May, 1864; in 1870, was admitted to practice in ' 
the United States district court on examination by Judge Arnold Krekel, 
and shortly afterwards admitted to practice in the United States circuit 
court by Judge John F. Dillon. 

Robert C. Sneed. — A native of Kentucky, is a graduate of West- 
minister College, at Fulton, Calloway county, Missouri, class of 1872; he 
read law with Senator George G. Vest, and was admitted to the bar in 
Pettis county in 1873, and is enjoying a growing practice. 


Victor E. Shaw. — Ts a native of Pettis county, Missouri; was educated 
at Willamette University, at Salem, Oregon, where he graduated in 1878; 
in the fall of that year he went to Ann Arbor Law School, Michigan, 
where he graduated in 1880, and was admitted to practice in the supreme 
court of the state in March, 1880; in Ma}' of the same 3'ear, he was enrolled 
as a member of the Pettis county bar. 

G. W. Barmett. — Is a native Kentuckian, who came to Missouri in 
1856, and was educated at Kirksville Normal School; graduated with the 
class of 1870; studied law with Judge Andrew Allison, of Kirksville; was 
admitted to the bar at Kirksville on examination by Judge V. Wilson, in 
April, 1872; commenced practicing law, April 23, the same year, at Union- 
ville, Putnam count}^, Mo., and continued until January 1st, 1881; he was 
for six years prosecuting attorney of Putnam count}'; in 1881 he came to 
Sedalia and has since followed his profession here. 

Clifford L. Jackson. — Was born November 25, 1857; was educated 
principally in the schools of Sedalia, and under private instruction; studied 
law with his brother, Geo. P. B. Jackson, and was admitted to the bar in 
September, 18S0. 

supreme court of MISSOURI. 

Times of convening, third Tuesdays in April and October. Justices: 
Thomas A. Sherwood, Warwick Hough, John E. Henry, Ehiah H. 
Morton, Robert D. Ra}-. Court meets at Jefferson City. 

Criminal court, Sixth judicial district, and Johnson county: John E. 
Ryland, judge. Terms of court, first Mondays in April and November. 

Circuit court. Sixth judicial district: John P. Strottler, judge. Terms 
commence first Mondays in January, May and September. The follow- 
ing rules were adopted governing the court, and as far as practicable, are 
adhered to in the criminal court: 

I. On first call of a case, if both parties announce ready, it will be 
tried; otherwise, at the request of either party, it will be passed. On 
second call either party may have the case put at the foot of that day's 
docket. On third call, every case must be either disposed of for the term, 
or, in the discretion of the court, put at the foot of the entire docket. 

II. The roll of attorneys will be called each morning (unless for spec- 
ial reason dispensed with) during the first six days of term, for the filing 
of papers and making undisputed and proper entries. After the first day 
the "Motion and Demurrer Docket" will be called immediately after this 
roll-call, for the argument and disposition of motions and demurrers. 

III. Attorneys must know that process has been properly served in 
time, and have amount ascertained, before asking judgment on undefended 
actions of bonds, bills, notes and accounts; otherwise the attorney's name 


will be passed. Judgments in partition and decrees in ex f arte equity cases 
must be ready for the clerk when judgment or decree is rendered. 

IV. Except on the last two days of the term, or other case of emer- 
gency, motions or demurrers will not be heard without consent of both 
parties, on the day of filing; and any attorney filing a motion or demurrer 
shall enter the same in the "Motion and Demurrer Docket," giving the 
style and number of the case, the date of filing, and character of the paper 
filed, and the names of the attorneys on both sides; and such entry shall 
be deemed notice to the opposite party or attorneys. Motions to suppress 
depositions are included in this rule; and no objection to any deposition or 
part thereof, except to competency or relevancy, will be heard after the 
jury is sworn in the cause, or the trial entered upon before the court. 

V. The clerk shall make out the docket in the following order, as 
near as may be: 

1st. Jury cases. 2nd. Uncontested law and equity with contested 
equity cases. 3d. Return cases not triable, noting on judge's docket 
whether properly served in time. 

No more trial cases shall be docketed for any day than may reasonably 
be expected to be tried on such day. 

To enable the clerk to comply with this rule, attorneys are urged to 
notify the clerk in advance to which class their cases belong. 

VI. In all trial cases, the issues of law upon the pleadings must be dis- 
posed of, and issues of fact completed, before the case is finally called for 
trial; but a reply which is only a traverse of the answer, may then, in the 
sound discretion of the court, be filed, or otherwise, as may be just. 

VII. All issues of fact, including the reply, must be completed at the 
answering term, unless, for cause, or by consent, further time be allowed. 
Sections 3220 and 3533 of the Revised Statutes will be enforced unless 
both parties consent otherwise. 

VIII. Issues on pleas in abatement, in attachment suits, are triable at 
the return term, unless continued for cause; also issues on garnishment on 
execution when process shall have been served fifteen days before term; 
and in other cases of garnishment the issues shall be made up at the re- 
turn term, where process has been served a like time before term, and 
may be tried at said term, unless continued for cause, or to await judgment 
in the principal case. But judgment will not be rendered at such term 
against any garnishee not served fifteen days before term, except upon 
undisputed answer admitting money due or property belonging to de- 

IX. Interpleas may be filed at or before the return term, and not after, 
except by leave of court on terms; but no interpleas shall be filed within 
four days of the time set for trial of the principal case, whether that be of 
issues on plea in abatement, on the merits, or of issues on garnishment on 


execution; and notice of interplea must be given plaintiff and defendant, or 
their attorney, at least four days before day set for such trial. 

X. When an answer or reply shall be filed in vacation, pursuant to 
leave, and notice thereof given to the opposite party or his attorney, such 
part}' or attorney shall reply, demur to, or move to strike out, in response 
to the pleading so filed, at least ten days before the succeeding term, giving 
notice thereof. A failure to give notice contemplated in this rule, or to 
file papers as required by it, may subject the offending party to the costs 
of delay or continuance, or furnish ground for striking out such paper, as 
may be just. 

XI. Each instruction intended for a jury must be written with ink, on 
a separate piece of paper, and numbered: and, as far as practicable, be- 
fore the evidence is closed. On the finding of a verdict or rendition of a 
judgment when finding is by the court, all instructions given, and such of 
those refused as the party may desire, shall be collected and filed by the 
clerk with the papers in the case. But no instruction not incorporated in 
a Bill of Exceptions shall remain on- file after the expiration of the time 
for fifing such bill; and in cases where no bill is filed no instructions shall 
be preserved by the clerk. 

XII. All depositions received in a cause shall be opened and filed, and 
endorsed by the clerk with the date of their receipt, and attached to the 
papers in the cause, and a minute of the receipt and filing, and name of 
witness testifying, entered upon the record. 

XIII. Members of the bar will stand when speaking to the court or 

Attorneys are forbidden to repeat the statements of any witness while 
examining a witness; and personal controversies between attorneys during 
a trial, and comments on testimony in the hearing of the jury, before argu- 
ment, are also forbidden. Willful violations of this rule will be punished 
as for contempt. 

XIV. Agreements and stipulations of parties or attorneys must be in 
writing, or assented to in open court, or the}^ will be disregarded. 

XV. The sherifi' is required to report to the clerk, on the second 
Monda}' before each term, all garnishments served fifteen days before 
such term, for entry upon the proper docket: and the sheriff' shall return 
and deliver to the clerk, all writs and process, including executions, within 
two days after execution of same; and the clerk shall file such process, 
with the sheriff's return thereto, with the papers in the cause as required 
by law; and shall promptly' enter all executions so returned in the Execu- 
tion Docket, with an abstract of the same and of the return of the sheriff; 
and this docket will be called as provided by law (section 1103) before the 
end of the term. 

Adopted February, 1S81. 


United States Courts in Missouri. — Circuit Court, Western Dis- 
trict. — Judges: Samuel F. Miller, John F. Dillon and Arnold Krekel. 
Meets on third Mondays in April and November, at Jefferson City. 

District Court, Western District. — Judge, Arnold Krekel. Court meets 
-on lirst Mondays in March and September, at Jtfterson Cit}-, and third 
Mondays in Ma}' and October, in Kansas City. 


"Religion is the chief concern 
Of mortals here below; 
May we ils great imparlance learn, 
Its sovereign virtue know. 

The Baptists of Pettis County — Historical Sketches of the Presbyterian Church in Pettis 
County— The M E. Church Sauth— The Christian Church or Church of Christ— The 
Cumberland Presbysterian Church. 


In the organization and government of their churclies, the Baptists 
difler somewhat from all other religious denominations, and quite 
materially from most of thetn. Each church being a purely voluntary 
association organized upon what is believed to be a scriptural basis, for the 
mutual benefit of its membership, and for the prosecution of the work of 
evangelization, the government js congregational, all the members enjoy- 
ing equal rights and privileges, and no human authority is recognized as 
superior to that of the local church. 

The officers recognized, as of divine appointment, are pastors and 
deacons. These, while expected to exercise the functions of their respective 
offices, are in common with all the other members, subject to the 
authority of the church. 

To secure united and harmonious action in mission work, and to 
promote the general interests of the cause, associations of the church 
are formed; but no legislative, or judicial powers are assumed by such 
organizations; and only as advisor}^ bodies can they take cognizance of 
any of the officers of the individual church. Thus is each church a 
republic by itself, subject only to the supreme authorit}' of Christ, its 
recognized Head and Lawgiver. 

This independence of the churches, and absence of any centralized 
power might seem to be an impediment to concerted action, and aggres- 
sive work; but the history of the denomination shows it possessed of so 
much esfj'it de corj)s, that greater coherence and harmony is manifest 
than in other bodies with a more mechanical organization; and, perhaps, 
no religious denomination is so little affected by political, or social muta- 


tions, or so readily recovers from the effect of disturbing elements of what- 
ever natm^e. 

The devotion of Baptists to the doctrines and practices of the denomi- 
nation, and the conviction that these doctrines and practices are sustained 
and required by the scriptures, not only secures "unity of spirit" among 
the membership, but stimulates and sustains that characteristic zeal for 
their propogation, which has alwa3'S kept the denomination in the front 
rank of the pioneers in missionary enterprise. 

True to their history elsewheie, the Baptists were among the first to 
enter the State of Missouri — then a part of the territory of Louisiana. In 
fact, excepting the Catholics, the first sermon preached west of the Missis- 
sippi river was preached by a Baptist, and the first church organized was 
a Baptist church. 

From "Duncan's History of the Baptists of Missouri," we make the 
following extracts: 

The first permanent Baptist church organization in Missouri was the 
Bethel, in 1806, in Cape Girardeau county, in 1807. The first association 
was called Bethel, formed in 1816, in southeast Missouri; the second was 
the Missouri, now called St. Louis, in 1817, and the third, the Mt 
Pleasant, in 1818. 

John Clark, a Baptist in sentiment, was the first, other than Catholic, 
to preach west of the great river. He came over to St. Louis county in 
1798. Thomas Johnson, a preacher of Georgia, came and preached in 
1799; neither of them settled then. Thomas P. Musick was the first resi- 
dent Baptist minister in Missouri, in 1804. 

These small beginnings here, in 1881 grew into 1,445 churches, 920 
ministers, and 89,915 members, and give about $30,000 a year to the sup- 
port of missions. They, also, have eleven educational institutions in the 
state — one for young men, three for young ladies, and seven for both sexes. 

The first Baptist church, and as far as could be ascertained by the 
writer, the first church of any denomination organized in Pettis county, 
was the Muddy Fork church, situated three or four miles northeast of 
Georgetown. It was organized by Elders Jacob Chim and William Jen- 
nings, and among the constituent members were: James Anderson, John 
O'Bannon, Solomon Reed, Thomas Wasson, and Adam Scott; the date 
of its constitution could not be ascertained definitely, but was certainly 
prior to the year 1834. 

In the year 1837 or 1838 the Walnut Branch church was organized, 
about ten miles west of Sedalia, with twelve or fourteen members; its first 
pastor being Rev. Martelles Embree. 

These churches belonged to what is known as the "Old School" or "Anti- 
Mission" Baptists, a division of the denomination that separated fi-om the 
main body about about the years 1827 and 1828. In doctrine they are 
distinguished from the missionary Baptists by what the latter esteem ultra 
views of a limited atonement, and of unconditional election, and reproba- 


tion. In theory and practice, they are opposed to all missionary enterprises, 
to Sabbath schools, to an educated ministry, and to stipulated salaries. 
While they do not advocate intemperence they claim the same right to 
manufacture, sell and use ardent spirits that is accorded to any other 
enterprise; and so far as the use is concerned, they "show their faith by 
their works." 

Only one church of this order, the Walnut Branch, now exists in the 
county. The principal preachers in the county have been: Jacob Chism, 
Wm. Jennings, — Wolfe, Martelles Embree, and James Teague. 

The first Missionary Baptist church, established in the county, was the 
Providence church, situated about three miles southwest of Clifton, or- 
ganized April 4, 1842, by Elders A. P. Williams, and J. G. Berkley; the 
second was Flat Creek, five miles south of Sraithton, organized Septem- 
ber 23, 1846, by Elders J. G. Berkley, and Elias George; the next in or- 
der of date, was Bethlehem, seven miles south of Sedalia, June 7, 1851, by 
Elder G. W. Sands, and Deacon J. E. Crawford. Following this was 
South Fork, in Blackwater township, September, 1855, by Elder G. W. 
Sands. At intervals of varying length others have been established, until 
there are now in the county seventeen Missionary Baptist churches, with 
twelve resident ministers. 

The pioneer preachers of the county were, generally, men of sterling 
worth, and untiring energy. Some of them were men of considerable 
culture, and "mighty in the scriptures." As a class they seem to have 
been eminently adapted to the then existing conditions of society. Among 
the early settlers were men of strong common sense, and the very condi- 
tion of things made them intensely practical in thought and in action. 

To influence such minds, and to mold character under such circum- 
stances, men were needed, who from the pulpit, and in their associations 
with the people, would preach a practical gospel. A people having to do 
with the stern realities of frontier life had little time or disposition to in- 
terest themselves in the metaphysical speculations of the schools; but in- 
stinctively yearned for a religion that impressed them with a sense of its 
reality, and that would with its well defined doctrines, and infallible prom- 
ises, guide and comfort them in the actualities of this life, while assuring 
them of a more perfect life in the world to come. 

Among those prominent in pioneer work, may be mentioned, Jesse G. 
Berkley, Thornton Rucker, George W. Sands, Elias George, and W. P. 
C. Caldwell. Later, came Isaiah Spurgin, Wm. Ferguson, Jonathan Gott, 
E. H. Burchfield, and B. T. Thomas. Of the former, all have passed 
away, except Elias George. He was a native of Wales, and came to Mis- 
souri from Ohio, where he had long been engaged in successful labor, as 
an earnest preacher of the gospel. Coming to Missouri he settled in Mor- 


gan county, was pastor of several churches in that county, and labored 
extensively and with success in Cooper and Pettis. 

He was a man of good native talent, and a very vigorous speaker — of 
a very sanguine temperament, he was very enthusiastic in his devotion to 
what he believed to be the right, and as impatient in disappointment. In 
the agitation that preceded and led to the civil war, his decided convic- 
tions on the questions at issue caused him to encounter such opposition as 
led him to feel that he could be more useful where the people were more 
generally in sympathy with his views, and he returned to Ohio. After 
the war he came again to this state, settling in north Missouri, and is still, 
at a very advanced age, preaching the gospel he has loved so long. 

J. G. Berkley and Thornton Rucker, neither of them residents of the 
county, were missionaries of the Blue River Association, and did effective 
service in gathering together the scattering Baptists of the several com- 
munities, and sowing the seeds of future harvests. 

W. P. C. Caldwell lived in Johnson county, but labored extensively in 
Pettis. He was, perhaps, the ablest of the contemporary preachers. A 
man of fine personal presence, of liberal culture for the times, with a 
strong voice, and great force of character, while perhaps unduly disposed 
to be dogmatic, his influence was potent, not only in the conversion of men 
to a practical belief in the gospel, but in building up and indoctrinating the 
churches. As fellow-laborers, he and Elder George were for several 
years intimately associated; and in their personal peculiarities there ap- 
peared to be that happy conjunction of characteristics which made them, 
as "fellow helpers to the truth," very effective workers in their joint ser- 
vices. Both were men of strong convictions, and while happily they had 
come to occup}^ separate fields of labor before the crisis came in our civil 
strife that rent and distracted communities and even churches, these two 
yoke-fellows were very far removed from each other in sentiment. 
While Elder George espoused the cause of the Union with all the ardor of 
his impulsive Welsh nature, Elder Caldwell gave himself, soul and body, 
to the Confederacy. 

It can but be a matter of profound satisfaction to the personal friends of 
both parties, and to all lovers of the cause they both had served so faith- 
fully, that the intimate association of these two stalwarts had been inter- 
rupted by circumstances before the unhappy point of diflerence was 
reached, and that, having lived and labored together in the strongest 
bonds of personal and christian fellowship, they were not fated to meet, 
when, under the intense excitement of the times, the political sentiments 
so tenaciously grasped by their strong natures could but have interposed 
a fatal barrier to their former cordial relations. 

It may be as well to state here, that in relation to the causes and conduct 


of the war, the Baptists of the county, and of the state, in common with 
other denominations, were radically divided; and while, in the state, the 
preponderance of sentiment was in sympathy with the south, in the county 
the Union feeling was very strong, if not in the ascendency. And not 
only was there this opposition in feeling, but members of the same denom- 
ination, and sometimes of the same church, as soldiers in the opposing 
armies, were arrayed in deadly conflict; but with the close of the war 
came a disposition to reassert the principles of the "gospel of peace," and 
to restore previously existing fraternal relations. 

It is, perhaps, true, that in no denomination was the division more 
clearly marked, or the advocacy of the cause more determined, than in 
the ranks of the Baptists; and certainly in no other has the return to 
peaceable relations been more rapid, or more complete. In the solution of 
the vexed problem of "reconstruction," as it met the statesmen and philan- 
thropists of our own country, at the close of the war, with its multitudi- 
nous applications, and environed with its complicated difficulties, the Bap- 
tists of Missouri may be said to have taken the initiative. 

While our legislators were wrestling with the problem, and before they 
had even succeeded in determining the status of the states once in rebel- 
lion, — while other bodies, civil and religious, were in the confusion of dis- 
turbed relations, and vainly seeking a readjustment of rights and privi- 
leges, the Baptists of Missouri quietly reconstructed themselves by ignor- 
ing all distinctions created by the war, and coming together upon a basis 
of a common brotherhood — a consummation made comparatively easy by 
their simple form of church policy — which left no vexed questions of 
official status, or rights in church property, to be settled; but which, while 
guaranteeing equal rights to all, recognizes the independence of the 
churches in the administration of their own affairs; and, calling no man 
master, relies, at last, upon what is found to be the stronghold of union: 
The love of Christ constraining to a willing devotion to His cause those 
who recognize in Him their Only Head and Law Giver. 

In the general associations and the district associations of the state, the 
missionary and educational work of the Baptists is unified; and in nearly, 
if not quite, every church of the state, are to be found representatives of 
the opposing sides in the late conflict; but while extremists on both sides 
may have sought to hinder the reconciliation, and perpetuate the acri- 
mony of the past, with the great body of the Baptists of Missouri there is 
a very evident desire to " follow after the things that make for peace," 
and while deploring the fact that political disturbances, leading to aliena- 
tion and bitterness of feeling, should have furnished the occasion, they, 
nevertheless, point with commendable pride to that part of their history 
which gives them position, in the far front, of all reconstructionary organ- 
izations, whether civil or religious; and exhibits the power of the religion 


of Christ to overcome, in the heart of a truly converted church member, 
the lower passions of our humanity, that ma}^ have gained, for a time, 
the ascendency. 

Of the preachers before named, as second in the succession of pioneers, 
Isaiah Spurcrin and Jonathan Gott, after many years of arduous service, 
have gone to their reward. 

Elder Spurgin was a native of North Carolina; came to Missouri in 
1843, and uniting with the Virginia Grove Church in Lafayette county 
served it as pastor for several years. This church was of the " Anti- 
mission," or " Hardshell," but while Elder Spurgin had been, and still 
was, connected with that denomination he does not seem to have been in 
full accord with them in all of their doctrines and practices, and about the 
year 1853 he withdrew from them and united with the Missionary Baptist 
Church of South Fork. Here he retained his membership until his 
death in 1877, and most of the time was their recognized pastor. 

Father Spurgin had not enjoyed the advantages of a liberal educa- 
tion, but was noted for his knowledge of the Scriptures. While his read- 
ing was by no means confined to the Bible, he for many years had made 
it a rule to read it through consecutively once a year. Whether or not it 
was a remaining vestige of his Hardshell training, he never required a 
compensation for his own services, but did not hesitate to teach the duty 
of pastoral support, and was especially importune in urging his people to 
the support of missionary work, and was himself a liberal contributor. 

Jonathan Gott was born in Kentucky, but began and ended his ministry 
in Missouri. During most of his ministerial life he lived on a farm near 
Hazel Hill, in Lafayette county, and labored in that and adjoining coun- 
ties; a large part of his work being done in Pettis. He was a "self-made 
man," but so assiduously had he improved his opportunities, that no one 
listening to him preach would have thought that his speech, so fluent, 
sometimes really elegant, and almost always correct, was governed by no 
theoretical knowledge of the laws of language. His views of Scripture 
teaching were quite comprehensive, and his own well-defined ideas were 
always so clearly expressed that no one experienced an}' difficulty m 
understanding him, and while sometimes quite earnest and demonstrative 
in manner, his preaching was never a simple succession of sounds with- 
out sense or meaning. To a well-balanced, if not peculiarly strong mind, 
were added those qualities of heart that won the confidence and afiection 
of all who knew him well, and whatever might be their estimate of him 
in other respects, all would unite in pronouncing him "a good man." 
As missionary and pastor, as a friend and brother, he will long be kindly 
remembered in the Baptist churches and households of Pettis county. 

Wm. Ferguson and B. T. Thomas are still residents of the county. 
The former, a native of North Carolina, came to this county in 1843. 


Being now in advanced age and delicate health he has retired from 
pastoral work, but still loves to preach when duty demands and health 

B. T. Thomas, by birth a Virginian, has for many years lived on a farm 
in the south part of the county, and has served as pastor many of the 
churches of this and adjoining counties. In some respects his advantages 
have been superior to those of most of his fellow workers, he being a 
graduate of Georgetown College, Kentucky. 

E. H. Burchfield was born in Tennessee, but first joined the chureh 
and began to preach in this State. He has never been a resident of this 
county, but living near Brownsville, just outside the county limits, a large 
part of his labor has been performed within the county. As missionarv 
and pastor he has probably traversed it more extensively than any other 
one preacher, Hving or dead. As principal, or assistant, he has been 
instrumental in organizing many of the churches, and has probably 
baptised more members into their fellowship than any other one man. 

The early preachers were ably assisted in their labors by prominent 
laymen, some of whom still live, and attest their continued devotion to 
their cherished principles by word and deed. Among these may be 
named, J. E. Crawford, of Bethlehem; M. W. Barnard, of OHve Branch; 
brethren Lorelace, and Bohannon, of Providence; Graham and Calvert, 
ol Hickory-Point, and McCardy and Whitworth, of County Line. 

Among the departed, " who, being dead yet speak," were: Agee, of 
Dresden; Thomas, of Lamine, and Williams and Petts, of Wake Forest. 

While the gospel of Christ is the same in all ages, and its cordial recep- 
tion is attended with like results among all people, the manner of its proc- 
lamation, and methods made use of to insure its- success, are often quite 
varied. The worship of our predecessors, as they were gathered in the 
country school house, a private residence, or under a brush arbor, may 
have been no more or less spiritual than is the worship of a more fash- 
ionably dressed congregation, assembled in a costly edifice, but, at least 
in externals, a change is quite apparent, and, it is to be feared, not in all 
respects for the better. The primitive simplicity, the unaffected cordialit}-, 
and unstinted hospitality, which, as social elements, were such prominent 
features of their religious assemblies, are scarcely compensated for in the 
refinements and elegancies of modern custom. If, in the absence of the 
" culture " of the present, there was sometimes manifest a " zeal that was 
not according to knowledge," the exuberance of spirits, even the noisy 
demonstrations sometimes attendant, may have been no less fruitful of 
good than is superior knowledge with no zeal. Some of the earlier 
preachers may have been " rude of speech," but there was at least a 
rugged simplicity, a transparent candor, that impressed their hearers with 
the true selfhood of the men; and while their acquaintance with books 


may have been limited, their deficiency in the learning of the schools was 
often more than compensated for by their profound knowledge of human 
nature. One thing at least may be said to have been characteristic of these 
early workers. They knew their hearers and adapted themselves to their 
surroundings. They preached the gospel to those who needed it, and as 
they needed it. . 

There was so much of the positive in the every day experiences of 
those earl}^ settlers that nothing but a positive gospel, proclaimed in posi- 
tive manner, would avail to reach and influence them. 

The introduction of the logic of scepticism into the pulpit, the substitu- 
tion of the gilded negations of infidelity for the incisive doctrines, and 
authoritative declarations of revelation, belonging to a more cultivated (?) 

In associational work, the Baptist churches of Pettis county have never 
been in organic unity. The first churches formed united with the Saline 
association, a few later ones joined the Blue-river and Tebo associations. 
After the civil war the Sedalia association was organized, and a majority 
of the churches of the county became members of it. Recently an effort 
has been made to unite all the churches of the count}' in one body, to be 
called the Pettis County Association, but, from various causes the move- 
ment has not proved a success. 

As, however, those district associations are purely voluntary organiza- 
tions, with which the individual churches may or may not identify them- 
selves, this lack of organic unity among the churches does not effect the 
unity of their faith and practice; but in all essential features, the Baptists 
of this county are in accord with each other, in harmon}^ with the great 
body of the denomination in the state, and in the nation, having " one 
Lord, one faith, and one baptism;" and while sometimes oppressed by 
opposition from without, and sometimes annoyed by erratic brethren within, 
the denomination, now possessed of a world-wide extension, seeks, as ever, 
to maintain " the unity of the spirit in the bonds of peace." 

It is with feelings of many obligations due the author of the foregoing 
history of "Baptists in Pettis county," that the publishers hereof insert 
the following facts relative to his own connection with the blessed cause 
of Christ here: 

Rev. John Letts was born in Knox county, Ohio, June 11, 1833. He 
united with the church when about twentv-two years of age, and a few 
years later was ordained to the ministry as pastor of the same church; 
and continued to serve it in that capacity until the spring of 1868, when, 
having accepted a call to the pastorate of the 1st Baptist Church of Sedalia, 
he removed to this city, where he has since resided. After the close of 
his pastorate in Sedalia, he spent several years in laboring as an evangel- 
ist, and while he has since that time had the pastoral care of several dif- 


ferent churches, he has continued to devote a portion of his time to inde- 
pendent missionary work, a species of labor in which he especially delights, 
and in which he has enjoyed his largest measure of success. Being pos- 
sessed of considerable property he has never been wholly dependent upon 
the churches for a support, but has ever been- accustomed to bestowing 
labor where it has seemed to be most needed, without being governed by 
the consideration of pecuniar}' reward; and in many places of destitution, 
and with feeble churches, many of his most earnest and successful efforts 
have been put forth. The position of Sedalia as a railroad center gives 
him ready access to almost every part of the state, and most of his work 
has been in the towns along the lines of the several railroads, and in some 
country churches adjacent thereto. The rapid growth of Sedalia and 
advance in the value of property has been greatly to his profit, as he owns 
a considerable bod}' of land within the city limits, some of which has 
already been brought into market for building purposes, and he anticipates 
the time in the near future when he shall be still more favorably situated 
for the prosecution of his chosen work. He has written a pamphlet of 
acknowledged merit, entitled '• Universal Redemption," which was issued 
in 1881. His residence is in the southeast portion of the city, where his 
intelligent and refined family live in the beauty of love and peace. 


From some cause or other Presbyterianism seems not as well adapted 
for pioneer work as some other forms of christian organization. Perhaps 
this results, among other causes, from the fact that Presbyterians insist 
on a thoroughly educated and well furnished clergy, and therefore cannot 
command a plentiful supply of preachers as occasion requires from the 
work-bench, the farm and the counter. Hence we usually find in most 
new countries the field preoccupied by other denominations when Pres- 
byterians enter on the work. So far as I have been enabled to discover 
the first effective work done to build up Presbyterianism in Pettis county 
was by Rev. James Gallaher, who visited the county and held a series of 
meetings in Georgetown, the then county seat. These meetings were 
attended with good results, and a church, consisting of twelve members, 
and connected with the New School General Assembly, was organized in 
1843. Quite a number were deeply interested and were expected at no 
distant day to unite with and strengthen the little church, but soon after 
the meeting closed, the other denominations entered in and appropriated 
the fruits of Mr. Gallaher's labors. It seems that this minister lived in the 
northeastern portion of the state, and at such a distance that he was able 
to pay only one monthly visit to Georgetown, and then was so hurried 
that he could hold only a single service. I can find no records of this 
church, and have been able to learn ihe names of only ten of the mem- 


bers, viz: John Brown, Joseph Brown, Martha Brown, Mary Brown, 
(these were from Kentucky); Mrs. Hoss, Samuel Hoss, her son and 
her daughter, afterwards Mrs. Parks, (these were from Tennessee); 
William Raney, Margret Raney, his wife, and Sarah M. Raney, daughter, 
afterwards Mrs. Rector, (these were from North Carolina). 

These efforts of Mr. Gallaher seem to have been followed up with no 
systematic work, for I can hear of no preaching after this except an occa- 
sional sermon by Rev. David Wear, and Rev. Christopher Bradshaw, 
the one a resident of Cooper count}', and the other of Henry county, and 
these services were held for the most part in private houses, and gener- 
ally at Mrs. Hoss's, the church having no house of worship. This little 
church was enabled to accomplish little permanent good, and four of its 
members having afterwards joined in an organization in the northern 
part of the county, the church gradually became extinct. The only 
members now living are: Mr. Samuel Hoss, now of California; Mrs. Parks, 
of Jackson county, Mo.; Mrs. Martha Brown, of Saline county, Mo.; 
Miss Mary Brown, now Mrs. Rufus Finle}', and Mrs. Sarah Rector, the 
three latter being now members of the First Church of Pettis. 

The first minister of our church who settled in Pettis county, was Rev. 
John Howe, one of Kentucky's pioneer preachers, who removed from 
Greenburg, Green county, Ky., and located in the northeastern part of 
Pettis county, in 1850, Father Howe seems to have removed to Missouri, 
not with any expectation of doing much effective work as a gospel min- 
ister, for he was, at the time of his settlement here, more than threescore 
and ten years of age, but he desired to spend the remnant of his days 
with a dearly cherished daughter, whose husband had, with his family 
removed to this state. Mr. Howe was a good deal beyond and above 
ordinary preachers, and although aged and recorded on the assembly's 
minutes of 1852 as "informed," he did much efficient labor for his Master's 
cause in this county, as many who were privileged to hear him preach 
testified in after years. Father Howe died in 1857, and the first sermon 
I preached on my arrival here was the funeral of that eminent servant of 
God, whom I had known well, and had greatly admired and reverenced 
before his removal from Kentucky. The mortal remains of that precious 
old servant of God lie buried in a small and obscure cemetery on the 
north side of, and quite near the old Boonville and Indiana trail, and about 
two miles west from Lamine river. He sleeps just as quietly, and his 
redeemed spirit reigns and rejoices just as blissfully in the presence of 
his adored Lord, as though earth's best marble marked the place of his 
interment, and men's loftiest pens chanted his praise. 

About the 3^ear 1855 a movement began to be made to locate a number 
of families from Kentucky, the larger portion of them in the north part 
of Pettis county. They began arriving here, some of them in that year, 


and continued conjing for about three years, or until 1858. These fami- 
lies will be at once recognized as among the best in the country. The 
names of those only containing some Presbyterian members are given, 
though quite a number of other families having in them no Presbyterians, 
constituted a part of these new settlers. From Louisville, Jefferson 
county, came William Field, Esq., John Moore, M. D., his son-in-law, Mr. 
Rochester, and Mr, George Lower. From Danville, Boyle county, came 
Col. Jariies S. Hopkins, Mr. John R. Ford, Mr. Benjamin Bridges, Capt. 
John Sneeds, Hon. John F. Phillips, and Hon. George Vest. From Gar- 
rard county, came Mr. Lucretius Baker, and Mr. Quinsey Yantis. From 
Springfield, Washington county, came James S. Hughes, M. D., and 
Thomas Q. Montgomery, M. D., and from Harrodsburg came N. D. 
Woods, Esq. On the third Sabbath in June, 1856, and by order of the 
Presbytery of Missouri, Rev. H. M. Painter, then supplying the church 
in Boonville, organized "The First Church of Pettis." The church con- 
sisted of sixteen members; four of these came from the organization at 
Georgetown, the twelve others were Mr. John Motz and wife and ten 
from the families above named.- This organization took place at Priest's 
Chapel, a Methodist Church on Heath's creek in Pettis county. The 
church obtained permission to hold service in this chapel for two Sundays 
in the month till they could have time to build a house of worship for 
themselves. On the first and second pages of the records of "The First 
Church of Pettis," I find this minute: "In October, 1856, the session 
opened a correspondence with Rev. John Montgomery, then pastor of the 
Presbyterian Church in Harrodsburg, Mercer county, Ky., which event- 
uated in his becoming stated supply "to this church," and "he entered on 
his labors the fourth Sabbath in October, 1857." As all my time was 
engaged for this church, and as yet they had no house of their own, "it 
was arranged that Bro. Montgomery preach for the present in the Metho- 
dist Church on the first and fourth Sabbaths in each month, and that he 
spend the remainder of his time as he can best arrange for the good of 
the cause of religion till we can get a house of worship erected." This 
arrangement enabled me to do a good deal of evangelistic work through- 
out the county. Meantime the work of building a house was vigorously 
prosecuted. In eighteen months the house was so far finished as to be 
occupied with comfort. Henceforth the congregation held services in 
their own house. Thus, in less than two years, they had erected and 
paid for a substantial brick church some 60x40 feet and costing from 
$4,000 to $5,000. One Sunday in the month was set apart for preaching 
to those members living in Georgetown and vicinity, though for the most 
part all the people with great regularity attended services at both points; 
although they were some ten miles apart and the congregations were 
uniformly large. From this period till the civil war the growth of this 


church will be indicated with sufficient clearness by the reports to the 
Presbytery from time to time. In the spring of 1859 this church, organ- 
ized in 1856 with sixteen members, reported to Lafayette Presbytery 64 
members, and they had that year contributed to missions $40, to educa- 
tion $25, to church extension $25, to presbyterial fund $5, and to congre- 
gational fund $665. In April, 1860, the church is reported as numbering 
seventy-seven members and as contributing $1,133 for congregational 
purposes. The report for 1861 shows a membership of eighty-seven and 
$4,020 for congregational purposes. 

This brings the account of this church up to the commencement of the 
war, after which there was no further report to Presbytery nor an}- further 
meeting of Presbytery to report to. For the next two 3^ears we find only 
a half dozen meetings of session recorded, when the following note occurs 
in the session book in my own hand- writing: "x\fter this (April 1863), 
the church members being much scattered by the war, and it being out of 
the power of the pastor to get a meeting of session (there being within 
distance to hold intercourse no elders), there was no fuither meeting of 
session during the war." In 1864, March 19th, six persons were received 
with a session of the pastor and one elder, and in 1865 one member was 
received into the church, and the record stands thus: "September 22d, 
1865, Mattie Thornton was received into the church and baptized, no 
member of the session present but the pastor; nor was there at this time a 
single elder in the church." During that dark period very little was 
accomplished in church matters. Men seemed almost to have forgotten 
that they had souls. The land was full of soldiers, and the conduct of 
many under cover of military operations, created a reign of terror and 
kept the whole community in a state of confusion and alarm, so that few' 
attended public worship; in fact, the churches were for the most part 
deserted, and a great many of them, especially in the country, were closed 
and the ministers were scattered here and there as they could find safety 
and employment. The First church of Pettis, though still maintaining the 
preaching of the word, has never recovered from the effects of the war. 
To add to the depressing circumstances that surrounded the eongregation 
their church building became a mass of ruins during the summer of 1877, 
and the debris was sold for what it would bring, that they might have at 
least some means to help them, when able, to build another house. From 
that time, however, they have had no church building, and have had to 
worship where they can get permission to do so. It was during these dai'k 
days of war that Rev. Joshua Barbee removed from Kentucky and settled 
in this county. Mr. Barbee preached statedly, at points west of Sedalia, 
and in Sedalia as occasions presented themselves. Before the arrival of 
Brother Barbee I had begun to preach occasional!}- in Sedalia, and as I 
still belieye, (though I understand it has been denied), preached the first 


sermon ever delivered in that city. However this may be, it certainly 
was the first Presbyterian discourse ever spoken to the people of that 
town, and I walked from Georgetown, with Captain Cumings, now of 
Kansas City, to preach it, having preached at 11a.m. at thatplace. From 
this time onward Brother Barbee and I preached at Sedalia from time to 
time as we could find opportunity, till 1864, when I went to Fulton for 
twelve months. On my return I found that Brother Barbee had not only 
continued to preach in Sedalia, but had also secured a house of worship, 
which he had purchased in Syracuse and having removed to Sedalia, I 
found him enlarging and otherwise refitting it. This was the first church 
building ever erected in Sedalia, and is the house on Lamine and Second, 
now occupied by the Old School Presbyterian congregation. 

I wrote to Mr. Barbee to furnish me with the facts touching his minis- 
terial labors, and especially as to all the facts connected with the erection 
of the old church building, when he purchased it, who aided him in the 
purchase, etc., etc. In answer a letter was received, which is so charac- 
teristic, so full, so clear, and withal, so excellent that I must give it to my 
readers just as Brother Barbee wrote it, and I take this liberty without so 
much as asking his consent: 

March 25th, 1882. 

Dear Brother: Your postal was received a day or two ago, and I take 
pleasure in complying with your request. To your first inquiry, I came to 
Pettis county on the 7th of September, 1862, and remained there for three 

2d. The points to which I preached were Dresden, Smithton, 
Sedalia, Georgetown and Hansbrough's school house. One Sunday in 
each month during the entire time was given to Dresden. I preached at 
Smithton two and one-half years; at Hansbrough's school house two years; 
at Georgetown, or near there, two years; at Sedalia IS months. 

3d. While preaching at Sedalia I purchased the house in which our 
people now worship, from a C. P. Prestyterian elder, who lived near 
Syracuse, for the sum of i^300. The circumstances were these: A man 
in Sedalia claimed to own the house and proposed to sell it to us for $400. 
He went with us to Syracuse to see the house. After I had seen the 
house and concluded to take it, I called to see and learned from him that 
the house belonged to a gentleman in the countr}-. I determined to see 
him and walked two miles and a-half, and found then he was two miles 
and a half from home chopping wood. I learned also this man who 
claimed the house, from Sedalia, had just been there to buy it, and had 
gone to the timber to hunt the owner. I started again for the real owner 
and found him before the pretended owner in Sedalia bought the house. 
On our return to the house we found the man from Sedalia, who had lost 
his wa}^ and looking quite mean, with but very little to say. I had the 
privilege of preaching him a private sermon on honesty and christian 
fairness on our trip back to Sedalia that evening. The house when we 
bought it was 36x4.5 in size. After moving it to Sedalia we made it fif- 
teen feet longer. The principal parties who aided in the purchase and 


building were John Sneed, John Brown, now of Fulton, Brother Myres 
and some other gentlemen whose names I have forgotten, and myself 
gave $100 each. I think perhaps Mr. Kyle gave $100. A number of 
others gave small sums and all the above gave more afterwards. 

The Board of Church extension gave us $300. All this was done in 

•Ith. During my ministry in Smithton we built a Union Church, of 
which one-fourth was deeded to our denomination. We never had an 
organization there though we had enough members for an organization. 
Presbyter V never met during my stay in Pettis county, and I was not an 
ordained minister and of course had no right to receive members into the 
church. There were those who wished at times to unite with our church, 
some of whom united with the First Church,Pettis, though being fifteen 
miles from it, and were received by yourself. 

I remember no other facts of much importance. Will be glad to answer 
any other questions. Yours fraternally, 

Joshua Barbee. 

Some other inquiries might have been addressed to Brother Barbee, 
but the time allowed for the writing of this paper was about gone. It 
may be added here that Brother Barbee removed from Pettis to Saline 
county, is at present pastor of the churches of Mount Olive and Pisgah, 
and is doing a good work in a very important and large field of labor. 

In 1865, I organized the First Presbyterian Church of Sedalia, and 
• preached for it till I was laid aside for nearly two years, from preaching, 
by a severe injury. In 1870, I organized the Old School Presbyterian 
Church of Sedalia, and preached for it two years, the greater part of the 
time riding, as I had before done, to preach to the First Church, from my 
home fifteen miles north of Sedalia, to do this work. As these churches 
will give their own individual history, I need pursue this branch of the 
general subject no farther. Soon after coming to Missouri I began 
preaching in Longwood, when I could do so. The circumstances under 
which my first sermon there was preached, I shall never forget. Imagine 
a rude saw mill with a collection of forty or fifty saw logs, on and over 
which were crowded a pretty large collection of men, women and chil- 
dren, and before them all, under the broad canopy of heaven, a rather 
small, -^nd. quite insignificant freac her, doing all he can to fix the attention 
of the assembled crowd, and impress on their minds the solemn reality 
and momentous importance of the great truths of God's word, and you 
will .have some faint notion of that first Sunday at Longwood. Feeble 
and far between as these occasional services were, thank God they were 
not wholly in vain; for on Saturday, September 25th, 1869, a "committee 
consisting of John Montgomery and Joshua Barbee" met the people at 
Longwood and organized a church there of nineteen members. To this 
church I preached, as I was able, until 1876, when it had increased to 
sixty-seven members, and all these except six had been received on pro- 


fession of their faith in Christ, and out of them only one had been sus- 
pended for unchristian conduct. This church has been supplied since 
that time b}' Rev. J. V. Worshem and Rev. W. G. F. Wallace, and is at 
present supplied, as is also the First Church of Pettis, and the church 
at Lamonte, by Rev. B. T. Lacy, D. D. About the year 1867, 1 organ- 
ized the church at Lamonte, supplied at present by Rev. B. T. Lacy, as 
stated above, and to whom I must refer you for the history of that church, 
as also for the present condition and prospects of the other portions of his 
field in Pettis county. John Montgomery. 

The M. E. Church (South). — As the history of other churches will 
be given, it is considered unnecessary to say anything about the labors, 
privations, self-denial, religious zeal, and heaven attesting consecration to 
duties of the christian religion and the promulgation of gospel truth. The 
name Methodist is synonymous with all that is noble in Christianity, all 
that is attainable in christian life, all that is pure and refining in the 
character of man, all that appropriates the promises of God, and by 
faith enjoys the realities of a living faith, a cheering, and compre- 
hensive love, that " hopeth all things, that endureth all things, that 
is long-suft'ering and kind." Hence, wherever you find a genuine 
Methodist, you find an humble follower of the meek and lowly Savior. 
Their abiding faith in the promises of God is the incentive to action, . 
and hence the arduous labors, the heroic self-denial, and the almost 
unparalleled success of the pioneer Methodist of America. In vindica- 
tion of the above eulogistic remarks, we propose to give a brief history 
•of the M. E. Church South in Pettis county. As is well known this history 
begins with the action of the General Conference of ISi-i, and as abler 
pens have been consecrated to this work, nothing of the kind will be at- 
tempted here. 

The history of the M. E. Church South then properly begins with this 

184-1. — The first quarterly conference of the Georgetown circuit, the 
Boonville district, was held at the residence of the late Rev. W. B. Left- 
wick, on the 26th day of December, 1844, the Rev. Jesse Green, presid- 
ing elder, James L. Porter, pastor. The following official members com- 
posed this first official meeting, and completed the organization of the 
Georgetown circuit, viz: James L. Porter, pastor; W. B. Leftwich, L. 
E.; B. C. Howard, L. P.; Samuel M. Ayres, L. P.; Francis Martin, ex- 
horter; Henry Rains, class leader; John Rucker, C. L.; Thomas Kemp, 
C. L.; Jesse Green, president, and L. M. Ayres, secretary. 

To illustrate the abundant labors of the pioneer Methodist ministers, we 
give the following list of appointments for monthly preaching on the 
Georgetown circuit, viz: Priest's Chapel, (the first church house 


erected by the M. E. Church in the present limits of Pettis,) of Smiley's 
school house, 3rd Joplin's, -ith Leftwich's, 5th Edward's, 6th Wells; 7th 
Covey's, 8th Warrensburg, 9th Rucker's, 10th Craghead's. The mem- 
bership at this time numbered about 200. The church paid this year for 
ministerial support, $130; for Sabbath schools, ijJS.OO; for missions, $8.00. 

1845. — ^Jesse Green continues P. E., and J. L. Porter, pastor, or preacher 
in charge of the circuit. During this year a financial plan was matured and 
adopted by the Missouri conference, and consequently the finances of the 
church improved during this year. 

1846. — The record for 1846 has by some unknown cause been omitted. 

1847. — J. R. Bennett, P.E., Rev. Jesse Green, having passed from labor 
to rest, leaving a brilliant record as a minister, and a christian. 

The names of R. F. Lee and J. N. Pollard appear on the record of 
this year as local preachers. 

A building committee was appointed to superintend the erection of a 
church house for the use and benefit of the M. E. Church South. W. H. 
Anderson, Thomas Pace and Z. T. Davis were appointed said com- 

The name of R. F. Colburn appears in the latter part of this year as 

During this year the Rev. W. B. Leftwich presented to the church a house 
of worship built upon his own ground and at his own expense, known as 
Northfield, for which the church expressed due gratitude. Two Sabbath 
schools are reported in successful operation. One at Smiley's school 
house, the other at Priest's Chapel. 

1848.— J. R. Bennet, P. E., W. T. Cardwell, pastor. During this year 
the church house known as Priest's Chapel became so dilapidated by age, 
that it was pronounced untenable, and a committee appointed to superin- 
tend the erection of a new house. They were: Wm. Turley, Wm. Kemp, 
G. S. Priest. The pastor, W. T. Cardwell, like the star of empire, went 
westward and located in Oregon. The church paid this year for min- 
isterial support $350. 

1849.— D. S. Capell, P. E., J. C. Derrick, pastor. Soon after entering 
upon his work. Brother Derrick, being attracted or influenced by the 
rumors of gold in California, left the work and went in search of gold, and 
his subsequent history is unknown to us. 

John Atherton succeeded to the pastorate. The church having been 
blessed of the Lord, and enjoying a season of prosperity, the number of 
monthly appointments for monthly preaching was now increased to six- 

1850.— J. A. Henning, P. E., and John McCluncy, P. C. The names 
of W. B. Leftwich, J. N. Pollard, B. I. Porter, G. S. Priest, J. M. Gray, 


S. G. Pettis, H. Y. Elbert, appear as official members at the first quarterly 
conference. These were all pillars in the church. 

1851. — James Mitchell, P. E., J. C. Thompson, P. C. During the year 
of gold excitement, the church was financially poor, but seems to have 
been rich toward God, and to have sustained with christian heroism all the 
institutions of the church. Bro. J. C. Thompson was feeble in health, 
remained on the circuit a few months, unable for service, when he retired, 
and his place was filled by the Rev. T. J. McLaughlin. A new church 
edifice was this year erected, and known as Priest's Chapel. To the labor 
and financial aid of Bro. Priest the church was indebted for the erection of 
this house, who will long be held in grateful esteem by his brethren for his 
devotion to his God and the church. 

1852. — J. Mitchell, P. E., J. N. W. Springer, preacher in charge. This 
was a year of much prosperity to the church, and the followers of the 
Lord Jesus wera much encouraged. 

The church contributed $400 to ministerial support. During this year 
W. M. Leftwich was licensed to preach the gospel; was subsequently 
admitted to the itinerancy, and is now the celebrated Dr. Leftwich of 
Nashville, Tennessee, and a member of the general conference now, May 
15, 1882, in session. From this time forward the church continued in 
great prosperity until the civil war interrupted its relations, and for a time 
seriously hindered its progress. 

In the ferment of political excitement they never, in a single instance, 
stooped from the lofty theme of salvation to defile the glorious her- 
alds of the Cross of Christ by the introduction of those politico-religious 
harangues which characterized so many of the pulpits of the land; but 
Christ and Him crucified was the theme of the ministers of the M. E. 
Church South, and future historians will bear testimon}^ to the zeal and 
faithfulness of the ministers who never stooped from the sacred dignity of 
their calling to gratify the prejudices of party or personal interest. 

In 1858 a spacious church edifice was erected in what was and is known 
as the Porter neighborhood. The edifice was of brick, sixty by forty 
feet. The cost of the construction, $5,000. Those who contributed largely 
to this enterprize, were B. I. Porter, B. C. Porter, Rev. J. N. Pollard, 
Rev. E. K. Porter, Henry Hunter, and W. H. Powell, who was not a 
member of the church, but to whose liberality the church owes many 
obligations. This edifice recently became so dilapidated as to necessitate 
a new house, and through the zeal and enterprise of the Rev. John Conk- 
wright, one of the faithful veterans of the church, the old house was 
pulled down, and a smaller, but neat and substantial building was recentl}' 
erected in its stead. 

In 1862 the relations of the church were seriously interrupted by the 
civil war. Our people were denominated rebels, and suft'ered man^^ indig- 


nites from those who esteemed themselves as political enemies. During 
this critical period the ministers continued faithful to their calling, and 
still continued to break the bread of life to their flocks as opportunity 
afforded. Finally they were prohibited by the Drake constitution from 
preaching the Gospel of the Son of God without first subscribing to what 
was denominated the iron-clad oath of the Drake constitution. This they 
could not do, but continued to proclaim the word of life and salvation 
without the formalit}' of a text. Of those who thus continued faithful the 
Revs. John Conkwright and Josiah McCary were prosecuted as viola- 
tors of the law, but the decision of the court, declaring this constitutional 
clause in conflict with the organic law of the nation, put a quietus to tliese 
persecutions, and great was the joy of the church. 

Among those who preached the gospel here during these troublous 
times may be mentioned the names of Josiah Godbey, who is indeed a pil- 
lar in the church; John Conkwright, E. K. Porter, S. S. Colburn, W. C. 
Godbey, etc. 

After the close of the war the church was reorganized, and renewed 
their vows of consecration to the God who had so mercifully chastised 
and preserved them, and entered as it were anew upon the duties of the 
christian life, fully convinced of the futility of all temporal things, and fully 
persuaded that "all things work together for good to them that love God." 

The first minister sent to this circuit by ecclesiastical authority after the 
war was the Rev. John D. Wood, a young man who was converted in 
the great revival that accomplished such glorious results among the sol- 
diers of the Confederate arm}/. At this time Sedalia, having grown up 
by the force of circumstances, and also having become the most impor- 
tant point in this part of the state, the name of the circuit was changed 
to that of Sedalia, and to the list of those before enumerated, that faith- 
fully upheld the banner of the cross here, may be added the name of W. 
R. Anderson, a faithful christian minister, the father of the faithful, who 
long since entered into rest, " but who, though dead, still speaketh." 
"Blessed are the dead who who die in the Lord." From this nucleus, so little 
auspicious at its resurrection, the church has been gloriously blessed of 
the Lord, and to-day it is a host on the Lord's side in Pettis county. 
Instead of the one church edifice in the limits of Pettis county, they now 
have church houses dedicated to the worship of the God whom they love 
as follows, viz: Salem, Wharton's Chapel, an interest at Longwood, 
house at Hughesville, at Houstonia, at Blackwater Chapel, at Lamonte, at 
Eldorado; also, at New Bethel, on upper Flat Creek, an interest in Union 
house in Smithton, a house in course of construction on Flat Creek, in the 
Pin Oak neighborhood, and a magnificent edifice in the city of Sedalia, be- 
sides several local societies, which worship by courtesy in school houses, 
and in the houses of other denominations, such as Dresden, Hopewell, 


etc. Thus it is seen that the Lord has owned and blessed the labors of the 
Southern Methodist Church, and that through their influence, strengthened 
bv divine grace, the church still bears aloft the banner of the cross, and 
the mighty host that thus marches on in the pilgrimage of life, under the 
blood-stained banner of King Em.manuel, still labor in hope of the resur- 
rection of the just. 

This brief epitome is not at all too dignified as a history of the church 
in Pettis county, but a reminiscence given to the publishers by request, 
that the world may know that the Lord has such a people here, and that 
they, like Moses of old, still labor in the vineyard of the Master, having 
respect to the recompense of the reward. 


or Church of Christ, belongs to a religious body which came into exis- 
tence about the first of the present century. It had its origin in a desire 
to unite all religious persons of the various denominations into one body 
or organization, having the Bible as its only guide in religious matters; 
wearing only such names as those by which the- New Testament desig- 
nates the church of Christ; submitting as tests to baptism and church 
fellowship simply a public declaration of faith in Jesus as the Christ, the 
Son of God. The leaders of this movement, to restore simple apostolic 
faith and practice, believed that division among the disciples of Christ 
was wrong, and that human names and creeds, and confessions of faith 
and rules of discipHne, tended to promote divisions and to destroy the 
peace and prosperity of the cause. They also believed the union of all 
disciples of Christ upon the word of God was practicable. Their work 
was twofold: while striving to unite all of God's people, they sought to 
restore the Bible to its proper place, and to be guided in all things by it 
alone.- Nor has the eftbrt been unsuccessful; the body now numbers 
more than half a million. Two of the greatest men of the present century 
have been notably identified with it, namely: Alexander Campbell and 
James A. Garfield. Its present membership has been received largely 
from the Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, and other denominations. 

The Church of Christ in Pettis county was first started in Georgetown 
about 1836, which was then the county seat. The first meetings were 
held in 'the court house, where an organization was soon effected. Several 
very successful meetings were held there by Dr. W. H. Hopson, and also 
by Allen Wright and others. Besides these preachers, Moses Faris, John 
Dejarnett, Geo. W. Langan, Jacob Creath, , and Elder Donan, were 
among the more prominent preachers who labored to start the church in 
the county. 

At an early day Elder J. W. McGarvey held a debate at Georgetown 
with a prominent Universalist, which well nigh destroyed that doctrine in 


the county. The next congregation organized after the one at George- 
town was Old Union, on Heath's creek, which soon became a strong and 
influential church. The house in which it worshipped still stands, but is 
dilapidated and deserted of its worshippers, who still " have a name to 
live but are dead;" internal dissension having destroyed their peace and 

The next congregation organized in the county was about six miles 
west of where Sedalia now stands, in Hampton P. Gray's neighborhood. 
It, too, has ceased to exist, but many of its members have united with the 
congregations which have since been organized. Prominent among the 
families which were connected with the church in the county in the early 
days of its establishment, were those of Gen.G. R. Smith, Mentor Tomson, 
Geo. Heard, A. McVey, Mrs. Clifton Wood, Abner Clopton, Amos Fris- 
toe, John S. Jones, Chas. A. Jones, Ben. R. Majors and Mrs. J. W. 
Gentry. The church now has congregations in the county at the follow- 
ing points: Sedalia, Smithton, Hughesville, Houstonia, Dresden, Lamonte, 
Greenridge ; also, one near the last, called Eldorado, and the remnant of 
one called Old Union, on Heath's creek, and also another weak remnant 
called Liberty, south of Sedalia about six miles. These congregations 
have an aggregate membership of seven hundred and fifty. They own 
seven and a half houses of worship; most oi them meet every Lord's day 
for Sunday school and worship. The following preachers are now labor- 
ing in the county: J. H. Duncan, at Sedalia; Geo. Plattenburg, at Dres- 
den and Houstonia; W. P. Dorsey, at Smithton; S. K. Hallam, at Green- 
ridge, and Elder Mathews, at Eldorado. R. W. Gentry, who resides 
near Sedalia, is also a prominent preacher of this church. 

The churches of the county are engaged in co-operative missionary 
work in the county, under the direction of a county board, of which J. H. 
Duncan, is chairman, and J. N. Dalby is secretary, and W. W. Herold is 
treasurer. The church at Green Ridge has been established through the 
co-operation of the other churches in the county, and the next annual 
meeting will be held there in August. 


The Cumberland Presbyterian Church is indigenous to this soil. Her 
ministers were among the first to cioss the Father of Waters and 
cause the wilderness and the solitary place to be glad for them, and the 
desert to rejoice and blossom as the rose. 

One of the three men, Rev. Finis Ewing, who organized the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church in Dickson county, Tennessee, February 4, 
1810, moved to Missouri in a very early day and settled in an adjoining 
county. Subsequently to this he operated very largely in Pettis count}^ 


That our readers may clearly understand what this church is we give 
some of her leading theological positions and some points wherein she 
differs from other Presbyterians. 

Her theology is commonly known as medhim theology — is so called 
because it occupies a medium ground between Calvinism and Armenian- 
ism, as the following brief summary will show: 

1. Election — Calvinism teaches that election is unconditional. Armen- 
ianism that there is no election. Medium theology that election is condi- 

2. Salvation — Calvinism teaches that salvation is unconditional to sin- 
ners, but certain to Christians. Armenianism that it is conditional to sin- 
ners, but uncertain to Christians. Medium theology that it is conditional 
to sinners, but certain to Christians. 

3. Date of Election — Calvinism teaches that election was before man 
was created. Armenianism that it is not prior to death, if then. Medium 
theology at the moment of regeneration. 

4. Extent of the Atonement. Calvinism teaches that the atonement is 
for the elect only. Armenianism that it is for all, but certain to none. 
Medium theology that it is for all and certain to the regenerated. 

5. Perseverance of the Saints — Calvinism teaches that it depends 
principall}^ upon the immutability of the decree of unconditional election. 
Armenianism that it depends principally upon good works. Medium 
theology that it depends upon the love of God, the merits of Christ, the 
abiding of the Spirit and the covenant of grace. These are some of the 
leading differences between the Cumberland Presbyterian Church and 
other Presbyterians. The data is not at hand from which to compile a full 
and complete history in the earliest settling of the county. 

Many of the emigrants to this county were from Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, and when the}' came to their new homes they left behind them 
strong petitions for preachers of their own faith. These petitions were 
not unheeded, but in due time a number of God-fearing men came to this 
new empire to plant the standard of the Cross under the auspices of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 

Rev. Green P. Rice came to St. Louis in 1817 and preached in the 
then small French village. His course was westward. Revs. R. D. 
Morrow and Robert Sloan were also among the first ministers who oper- 
ated in Pettis county. 

In 1827 and 1828 Rev. J. T. A. Henderson, now residing in Sedalia, 
preached at the house of Reuben Gentry, the father of the older members 
of that family. 

The present Cumberland Presbyterian churches of Pettis county are 
the following: The First Church of the City of Sedalia, of which Rev. 
A. H. Stephens is pastor; Prairie Chapel, four miles north of Dresden, 


Rev. G. W. Mathis, pastor; Greenridge, Rev. Caleb Weedin, pastor; 
Stony Point, near Smithton; Heath's Creek, Rev. James Martin, pastor. 

This church has been aggressive from the first, and is well qualified to 
occupy a territory made up of a cosmopolitan element like this. 

She stands a unit on the subject of politics, and has always been so. 
At no time during the war did political prejudice wound her ecclesiastical 
bod3^ Her churches are found fi-om Pennsylvania to Texas and ft-om the 
Atlantic to the Pacific. Her medium ground on the subject of theology 
places her in a favorable position to command the approbation of the 
unprejudiced mind. 

Her corner stone lies in the doctrine of the Bible that Christ died for 
all men, and that the regenerated \^\\\JinaIly be saved. 

The zeal that characterized the fathers has been transmitted to the sons, 
and thus the work continues. 

She was among the first to join hands with her sister denominations 
and go into the highways and hedges and the lanes and streets and com- 
pel them to come in. Among the first to come into this new country and 
" mash down the weeds and pull up the stumps." One of the immediate 
works that the church has under way now^ is raising an endowment of 
$100,000 for a college to be situated somewhere in Central Missouri. 
Sedalia seems the natural location for such an institution of learning, and 
should she arouse to a proper appreciation of her opportunities her pros- 
pects for securing the location are most flattering in every way. 


Introduction — Early Schools in Pettis County — Metliods of Different Ages — Interest in 
Schools — The State School Fund — First Teachers— Georgetown Schools— School 
Commissioners — Law of 1665-1875 — Reform Period 1875-1882 — Superintendency — 
Teachers' Institutes — Normal School — History of Institutes and Proceedings — County 
School Officers from 1868-1882— The Future Outlook of Pettis County. 

Bacon said, "Histories make men wise; poets, witty; the mathematics, 
subtile; natural philosophy, deep; morals, grave; logic and rhetoric, able to 
contend." Education in its most comprehensive sense, includes the devel- 
opment of the physical, mental and moral faculties of the individual. 
Hosea Ballou has said, "Education commences at the mother's knee, and 
every word spoken within the hearsay of little children, tends towards the 
formation of character." 

The people of Pettis county should feel proud of their progress in edu- 
cation. The pride they have taken in the cause of common schools, from 
the time they were taught in log cabins, in 1833, to the present day of 
handsome school buildings and other educational advantages, has been on 


the increase. The progress of education here is only a minature produc- 
tion of what has actually taken place among civilized nations. Of recent 
years new modes of mental culture have placed within the reach of the 
teacher, new and better materials which have aided him in securing bet- 
ter results. 

The primary object of educating children is not that they may escape 
labor thereby, but that they may labor more intelligently. Children 
should be taught that employmeni leads to happinness; indolence to 
misery; and that all trades and professions, whereby an honest livelihood 
is maintained, are honorable. Right living is the end to be achieved, and 
it is the workers that do the most good in the world. The man who con- 
stantly and intelligently thinks is above temptation. The women who 
honorably labor in the diflferent trades are to be preferred and honored 
above those who sit with folded hands. It is education that makes duty 
more apparent, lessens toil, and sweetens life. It is by true education 
that the moral responsibilities of the human family are better understood. 
The more education the better the Christian. 

Methods are now pursued in the school room. The child's capacity 
is better understood now than in pioneer days. The rod is laid aside. 
Children no longer are forced under the lash or gag to order or erudition. 
Fretful and cruel teachers will soon give place for those who love chil- 
dren, and again will mankind draw nearer to God through the influence 
of the law of love. In this age due attention is paid to h\'giene of the 
school room. Houses are better ventilated than formerly. Since the 
introduction of the "automatic" school desks there" need be no more disa- 
greeable seating in our school houses. The inventor of this new desk 
will have a reward in the numbers of healthy men and women, who in* 
this generation, as children, are comfortably seated in many of our best 

New and better studies have been added to the course of study in our 
common schools within the last decade. Now the child is taught to 
apply what he learns, directing his course of study in the line of his men- 
tal activity, cultivating the good, and restraining the evil propensities. 
The time was, not far back, when only a limited knowledge of reading, 
writing and arithmetic were taught in the common schools. The highest 
aim of the youth of the common schools in the pioneer days of Pettis 
county, was to write a fair hand, spell orally, and solve mathematical puz- 
zles. This age is moving in a better educational sphere. The change 
came gradually. It was a long struggle of ignorance against education, 
in which the latter is crowned the victor. But few teachers cling to the 
old theory. Little by little they are growing away from the old system. 
A few teachers, those who do not improve, are yet votaries at the shrine 
of their idols. 


"Too weak the sacred shrine to guard," 

they must soon yield to the new education and enter the conflict against 
error and for a better intellectual life. 

In this struggle for better methods, opinions covered with honors have 
been marched off the stage of human action and supplanted by facts and 
principles, which haVe cost years of toil to discover, and more years to 
establish. To the close student and observer this theory is onl}' new in 
its application of our schools. It is the normal or natural method. This 
is the theory of education that antedates all others. The ancients taught 
by objects, when but few of the most wealthy tnen of that day could afford 
books. In fact, text-book theory is a new thing to the world. The first 
teachers of the world taught orally; they were independent of text-books. 
To this excellent method has been added the written method. Then it 
was principally by the observation of objects that pupils received instruc- 
tion. Bv placing the object before the pupils the teacher could easily 
reach their mind by his lectures. In this age blackboards, spelling tablets, 
slates, charts, and other school apparatus is in general use in our best 
schools. In schools of to-day, it is from the printed page through the eya 
a mental picture is formed, which children draw upon paper or boards 
from the ends of their fingers. Well qualified teachers do not think of tak- 
ing a text-book to their recitations — imitating the ancient normal methods. 
In order to meet the demand for better quahfied teachers, normal training 
schools have been established in this and other states. The teachers' 
institute is also an outgrowth of the demand for better quahfied teachers. 
Now true education is found to be the drawing and developing of that 
which the child already possesses, instead of the old crowding theory of 
pioneer days The educated teacher of this age has complete living in 
view as the end to be attained in this life and a happy eternity in the 
unseen world. 

In a county there is probably no question which so directly interests the 
people as that of teachers — of teachers of known and tried ability. In the 
early settlement of Pettis county almost anyone could teach. That time, 
with all of its rude school appliances, has rolled away. The claims of 
to-day can no longer be met by appliances of even a decade ago, for 
experience is beginning to show that teaching, like every other depart- 
ment of human thought and activity, must change with the onward move- 
ments of society, or fall in the rear of civilization and become an obstacle 
to improvement. The educational problem of to-day is to obtain useful 
knowledge — to secure the practical part of education before the orna- 
mental, and that in the shortest time. An intellectual Ufe of the highest 
culture is what is called for in a free countr}^ like ours. An intelligent 
man is better quahfied for any of the duties of life than an uneducated 
person. This is an admitted fact. In truth, a free nation's safety is 


wrapped in the intelligence of its people. Only an educated people can 
long sustain a free republic; therefore it is the duty of the state to educate, 
that her free institutions may stand through all ages as sacred and endeared 
institutions of the people. 

As education made strides westward, the wild man, the savage ruffian, 
their common weapons, the scalping knife of the Indian, and the bowie- 
knife and pistols of the ruffians, gave way to the peaceful influence of cul- 
ture and refinement. 

Education sweetens and hedges in the family circle, and drives away 
frivolity and gossip from a community, protecting the members from the 
inroads of vice and immorality. It is the strong bulwark of education 
that binds this nation of upwards of 50,000,000 of people together for 
advancement that she may shine, in the near future, the brightest star in 
the constellation of governments. Rapid strides have been made in educa- 
tion within the last half century. However, the field of improvement is yet 
boundless, and the work of education must still go on and make perhaps 
greater changes than those from the time when, — 

"The sacred seer with scientific truth, 
In Grecian temples taught the attentive youth, 
With ceaseless change, how restless atoms pass 
From life to life, a transmigrating mass," 

to that of to-day, when men's thoughts are directed to the investigation of 
what they see around them. 

Missouri is one of the leading states of the American Union in the cause 
of popular education. No state has taken deeper interest in the educa- 
tion of her youth than the State of Missouri. The constitutions of 1820, 
1865 and 1875, all make this subject one of the first importance, and guard 
the public school funds with zealous care, while the constitution of no 
state contains more liberal provisions for popular education than the con- 
stitution of Missouri, adopted in 1875. Not a sentiment inimical to schools 
can be found in any of her statute books for more than threescore years 
of her existence. No political party has been in the ascendency in all her 
history which has arrayed itself against free schools, and her governors, 
from 1821: to the present time (1882), have been earnest advocates of a 
broad and liberal school system. In 1839 she established a general school 
law, and in 1853 she dedicated one-fourth of her revenue annually to the 
maintenance of free schools. Her people have taxed themselves as freely 
as the people of any state, and much more liberally than the people of a 
majority of the states. The State of Missouri levies a tax of five cents on 
the $100.00, and permits a local tax of forty cents without a vote of the 
people, or sixty-five cents in the country districts and $1.00 in cities and 
towns by a majority vote of the tax payers voting. Missouri has more 
school houses to her population than Massachusetts. The amount she 


expends annually for public education is nearly double the rate on the 
assessed valuation of that expended by the latter state on her valuation ; 
while the public school funds of Missouri exceed those of Massachusetts 
$5,405,127.09. It must be remembered that Massachusetts is classed as 
one of the leading states in all reforms, being the only one of the original 
thirteen that did not tolerate negro slavery. 

The following, as taken from the 31st annual report of the state super- 
intendent of public schools of Missouri, shows the amount of the perma- 
nent productive public school funds of the state: 

State school funds, $3,031,887.74; township school funds, ^1^1,950,732.89; 
county school funds, $3,968,185.08; total amount school funds, $8,950,- 
805.71, being ahead of any state in the Union. State fund to be increased 
by " net proceeds of all sales of lands and other property and et^ects that 
may accrue to the state by escheat from unclaimed dividends and distri- 
butive shares of the estates of deceased persons," etc.; township funds, 
by sales of school lands, county funds, by net proceeds of sales of estrays; 
clear proceeds of penalties and forfeitures and fines collected for breaches 
of penal and military laws; also moneys paid for exemption from military 
duty. "State fund," in the above, includes university fund, except value of 
agricultural college lands; unsold school lands not estimated, 

Pettis county has taken a deep interest in education. The very first 
teachers of this county were men of abilit}-. George Heard, Esq., taught 
the first school in the count}-, and Mr. Milton Thompson was the next 
teacher. The first schools were taught in log cabins and such other rude 
structures as those times could aftbrd. The poet has said: 

"God sends his teachers unto every age, 

To every clime and every race of men, 

With rev Q\iii\on& fitted to their growth, 

And shape of mind, nor gives the realm of truth, 

Into the selfish rule of one sole race." 

The cause of education is coeval with the county's settlement, and con- 
tinuous with its growth and development. The duty to educate was a 
germ planted in the hearts of the pioneer settlers, and was so nurtured and 
fostered, that it grew from its embryonic state, at first orphan-like, with- 
out any house of its own, to what we see around us in the form of more 
than one hundred and twenty buildings where children receive learning. 
The early education of Pettis county was very limited indeed. At first a 
few private schools were started in the settlements by subscription, which 
grew, as the demand for schools increased to what we see around us 
to-day in magnificent costly public school buildings with well paid and 
skilled teachers. The pioneer teacher lived upon a meager salary and 
taught his school in a log cabin, without windows, except the chink 


holes. In such rude school houses many of the parents and grand-par- 
ents of the present generation took their first lessons of school life. 

In the year 1833, (January 26th) the governor was authorized by the 
senate and house of representatives to appoint three suitable persons 
to form a system of common school instruction, as nearly uniform as pos- 
sible, throughout the state, and to report at the next meeting of the leg- 
islature. The reader is reminded that this is the date of the organization 
of Pettis county. She certainly came in under a happy star. Only a few 
other sections of Missouri had at this time breathed the spirit of public 
schools. It is true that St. Louis had organized a board of trustees 
according to an act of the territorial legislature, which was approved 
January 30, 1816, but was not incorporated by law under the title of "St. 
Louis Pubhc Schools," till Februarv 13, 1833. 

As will be noticed elsewhere, the office of school trustees and school 
commissioners was filled by appointments from the county court. Some 
of the first school officers of Pettis count}^ took deep interest in the wel- 
fare of the public schools. 

At a session of the county court, November 7, 1853, A. A. Glasscock, 
Esq., was appointed commissioner of common schools and required to 
give a bond of $1,500, with good security, for the faithful performance of 
the duties of his office. Mr. Samuel A. Lowe was commissioner of the 
school lands at an early day in the history of common schools of Pettis 

The first school districts contained a whole congressional township, and 
it was common for boys and girls to walk three or more miles through 
the woods or wild grasses, in the pioneer days of this county. Washing- 
ton district (November 6, 1838), was the first organized school district of 
the county. W. I. Westerfield, Oswald Kidd and Willis P. Ellis were 
the trustees. The following year (1839) Christian district was organized, 
and Thomas Brooks, Jesse Pemberton, and Geo. W. Glass were the 
trustees. These school districts are more elaborately noticed under the 
head of organization. 

In 1841 an academy was established, under the statute, at Georgetown, 
which was quite successful. In 1847 Campbell College was incorporated 
in the same town, and this was followed by establishing, in 1860, George- 
town Female School by Anthony Haynes, now of Boonville. Good 
schools were maintained here for several years. 

Prof. A. N. Neal established the Georgetown Academy for both sexes 
in 1865, and continued at its head till 1870, when he was elected county 
superintendent. This was one of the best private schools in Pettis county. 
About 150 students were in attendance. Many of our prominent young 
citizens and business men were students under Prof Neal. 

October 3, 1865, Thos. E. Bassett, clerk of the county court, was ap- 




pointed county school commissioner, and was continued in office till, under 
the new constitution, a count}* superintendent was elected. 

From 1865 to 1875 may be counted a decade of unprecedented prosperi- 
ty for popular education and public schools in Pettis county. At the close 
of this decade began an era of retrenchment, cutting down salaries and 
discontinuing the office of not a few officials of that period. With reform 
in view men are liable to go on extremes. With all the good the new 
school law of 1865 had done for the people, there were instances in which 
it was administered by knaves and men whose hearts were guilty of em- 
bezzlement of the school moneys from the children of the county. The 
strikers for reform at the session of the General Assembly of Missouri, m 
1874, destroyed the office of county superintendent of public schools, sub- 
stituting a nominal office, filled ver}^ often by incompetent men*, styled 
county school commissioners. This was not aimed as a blow against the 
schools; however, much injury has been the result of this experience of so- 
called reform. 

Strictly speaking of the efficient work of the county superintendency 
during the years 1866-1874, which was what the times demanded to 
arouse a deeper interest in the cause of education, it had its enemies 
as well as its friends. The schools in the country and a few towns, have 
not done so well in porportion as under a superintendent. School 
boards and teachers are embarrassed and lukewarm without some one to 
lead. In fact the great army of teachers and schools officers of any county 
should have a captain, whose business it is to look after the drill of those 
under him. It is now well recognized that a system of public schools 
needs some responsible head to direct its course. This is found in the 
highest school officer — the county superintendent of public schools — 
a name dear to every lover of education. The very nature of his task 
and the duties of his office imply that he is a man of large experience in 
the school room. It is an office indispensable to the successful operations 
of the free school system. Experience has taught that the people of the 
west should select school officers for their fitness, regardless of political 
ties or church relations. Here prejudice has often run high, even to the 
over-shadowing of an office-seeker's qualities. To insure efficiency in the 
office, men of sterling worth, tried in school room methods and able to 
direct, should be elected, the choice being unanimous, and made with a 
view to the highest good of the patrons of the schools, and future welfare 
of the children. Indeed, the candidate should be a scholar, a christian of 
the hightest type, who loves the free schools and the children's interests 
as he loves himself. 

This county can boast of but few professional teachers. Many teach as 
a stepping to some other more lucrative avocation. One thing may be 
said for Pettis countv, which shoxv's tlie interest of her teachers over her 


sister county, Johnson, which lies under the shadow of a normal school, 
and that is she has never tailed in sustaining county institutes. This coun- 
ty has good, live, whole-souled workers in the institute. In the teacher's 
profession, like many others, Pettis county offers a place for those who 
are competent with honor and usefulness. The public schools of Sedalia 
are the very best. The course is thorough, fitting boys and girls for prac- 
tical life. This county denounces pretenders in teaching, and those who 
complain and are not alive to the grand opportunities of the school room 
and their profession. 

The county court of Pettis county, September 5, 1870, made efforts to 
secure the state normal school, then soon to be established. At a special 
session the 8th of the following month, the county court thought perhaps 
they might secure the location of the school if they would give the $50,- 
000.00 instead of $75,000.00, which they proposed at the last session, and 
on the 7th of November, the court confirmed and approved this measure. 
At this time, E. W. Washburn was president of the county court. 
Accordingly, an election was held the 29th of this month, authorizing the 
county court to issue $50,000.00 bonds, which resulted in a vote of 914 
for and 318 against, carried by more than two-thirds in favor of the prop- 
osition.- On the 6th of December following. Gen. Geo. R. Smith was 
appointed for the county on normal schools, and allowed $500.00 for law- 
yer's fees in case he needed it. Through fraud, men of Warrensburg, 
Johnson county, secured the state normal school for the second normal 
district of Missouri. However, before Pettis county would give it up, a 
lawsuit ensued and the matter was taken to the supreme court of the state, 
and on January 2, 1872, Pettis county court ordered the suit withdrawn, 
and on the 8th of the following month Gen. Smith was relieved of duties 
as agent for the county on normal schools. 

Herewith is appended a brief sketch of the institutes from their 
incipiency, with proceedings and names of members, to the year 1882: 

In response to a call by A. J. Sampson for the organization of a teach- 
ers' institute, a number of teachers and citizens met at the court house at 
11 o'clock A. M., May 13, 1869. 

The meeting was called to order by County Superintendent A. J. 
Sampson. After prayer by Rev. E. T. Brown, the following officers 
were elected, to-wit: A.J. Sampson, as chairman; B. F. Curnett, secre- 
tary; Mrs. M. J. Tucker, treasurer; and A. J. Sampson, G. W. Ready 
and T. J. Barton, executive committee. Held two days' session. 


Whereas, Our legislature has made it the duty of all public school 
teachers to become members of the teachers' institute in order the bet- 
ter to fit themselves to meet the responsibilities of instruction of the youth; 


Whereas, Teachers' institutes in other states have proved potent 
means in elevating the standard of education, be it, 

Resolved, That the county superintendent of public schools, be 
requested to notify all teachers of public schools in the county that attend- 
ance at the next semi-annual session of the institute will be requested, and 
that a failure to comply without a reasonable excuse will forfeit their cer- 

Resolved, That we regard the "Journal of Education," published by 
J. B. Merwin, 70S Chestnut street, St. Louis, Mo., as a powerful auxiliary 
in the promotion of the educational interests of the west, and in order that 
its sphere of usefulness be extended, we earnestly recommend that all 
teachers, school directors and other friends of education become subscrib- 

Resolved, That the thanks of the institute are tendered Maj. Merwin, 
editor of the "Journal of Education," for his valuable and efficient services 
during the institute. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the institute are tendered the pastor of 
the Congregational Church for the use of the house for lectures. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the institute are tendered the board of 
education of Sedalia, for the use of the school buildings during the insti- 

Resolved, That a vote of thanks be tendered Capt. A. J. Sampson, 
county superintendent of public schools, for his successful efforts in organ- 
izing and conducting this institute, and for the able and instructive address 
be requested for publication in the Sedalia papers and the "Journal of 

Resolved, That the proceedings of this institute be published in the 
Sedalia papers, and the "Journal of Education." 

The following are the names of the members enrolled, to-wit : 
Geo. W. Ready, W. S. Deardoff, B. F. Curnett, Wm. M. Barnhill, Jas. 
M. Caster, Joseph Kingsley, Geo. O. Brown, G. M. Colbert, M. V. B. 
Shattuck, A. J. Sampson, J. C. McCoy, T. J. Barton, J. M. Bigley, 
Edward Brown, Robert Reese, Wm. Hoffman, John Malone, William E. 
Strong, W. W. Snoddy, L. L. Bridges, J. M. Siglin, W. B. O'Bannon, 
Geo. W. Campbell, MUton Parish, Eva Griffon, S. J. Joplin, Mrs. W. J. 
Tucker, P. E. Sampson, E. Davidson, O. L. Ball, Mary A. Kidd, Mrs. L. 
Harrison, Mrs. M. A. Amies, Clara Kells, Julia Kells, J. B. Merwin, 
J. B. Brooks, M. Cotton, A. A. Neal, C. R. Griffon, J. R. Haviland, 
M. A. Nicholes, J. C. Grimes, T. M. Walker, T.J. Love, J. M. Bell, S. S. 
Evans, Geo. Rice, Henry Lamm, Sue Thompson, Miss S. J. Maltby, 
M. E. Grossbeck, Sallie Young,Thos. J. Gill, J. M. Duvall, J. M. Carter, 
M. C. Crawford, Mary Simons, Wm, Hansberger, Fannie Bard, Fannie 
C. Rothbon, Olivia J. Branham, Mary Ramey, Mrs. C. G. Delamater, 
Etta A. Phillips, O. G. Cooper, Prof. G. Beard, Miss O. Borrick, J. D. 
Brown, Alpheus Moore, Jas. Vangasken, Ewing Summers, J. S. Snead, 
S. M. Jackson, Mary A. Smith, Mary S. Thomas, N. E. Wilier, Martha 



Woods, E. M. x\mery, Wm. Cunninjrham, Chas. H. Hewit, Maud 
Zimmerman and John Osborne. 

Institutes met as follows: Nov. 6, 1869, and continued four days; May 
3,1870, three days; Nov. 9, 1870, three days; May 9, 1871, four days; 
Oct. 24, 1871, four days; Nov. 14, 1872, two days; Nov. 5, 1873, four 
days; Oct. 22, 1877, three days; Aug. 28, 1878, three days; Aug. 29, 
1879, three days; Aug. 24, 1880, three days; Dec. 29, 1881, tw^o days. 


A. J. Sampson, elected superintendent in 1808; A. A. Neal, elected 
superintendent in 1870; Prof. Westlake, elected superintendent in 1872; 
W. F. Hansberger, elected commissioner in 1875; Joseph Kingsley, 
elected commissioner in 1877; J. B. Van Petten, elected commissioner in 
1879; R. M. Scotten, elected commissioner in 1S81. 


AND 1881: 

Number of white children between six and twenty years of age: Male, 
4,012; female, 3,960. Total, 7,972. 

Number colored children between six and twenty years of age: Male, 
414; female, 478. Total, 892. 

Number of white scholars attending school during year: Male, 2,995; 
female, 2,817. Total, 5,812. 

Number of colored scholars attending school during year: Male, 241; 
female, 294. Total, 535. 

Total number days' attendance of all scholars, 578,414. 

Average number days' attendance of each scholar, 77. 

Number days school taught: Summer, 2,915; winter, 9,725. Total, 

Average number scholars attending each day: Summer, 1,117; win- 
ter, 3,767. Total, 4,B84. 

Number of teachers employed in the county during year: Male, 80; 
female, 83. Total, 163. 

Average salaries of teachers per month: Male, $36.90; female, $36.70. 
General average, $36.80. 

Number of school houses in the county, 116. 

Number of buildings rented for school purposes, 4. 

Number of white schools in operation in the count}^, 100. ■ 

Number of colored schools in operation m the county, 20. 

Value of school property in county, $ 84,006.00. 

Assessed valuation of county, 6,438,181.00. 

Amount at beginning school year, 22,634.49. 

Amount rec'd ior tuition and other sources 627.50. 

Amount rec'd of public fund, (state, county and tp., .... 10,041.74. 


Amount realized from taxation 42,600.67. 

Amount paid for teachers' wages 33,226.20. 

Amount paid for fuel 1,959.23. 

Amount paid for rents and repairs 9,618.93. 

Amount paid for incidentals and apparatus 6,253.65. 

Amount paid for erecting school houses and purchas- 
ing sites 1,463.55. 

Amount paid in defraying past indebtedness 2,253.05. 

Amount paid as salaries of district clerks 337.00. 

Amount of unexpended school funds at close of year. . . 20,840.65. 

For the year 1880, Pettis county enumerated white children, between 
six and twenty years of age; male, 3,944, female, 3,813, total 7,757; of the 
colored children for the same year, male, 423, female, 456, total, 879, 
making a grand total of 8,636 school children of the county. For the 
beginning of the year (April, 1880), the county had the following funds: 
Cash on hands, 1^22,559.76; received from State, $5,892.56; county, $1,- 
601.43; township, $2,223.54; district tax, $33,526.58; other sources, $3,- 
297.26; total receipts, $(59,101.23; total expenditures, $46,416.40; amount 
on hand at close of year $22,684.83. For that year (1880) the total 
attendance of all the pupils amounted to 802,920 days, and each pupil 
averaged eighty da3^s, four school months. This great degree of non- 
attendance on the part of pupils in the public schools, indicates a lack of 
interest by the patrons of the schools. Out of the 8,636 children of school 
age, 6,692 were enrolled in the schools, leaving 1,944 out of the public 
schools. Perhaps one-third of this number attend private schools, leav- 
ing 1,276 children without instruction. During that year (1880) there 
were 136 teachers emplo3'ed at an average salary of $40 per month. The 
average salaries were: for the males, $45 per month, and the females, $35 
per month. The cost of tuition per day of each pupil was six cents, and 
the rate levied in the count}' to support the schools was sixty-five cents on 
the $100. The value of public school property for 1880 amounted to 

Besides the public schools of the county, Sedalia has two academies, a 
telegraph institute, and a commercial school, which are extensively noticed 
under the head of Sedalia schools. 

The duties of the clerk of each district are to keep a correct record of 
the meetings, to contract with teachers, file teachers' certificates, compel 
teachers to make a complete report of their term of school, giving the 
time, wages, number scholars, ages, and attendance, with such other 
statistics as the board mav require. The commissioner is elected in the 
spring at the same time as the directors (first Tuesday in April) of the 
•odd years. He issues teachers' certificates of two classes. The " second 


class " embraces orthography, reading, penmanship, arithmetic, English 
grammar, modern geography. United States history, and civil govern- 
ment, good for a term of one year. A certificate of the " first-class " 
includes all the above with the addition of the natural sciences and physi- 
olog}^, and may be issued for a terin of two years. The commissioner 
does but little in a public capacity except examine teachers and grant cer- 
tificates, for which he receives $1.50 for each applicant, and $40.00 for 
making an annual statistical report to the state superintendent. 

The future prospects of education in Pettis have a very encouraging 
outlook. The county already ranks among the foremost of the state in 
educational matters. Better teachers are coming to the front, and at no 
very distant day Pettis county will have better school facilities. 


The following pages of this chapter contain a sketch of physicians who, 
having practiced some time in Pettis county, have since deceased; also a 
short professional sketch of the present resident physicians, from whom 
the facts could be obtained. Dr. John W. Trader, of Sedalia, kindly 
arrancred the facts he could collect in relation to those who have died. 
A letter was sent to each physician in Pettis county requesting facts about 
his professional career, and those who responded are noticed herein. 

In making this necrological report of the physicians of Pettis county, 
we have been compelled to rely mainly upon the information furnished by 
old settlers, and especially upon that furnished by Major Wm. Gentry, 
who has been familliar, and personally acquainted, with all these families. 

These reports are necessarily brief, as nothing is attempted beyond an 
effort to preserve the history of those persons who, in many instances, are 
important factors in the first settlement of our county. 

Dr. Christian E. Bidstrap, a native of Denmark, settled near George- 
town, Pettis county, Mo., in the year 1833, on the fiirm known as the 
Craven's place; practiced medicine some six or eight years; died near 
Clifton, at his brother's. The doctor was never married, andh as no rela- 
tives in the county at present. 

Dr. Moses A. Ferris was a surgeon in the volunteer forces from 
Kentucky in the war of 1812; removed from Georgetown, Ky., and set- 
tled in Pettis county near, Longwood, in the year 1833 or 1834, on what 
was then known as the Baker farm. The doctor was a representative 
man; in addition to practicing medicine, he preached to the early settlers, 
and married the 3'oung folks; he being what was then known as a 
Reformed preacher. The first blooded cattle brought to Pettis county 


were imported by Dr. Ferris. The doctor practiced medicine some ten or 
twelve years in this vicinity, and died suddenly, while out hunting, by 
what was supposed to have been apoplexy; none of the family, except 
the widow of the eldest son, residing at Longwood, are residents of the 

Dr. William J. Westfield settled in Georgetown in the yesiv 1834 
or '35, from Kentucky. The doctor was what is generally known by the 
early settlers as a " root and yarb doctor." The doctor cultivated his own 
medical plants, and had quite a garden of herbs from which he supplied 
his armomentorium as occasion required. He left no family in the county, 
and no positive evidence of when and where he died. 

Dr. Wilkins Watkins was born in Virginia in the year 1809, and set- 
tled in Georgetown, Missouri, in the year 1838. The doctor represented this 
county in the legislature in the year 1S45 or '46, and was register of lands 
at one time, at Clinton, Missouri. He moved to Salem, Oregon, in 1863, and 
returned and settled in Sedaha, Missouri, in 1867, where he died December 6, 
1872. He leaves a wife and daughter who are now living in Sedalia, and 
two grand children, residing at Ft. Scott, Kansas. 

Dr. Thomas Evans was born in Washington City, D. C, October 
27,1805; educated at "Columbia College," D. C, graduating in both 
literary and medical departments. Came to Missouri in 1832, and moved to 
Pettis county in 1840, and located on the eastern border of the county on a 
farm which he improved himself, where he lived and practiced medicine 
until he sold his farm and located in the town of Smithton in the year 
1872, where he resided until his death, which occurred on the 10th of 
September, 1874. The remains are buried at the Smithton cemetery. 
Dr. Evans was no ordinary man. Deeply imbued with the greatness of 
his calling, he never, by word or deed, lowered the standard of his profes- 
sion. His reputation extended over Cooper, Saline, Pettis, Morgan and 
Benton counties, and for thirty odd years he served this people with a 
fidelity that will not soon be forgotten. The doctor never held a public 
office. He leaves three sons resident of this county, two of whom, Drs. 
E. C. and W. H. Evans, are leading physicians of Sedalia, Mo. 

Dr. Edward Spedden settled in Georgetown in the year of 1841 or 
'42; was born and raised on the eastern shore of Maryland. Died in 
Georgetown about the year 1856. Dr. Spedden was an eminent physi- 
cian, and of more than ordinary acquirements; was charitable to the poor, 
and modest and retired in his deportment. The doctor was twice married; 
had six children by his first, and one son by his last wife. None of the 
family live in Pettis county at present. 

Dr. Moss came to Georgetown, from one of the New England 


States, about the j-ear 1840 or '42. He was what is generally known by 
" Thompsonian." He first settled near where Longwood now is; was 
married to a Miss McGill, of Heath's Creek, and moved from Pettis 
county in the year 1856 or '57, and died somewhere in the Indian Territory 
during the year of 1879. 

Dr. J. K. McKabe settled in Georgetown in the year 1846, from 
Pittsylvania county, Va. Married a Miss McBride, of North Missouri, 
in 1850, where he died in the year 1851. Nothing further is known of 
the family. 

Dr. WiLLiAiM TuRLEY was born in Cooper county, and settled in Pettis 
county, near Thornleigh, in 1854 or '55. Dr. Turley raised a company 
and was mustered into the Seventh Cavalry M. S. M., Col. J. F. Philips 
commanding, in the year 1862. The doctor accidentally shot himself fatally, 
while dismounting, soon after. Quite a large family of children remain, 
some still residents of the county. 

Drs. Thornton & Lowry settled in Georgetown at an early day, 
about 1844 or '45. They practiced medicine together, but left in 1854, 
and both soon after died. Nothing further is known of their history. 

Dr. Benjamin Franklin Hughes was born in Cooper count}-. Mo., 
near Pilot Grove, Nov. 20, 1830; graduated at the Mo. Med. College, 
(McDowel's) in the year 1855, at which time he came to Pettis county, 
and settled in Georgetown, engaging in the practice of his profession. At 
the breaking out of the late civil war he was commissioned surgeon in 
the Federal Army, which post he filled until elected as a delegate from 
this district to the convention to form what is known as the Drake Con- 
stitution of Missouri. The doctor, after the close of the war, resumed the 
practice of his profession in Sedalia, Mo., where he died August 26, 1879, 
and is buried in the Georgetown cemetery. Two brothers, three sisters, 
and five children survive him and are residents of the county. 

Dr. Thomas Johnson Montgomery, born in Danville, Boyle county 
Kentuck}', August 9, 1812. Moved to Pettis county in the year 1858, and 
settled near Longwood, Missouri. Afterward moved to Georgetown. In 

1864 he was oppointed surgeon of the Seventh Cavalry M. S. M., and in 

1865 assumed the duties of medical director, central district of Mis- 
souri, until the close of the war. The same year he settled in Sedalia, 
and resumed the practice of his profession. The doctor was twice mar- 
ried. Three sons and three daughters survive him, and are residents of 
the county. His widow also resides in Sedalia. Dr. Montgomery was 
an extraordinary man. Endowed with a fine mind by nature, he had, by 
industry and an indomitable will, overcome all obstacles and towered as a 



Nestor amono- the members of his profession; was f^ranted an ad eiindcni 
from the Starlino; Medical College in 1S55, and a life honor was conferred 
upon him by the St. Louis Medical College in 185S. He tilled many- 
places of honor and trust among men. He died in Sedalia, Missouri, 
May 17, 1877, and was buried in the Sedalia cemetery, with church and 
Masonic honors. 

Dr. William A. Mayfield moved Irom Kentucky, and settled in 
Sedalia, Missouri, in the year J 806, where he li\ed and practiced his pro- 
fession up to the time of his death. The doctor was eminent in his pro- 
fession, and during the war served on the medical statl' of the United 
States army, and had charge of United States hospitals at various places 
in Kentuckv. The doctor was twice married, leaving a widow and one 
son. His widow resides in St. Louis, and the son, by his first wife, is a 
soldier in the United States army stationed out west. The doctor died at 
his brother-in-law's in Henry county, Missouri, and was buried in the 
Sedalia cemeterv in the spring of 1882. 


Name, where born, where studied medicine, when came to Pettis 
county, etc, of all the present resident phj^sicians from whom data could 
be obtained. 

Willis P. King, born December 21st, 1839, in Mason county, Mis- 
souri, graduated at St. Louis Medical College in the spring of 1866, and 
at Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York, 1871. Came to Pettis 
county, 1859, was president of Pettis County Medical Association in 1876, 
and now occupies the chair of diseases of women in medical department 
in the State University, and also the same position in the Universit}' of 
Kansas City. He was president of the State Medical Associaton for the 
year 1881, was public administrator of Vernon countv from 1868 to 1872, 
and coroner of Pettis count}- from 1880 to 1882. 

Thomas Sollis was born in England, June 23d, 1839, graduated at 
Clevelend Medical College in 1869, practiced medicine in Illinois for 
eleven 3-ears. Came to Pettis county in 1879. 

John W. Trader was born in Xenia, Ohio, March 6th, 1837. Began 
the studv of medicine with Dr. Alex. S. Hughes of Lindley, Grundy 
countv, this State; graduated at the Missouri Medical College in 1859, was 
commissioned assistant surgeon in 1862 by Governor Gamble, and mustered 
in the 1st Cavalry, 1st Battalion M. S. M. In 1863 he was promoted sur- 
geon of the same regiment. In 1864 he was made, by special order, sur- 
geon of the 1st brigade of General Pleasanton's cavalry corps. In April, 
1865, he was mustered out of the volunteer service and immediately took 
service in the U. S. medical corps as a surgeon and did dut}' at Jefferson 


Barracks and New Orleans. In May, 18f3.5, he resigned his commission 
and commenced practicinfr his profession in Lexington, Missouri, where he 
continued until l8f>G, when he came to Sedalia. In 1807 he was appointed 
by the Governor as honorary commissioner from Missouri to the Paris 
Expositic>n, where he spent some time utihzing the superior advantages 
offered him for the further pursuit of his professional studies. Was presi- 
dent of the State Medical Association -in 1876-77. In 1877 appointed a 
delegate to the American Medical Association, which met at Chicago. In 
the same year he was appointed surgeon for the M. K. & T. railroad, 
which position he filled for three years. In 1878 he was appointed as a 
member of the examining board of the medical department of the State 
University, which position he still holds. At present he is also president 
of the Pettis County American Bible Society. Dr. Trader has written 
several essays on different branches of his profession, which have been 
published; among them, "Diabetes Melitus, " " Bronchotomy and its after 
treatment," "Criminal Abortion," etc. 

E. C. Evans is a native of Washington, D. C, born October 29th, 1828. 
His father located in Pettis county in 1832; he graduated at the St. Louis 
Medical College in the spring of 18.54; located first at Otterville and made 
a specialty of diseases of the eye; he took a course of lectures at Jefferson 
Medical College, at Philadelphia, in 1857-58, on this special topic, and 
received the ad ciindiim degree; he also graduated in 1865, at the Oph- 
thalmic College, New York; he moved to Sedalia in 1873. In 18>>0 he 
was elected mayor of Sedalia. 

Thos. B. Memminger was born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1837, 
graduated at Charleston Medical College in 1859; studied surgery in Bell- 
vue Hospital, New York, spent tw^o years in Europe; in 1861 he was 
appointed by Jefferson Davis as surgeon in the Confederate army and 
served in that capacity until the close of the war; practiced in Charleston, 
South Carolina, Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri; in 1881 he located in 
Sedalia, where he is now practicing. 

W. H. Evans was born in Cooper county, Missouri, in 1840. Studied 
medicine with his father, who was also a physician. Attended St. Louis 
Medical College and Bellevue Hospital Medical College, graduating 
from the latter place in 1867. During the war Dr. Evans was assistant 
surgeon in state militia, serving until its close. In 1873 he began prac- 
ticing with his brother, (E. C.,) in Sedalia, and has since resided here. 
He has been coroner of Pettis county several terms. 

Ira T. Bronson was born in Watertown, New York, in 1840, and 
was educated at Newbury, Vermont, and the University of that State, 
where he received his medical education, studying also at Burlington and 


Dartmouth College, at Hanover, New Hampshire, graduating from the 
latter place in ISOO. He began practicing at Newbur}^, Vermont, where 
he remained until 1ST3. Coming to Sedalia that year, and has since been 
in practice and engaged in the drug business. 

R. Wilson Carr is a native of Maryland, born in 1S31. He was 
educated at St. John's College, at AnnapoHs, Md., but graduated at Dick- 
erson College, at Carlisle, Indiana, in ISIO. He immediately began the 
study of medicine, graduating from the medical department of the Uni- 
versit}'" of Maryland in 1852. He then went to California and practiced 
his profession until 1857, when he returned to Baltimore city, and con- 
tinued there until 1861. In that year he was appointed surgeon-general 
of Maryland, by Gov. T. Hicks. He served as volunteer surgeon at An- 
tietam and Gettysburg. In 1868. he was appointed chief coroner of Bal- 
timore city. The doctor came to Sedalia, in 1ST7, and has since been 
located here. 

William F. Boyer was born in Forsythe county. North Carolina, in 
1840. Came to Crawford county, Missouri, in 1855, and began the study 
of medicine in 1860, and graduated trom the Eclectic Medical Institute of 
Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1864. Came to Sedalia in 1864, as contract surgeon 
in the United States Army, and has been in active practice here since. 

RoscoE L. Hale is a native of Vermont, born in Bransdon, in 1830. 
He was educated at the schools of Morris, Illinois, where his father moved 
at an earh' day, and at Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. He graduated 
from Rush Medical College, Chicago, in 1853, and began practicing in 
Morris, Illinois, and continued until 18 72. In that vear he came to Se- 
dalia, purchasing an interest in the drug store of J. H. Mertz, where he 
now is in business, having retired from active practice. 

Asa H. Heaton is a native of Indianapolis, Indiana, and was educated 
in the schools of that cit}'. In 1876 he began the study of medicine, at- 
tending lectures at Chicago, Cincinnati and Indianapolis, graduating from 
the latter place in 1881. In the latter part of the same year he came to 
Sedalia, where he is in practice. 

D. T. Abell is a native of Brookheld county, Pennsvlvania. Was 
educated at Susquehanna Collegiate Institute, and received his medical 
education at Homoeopathy Medical College, Philadelphia, graduating in 
1860, commenced his practice in x\thens,Penns3'lvania, going from thence 
to Darlington, Wisconsin, where he was appointed examining surgeon 
for pensions, a position he now holds in Sedalia. 

Jacob B. Jones, born May 23, 1841, in North Carolina. Graduated at 
St. Louis Medical College, in 1868, and the same vear came toAhis citv, 
engaging in the practice of his profession. . Was president of Pettis County 


Medical Association about 1872, vice-president State Medical Association 
in 1874; county coroner in 1878, and for the past ten years county ph}^- 

J. A. C. Brown, born in North Carolina, March 21, 1834. Graduated 
at the Universit}^ of North Carolina, in the class of 1857, and at Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia. Came to Pettis count}-, in 1865. Dr. 
Brown has been president of Pettis County Medical Association from 

1870 to 1880. 

Walter C. Overstreet, Jr., born in Monmouth, Illinois, February 
17, 1827. Graduated at Missouri Medical College in 1878, and Bellevue 
Hospital Medical College, New York, in 1882. Came to Pettis county 
with parents in 1864. 

J. M. Overstreet, born in Kentucky, Februar}^ 4, 1830. Graduated 
at the University of Louisville in 1854. Practiced in Monmouth, 111., from 
1854 to 1860. Located permanentl}' at Smithton, Pettis county, in 1860, 
and came to Sedalia in 1879. 

W. C. Overstreet, Smithton, born October 16, 1824, in Kentucky. 
Graduated at Transylvania Medical College, Lexington, Kentucky. Came 
to Pettis county in 1847, the next spring went to Knox county. 111., where 
he remained until 1864, since which time he has been located at Smith- 
ton, Pettis county. Mo. 

William Brockschmidt is a native of Langelage-Antes Wittlage, 
Province of Hanover, Europe, born in 1827; graduated from Gottinggen 
Medical College in 1848. In 1852 came to America, located in New 
Orleans, practiced there for a short time, after which he came to St. 
Louis, where he practiced two years, going from there to JetTerson 
City, where he practiced some time. In 1862 he came to Sedalia and has 
since been in active practice here. 

Logan Clark was born September 30, 1820, in Christian county, Ky. 
Came with his parents to Missouri in 1824. He studied medicine in Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, in 1844-45, after which he practiced for fifteen years. 
At one time he represented Johnson county in the state legislature. He 
came to Sedalia in 1861 and entered the Federal service as surgeon of the 
27th Missiouri, serving one year. In 1877, Dr. Clark was elected mayor 
of the city of Sedalia. 

William O. Dunlap, born in Pennsylvania June 7, 1845; graduated at 
Monmouth College in 1870, at St. Louis Medical College in 1875, and 
then graduated at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College. He came to 
Sedalia in March, 1880. 

John Hausan was born in Bavaria in 1821, where he was partially 


educated, finishing in St. Louis. He has been a resident of this State 
forty-five years, most of the time in St. Charles county. He came to 
Pettis county in 1S7T and to Sedaha in 1881. 

Robert Tevis Miller was born in Richmond, Kentucky, November 
30, 1831; was educated at the State University of Missouri; graduated at 
St. Louis Medical College in the spring of 1860, and attended lectures in 
the same college in 1863. Commenced practice at Tipton, and came to 
Sedalia and opened a drug store March 1, 1861. He is the first physician 
that located in Sedalia, and is now a member of the firm of Bard & 

J. P. Thatcher, Sedalia township, was born in Jacksborough, Tenn.,, 
in 1830; moved to Missouri in an early day; when the Mexican war broke 
out he enlisted as a private in the Third Regiment Kentucky Volunteers^ 
infantr}^, but was promoted to lieutenant, and afterwards to the command 
of the company. He graduated at Jeft'erson Medical College, Philadel- 
phia, Penn.; settled in Pettis county in 1854. In 1874 he was elected to 
the legislature of Missouri as the democratic candidate by a large 
majority. July 8, 1880, at his residence three miles south of Sedalia, his 
long and useful life terminated, and he died universally respected by all 
who knew him. 

Andrew V. Small is a native of the Province of Lorraine, France, 
where he was reared and educated. He studied medicine in the Univer- 
sity of Paris, where he graduated in 1839. He entered the French army 
as surgeon, spending part of his time in Africa; came to America in 1848, 
locating at New Orleans where he remained until 1853, coming to Jeffer- 
son City in that year. From Jefierson City he moved to Springfield in 
1858. At the beginning of the war he entered the Confederate army and 
was appointed chief surgeon of General McBride's division. In 1863 he 
was appointed medical inspector of General Bragg's command at Cor- 
inth, Miss., and was assigned the presidency of the examining board of 
district of Texas with headquarters at San Antonio, where he remained 
until the close of the war. He then went to Lexington, Mo., and remained 
until 1878, when he came to Sedalia, where he has since practiced. His 
son, Edwin N. Small, a graduate of Bellevue Medical College, N. Y., is 
associated with him. 

John P. Walker, Lamonte, is a native of Granville Co., North Caro- 
lina, born February 11, 1840. He graduated at the St. Louis Medical 
College in 1873. Practiced in Johnson county for a time, and settled in 
Lamonte in 1879, where he now resides. 

Samuel Conway, Lamonte, is a native of St. Louis county, Missouri, 
born in 1843. Graduated at St. Louis Medical College in 1867, and the 
same year he settled in Pettis county, where he fias since resided. 


Benjamin E. Van Burkleo, Beaman, was born in St. Charles county, 
Missouri, February 23, 1847. Attended the schools of his own county, 
and commenced the study of medicine with Dr. J. P. Mcllhany, and 
graduated from the St. Louis Medical College. He located at Beaman, 
this count}^ in 1873, where he still practices his profession. He is a 
member of the Pettis County Medical Society. 

Hugh C. Spears, Longwood, Mo., is a native of Fayette county, 
Kentucky, born February l-l, 1828. He is a graduate of Transylvania 
University, of Lexington, Ky., receiving his degree March 1, 1850. Prac- 
ticed medicine in Mercer county, Ky., Cass county, Mo., Lawrence 
county, Tenn., and came to Pettis county in 1868. 

Wellington V Walker, of Longwood, was born at Pleasant House, 
Owen county, Kentucky, December 9, 1854. He graduated at the med- 
ical university at Louisville, Ky., in February, 1880. Was elected by 
competitive examination one of the resident physicians and surgeons in 
Louisville Citv Hospital, where he served one year. He located in 
Sedalia, Pettis county. Mo., in April, 1881, and in a short time was elected 
medical examiner of Equity Lodge, No. 16, A. O. U. W., of Sedalia. 
Located in Longwood, Pettis county, in May, 1882. 

J. C. CuLP, of Ionia City, is a native of West Virginia. In 1866 he 
moved to Missouri. Received his literary education at State Normal 
School, at Kirksville, and his medical education at Missouri Medical Col- 
lege, St. Louis, Mo., College of Physicians and Surgeons, Keokuk, 
Iowa, and College of Physicans and Surgeons, Joplin, Mo. He settled in 
Ionia, Pettis county, in March, 1882. 

T. P. McCluney, of Dresden, is a native of West Virginia, born in 
Brook Co., January 25, 1836. In 1843 he came with his parents to Mis- 
souri, settling in Johnson Co. Dr. McCluney received his medical educa- 
tion at St. Louis Medical College, graduating in 1860 .He then settled 
in Pettis county, where he still resides. During the war he was assistant 
surgeon in the U, S. army, and was stationed at Jefferson Barracks, 
Jefferson City, and St. Louis. He has held the office of secretary, vice- 
president and president of the Petds County Medical Association. 

G. H. Scott, is a native of Scodand, born November 16, 1829. In 
1831, his parents moved to America, and located in Newburyport, Mass. 
In 1843, they came to Bloomington, 111., where Dr. Scott was educated 
in the Wesleyan University, He read medicine with E. K. Crothers, of 
Bloomington, and attended lectures at Jefferson Medical College, Phila- 
delphia, where he graduated in 1857. Began practicing the same year at 
Peoria, 111., but moved to Kewanee, that state, in 1859, and remained until 
1867, when he went from there to Oswego, N. Y., and remained until 


1872. In ISTtt, he came to Sedalia, where he has since been engaged 
in practice. 

W. H. Flesher, Greenridge, Pettis county, Mo., is a native of Vir- 
ginia; born in Jackson county, that state, in 1829; his literary education 
was obtained in the schools of his native county, and his medical at Louis- 
ville Medical College, where he graduated in 1850; in 1854 and 1855 he 
attended lectures at the Cincinnati Eclectic Medical College, receiving the 
benefit of lectures from the celebrated Dr. John King; he practiced 
medicine for several years in Virginia and Ohio; at the breaking out of 
the war he enlisted in the United States arm}- as assistant surgeon of the 
11th Virginia Volunteer Infantry. His connection with this, however, 
was brief, as he was detached for recruiting services and was rapidly 
promoted from the rank of first lieutenant to captain, and in a short time to 
major; he was with Gen. Avery's command at first and afterwards with 
Generals Custer and Sheridan. At the close of the war he went to Olney , 
Ills., where he practiced thirteen years; in 1878 he came to Sedalia and 
located, and April 10, 1879, he moved to Greenridge, where he has 
built up an extensive practice. 

C. W. Leboa, Greenridge, Pettis county, Mo., was born at Brazil, 
Clay county, Indiana, in 1853; he was educated in the schools of that 
place and Tipton, Monticello county, Ind.; he studied medicine with his 
father, Dr. I. S. Leboa, a graduate of the old Cincinnati Medical College, 
and afterwards attended the Missouri Medical College, at St. Louis, in 
1874, 1875 and 1876, graduating the last named year; he also attended a 
course of lectures at St. Louis in 1880; began practice at Cole Camp, 
Linn county, this State, in 1876, and moved to Greenridge in August, 

W. D. Snoddy, Lamonte, Pettis county. Mo., is a Virginian, born 
March 20, 1822, came to Missouri in 1839; he commenced the study of 
medicine in Franklin county, this state; he took his first course of lectures 
at the Medical College of Tennessee, and his second at the Eclectic Medi- 
cal College of Cincinnati, and graduated in the spring of 1850; he then 
located in Georgetown, this county, and practiced his profession until 1856, 
when he moved to his present farm near Lamonte, wliere he has since 
resided, and kept up his practice. 

A. P. Snoddy, Lamonte, was born in Franklin county, Mo., March 
24, 1847; he commenced the study of medicine in 1868, entering the 
Eclectic Medical Institute, of Cincinnati, from which place he graduated 
in 1870; in August of that 3^ear he began the practice of his profession in 
Lamonte, where he has since resided. 

David F. Brow^n, Dresden, is a native of North Carolina, born in 



Davidson county, October 22, 1845; he attended medical lectures at St. 
Louis, graduatinoj in 1873, and commenced the practice of his profession 
at Dresden, where he is now engaged, having built up a large practice. 

John M. Elliott, Dresden, was born September 25, 1830, in Wash- 
ington county, Pennsylvania; received his education at the schools of his 
native county, and from private teachers. He commenced the study of 
medicine before the war, but Vv'hen that broke out he enlisted and served 
through over three years, when his health failing, he returned home 
and resumed his studies with Dr. D. W. Braden, of Waynesburg, Pa.; he 
attended lectures at Cleveland Medical College, Cleveland, Ohio; in 1866 
he began practicing his profession in Marshall county. West V^irginia, 
continuing there for six years, when he returned to his native county and 
continued his practice until September, ISSl, when he came to Missouri, 
purchased a farm adjoinmg Dresden, where he now resides. 




Early Steps — Small Fields— Implemeni.s Used — Kinds of Soils — Most Profitable Crops — 
First Crops — Prairie and Timber — Present Size of Farms and Value of Lands — Pres- 
ent Modes of Farming — First Agricultural Societies and Men Promoting them — The 
Benefits of Societies — Sedalia Exposition Association. 

"Give fojls their g'>ld, and knaves their power; 
Let fortune's bubbles rise and fall ; 
Wlio sows a field or trains a flower,- 
Or plants a tree, is more than all." 

Agriculture, in its restricted meaning, is the cultivation of a field; from 
the Latin word ager, a field, and ailtura, cultivation ; and implies the art 
of cultivating the ground for the purpose of obtaining vegetable produc- 
tions. In the more general sense, as we shall use it in this article, it 
includes the whole business of the farmer, comprehending, in addition to 
the raising of corn, wheat and other crops, the proper management of 

Farming is the most independent of the avocations. The "lords of the 
soil," as farmers are often termed, hold in their hands the destiny of 
nations. All are common sufferers when farming interests suffer, and no 
country may expect to flourish when she neglects her agricultural inter- 
ests. When the farmer rises above the common daily drudgery, so long 
practiced by the ignoiant tillers of the soil, then there will be intelligent, 
thinking, paying labor on the farm, which will add much to the farmer's 
happiness, and grace the proudest and most independent avocation man 
can follow. 

Agriculture is the great interest of both the county and the state. It is 
the foundation upon which all other enterprises are dependent. It is the 
fundainental element that produces the happiness, prosperity and wealth 
of a country. Upon its success rests the welfare of the nation. There- 
fore, its great importance to all, whether engaged in holding the plow, 
the scales of justice, or any other avocation. Agronomy furnishes the 
support of all others, and when in a prosperous condition, shares its bless- 
ings with them all — -the laborer has work, the printer better support, the 
professionals better patronage, the mechanics more employment, the 
merchant sells more goods, the manufacturer a better market, railroads 
more freight, and commerce greater tonnage. In this manner the products 
of the soil are distributed liberally to others. 

It is from thd rural haunts that the majority of our most able men and 
women come to the stage of action to perform an important part in the 
public affairs ot our nation. A Webster and a Clay were farmers^ 
sons. A Martha Washington and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were blessed 


as farmers' daus^hters. These names, with half a million others, more or 
less worthy, coming from the agricultural districts, should stimulate the 
sons and daughters of farmers to stick to the farm and possess the 

The women of this country have done much to make farm-homts 
attractive, creating a taste for the culture of fruits, flowers and orna- 
mental grounds. The state took steps in the right direction when she 
opened the doors of her university, agricultural and horticultural schools 
to her sons and daughters alike. The state will be more than paid for 
this noble work in her future statesmen and citizens. 

Pettis county possesses many advantages for the development of her 
natural resources. The value of land has gradually advanced until now 
it is more than thirty-fold its original price. The abundance of water 
and good drainage enhanced the value of land along the streams in the 
estimation of the early settlers. If the New Englander, or the man of the 
older states, was aware of the productive properties of Pettis county 
lands, he undoubtedly would leave his narrow acres of sterile soil, diligent 
toil and close habits, and come to this county where he would find broader 
fields and more generous soil. One glance over these fertile prairies, and 
the enjoyment of wholesome air and good society, would convince the 
man most deeply wedded to the sterile, unproductive soil of the older 
states. These beautiful, rich, rolling prairies, nature's own pastures, 
dotted with springs and checked with perpetual rivulets, exposing soils 
half a fathom deep, can be made, by a small outlay, a perfect garden, 
producing a bountiful supply of all sorts of fruits, besides the immense 
yields of corn, wheat, and other cereals. 

In this thesis we give a comprehensive view of agronomy from its early 
steps to the present time. Once having lived on the farm the writer has 
found but little difficulty in presenting the early modes of farming and the 
implements used. 

In 1818, when the first settlers set foot on this soil, they found a vast 
wilderness of grasses on the prairies, and in the woodlands thick clusters 
of all sorts of vines and underbrush. Annually the mighty flames of fire 
would sweep over the prairies, leaving behind them a blackened plain; 
nor did the rushing fires stop with the fertile glades, but often caught from 
tree top to tree top, wrapping miles of timber in one vast conflagration. 
On account of these forest fires, the timber was kept closel}' confined to 
the creeks, lakes and places where the fire fiend had no sway. No 
record can tell when these prairies received the first fire, for hundreds of 
years no doubt have elapsed since. 

A class of human beings tilled the soil to some extent long before the 
white man came to the west. The implements of the early tillers of the 
soil are occasionally found in some parts of this, as well as in many parts 


of the state, often imbedded in the soil over which trees of many centuries 
have grown. The only implements left are those of stone. These are 
supposed to have been fastened to a piece of wood and used as a sort of 
hoe. The wooden implements of a later day used among some tribes of 
the American Indians, were forked sticks, sharpened by stone axes. No 
animals were domesticated and utilized in cultivating the patches of the 
aborigines. The squaws were the operators, and acted the double part 
of team and driver. The agricultural habits of the Indians have been 
gradually superseded by those of his pale-faced brethren, so that now 
the most savage tribes are laying aside the tomahawk and bow for 
improved agricultural implements. 

When the early pioneers came to Pettis county, they settled along the 
small streams for the double purpose of building log cabins, making rails, 
improving a farm, which was most practical and congenial to their taste, 
since many of them had come from timbered states. With them it was 
impossible to break the turf of the prairie land with the plows of that age. 
Nothing more was contemplated the first few years, than fencing a few 
acres, raising some corn and spending the balance of the time in hunting. 
Indeed this was enough, for the land must be grubbed, planted and culti- 
vated, and the only implements in use were the bull-tongue and colter plows 
and the grubbing hoe. The plows were drawn by oxen, steady, slow, 
and sure. Each succeeding year more land was opened up, and so by the 
time a farmer owned twenty-five acres of cultivated land, he had more 
than he could manage. In those days but few employed help, except in 
making rails. Some of the best and most influential old citizens of to-day 
can rehearse the manner in which they made rails. However, railsplit- 
ting was an avocation in which large numbers of hardy young men of 
poor parentage often engaged, and were paid on the average one dollar 
and their board for a hundred rails. From this business some have 
grown up wealthy. In early days there was no need of fenced pastures, 
except to confine an animal for special use, and stock of all kinds ran 
loose on the prairies at all seasons of the year. During farming season 
the plow animals were looked up every morning and driven from the 
prairies of high grass, and the pioneer farmer often commenced his work, 
wet to the waist from the dewy grass. 

The first agricultural implements used here were the bull-tongue, colter, 
wooden mold-board and the single shovel plows. A rudely constructed 
wooden harrow and the top of a tree for a brush, were used to level and 
pulverize the ground. These implements, with the addition of the hoe, 
continued to be the pioneer's only reliance for farming utensils the first 
few years. A brief description of some of these implements will not be 
amiss. The bull-tongue plow, so named on account of its strength, hav- 
ing a steel share shaped somewhat like a bull's tongue, is the outgrowth 


of the most ancient plows. The share of this plow is twelve to twenty 
inches in length, three to six in width, about an inch in thickness, and tap- 
ering to the apex, being well adapted to the service of tearing up huge 
roots and stirring the ground among stumps. This is bolted to an upright 
piece, mortised and braced in a beam. A strong iron clevis is fastened at 
the end of the beam by a pin, attaching a heavy chain, passing between 
the two oxen and fastened in the ring and staple of the ox-yoke. The 
handles were made of tough wood, fastened to the beam and braced by 
cross-bars. The wooden mold-board plow is better imagined than 
described. The present turning plows are improvements on the old cary 
and wooden mold-board plows. The share of this plow was steel. The 
farmer of to-day can imagine the inconvenience of tilling the soil with this 
plow, stopping every few minutes to use a paddle to clear the dirt from 
the wooden mold-board. The old single shovel plow was constructed 
somewhat on the plan of the bull-tongue and colter plows, which was 
kept in use longer on account of its adaptability to stir the soil where the 
ground was cleared of roots and stumps, checking the ground for plant- 
ing, and wherever light plowing was demanded. 

The share of the shovel ranged from six to eight inches in breadth and 
was about the same in length with the addition of the point. This plow 
was usually drawn by a single horse or an ox. The work was slow, and 
many farmers, in order to prevent their teams from nipping too much of 
the growing grain, kept muzzles made of splints and bark on the plow- 

The first crops were principally corn. Oats, wheat, hemp, flax and 
rye were raised. The tame grasses were not cultivated. The wild grass 
was considered good for all stock and hundreds of tons of prairie hay 
were annually mown b}'' hand and stacked for the winter feed. At an 
early day spring and fall wheat were both tried. The smut and the 
accumulation of chintz bugs on spring wheat early convinced the farmers 
of this section that it was an unprofitable crop. Fall wheat, although not 
extensively raised, has generally done well. 

With the early farmers, corn was the staple product, and became the 
staff of life for man and beast, and the failure of the corn crop brought 
almost a famine. On corn, the hardy settlers depended for Johnny cake, 
hominy, hasty pudding, and succotash. Corn was the principal feed for 
horses, swine, cattle, and sheep. In the early autumn, just as soon as the 
ears had sufficiently ripened, the farmer with his wife and family entered 
the corn field, and stripped the blades from the ear down, after which 
they were cured, bound into bundles, and stacked as provender for winter 
use. The tops of the stalks were cut above the ear, bound into bundles 
and shocked for the cattle. After the era of savinof corn fodder in this 
way, it became a prevailing custom to cut the corn from the ground, and 


put it into shocks sixteen hills square. For this work a corn-cutter was 
paid from seven to ten cents a shock. This custom prevails now in some 

The soils of Pettis county are divided into three distinct classes, com- 
monly known as limestone soil, sandy soil, and mulatto clay. The prairie 
land differs from the wood land mostly in its productions. The greater 
portion of the prairie lands of the county have a rich, black alluvial, 
strong in sediment of lime, very friable, easily handled, and form a soil of 
eighteen to thirty inches in thickness. About five-sixths of the land of 
the county is prairie. The timber soils along the bluffs and hillsides are 
principally light and underlaid with fine deposits ot" limestone, varying in 
color, depth and consistency, while the soils of the bottoms and valleys 
are composed of dark alluvial deposits of a very productive nature. The 
bottoms of the timber land are very valuable when once in cultivation. 
They are practically inexhaustible, and, like the black alluvial of the 
upland prairies, yield large crops ot corn, wheat, grasses, vegetables, 
and in fact produce anything that grows in this latitude. The more con 
sistent oak, hickory and sassafras upland soils are generally of a reddish 
or grayish hue, rich in lime, magnesia, humus, and other fine productive 
elements, and are among the best tobacco and fruit soils of the state. The 
lighter and thinner jack oak soils, which cover but a minimum of the 
woodlands, are of little value except pasturage, yielding annually a fine 
undergrowth of tall succulent wild grasses, well suited for sheep and goats. 
The sub-soils of the prairies, as well as the better white oak and hickory 
soils, are very largely made of silicious clays and marls, deep and very 
rich, and wherever thrown up to the influence of the sun and air, 
readily disintegrate to the softness of ashes, and produce a good 
growth of vegetation. These lands are absolutely imperishable. With 
such valuable constitutents as silica, lime, magnesia carbonate, lime phos- 
phate, alumina, and other organic matter, a basis of agricultural wealth is 
formed for the deep and more thorough cultivators of the soil in the future, 
in comparison with w^hich the farmer's artificial fertilizers are hardly 
worthy of mention. Thfise surface and sub-soils give together the widest 
known range of production in American agronom3^ 

The size of farms varv according to the wealth and ability to carry on 
the farm. It is the opinion of many of the best farmers of this age that 
about one-half of the agricultural lands are poorly cultivated, on account 
of many farmers having charge of more land than they are able to man- 
age. Pettis county has a few farms containing upwards of 600 acres, and 
very many 500 acres; however, the average farms are about 300 acres in 
area. Corn and grasses appear to be the most profitable growth of the 
farm. Major Wm. Gentry and Capt. Sam'l Shanks are among the large 




successful pioneer farmers who have always taken a deep interest in the 
agricultural interests of their county. 

Modern farming is pleasant in contrast with the drudgery of the pioneer 
farming of half a century ago. Man}'- are the new inventions of farming 
machinery since then. The marker was a step ahead of laying off one 
furrow at a time. The double shovel has superseded the single shovel. 
Instead of the wooden mold-board we have polished turning plows. From 
the wooden harrow came the iron harrow, and now we have the revolv- 
ng steel harrows. The first prairie plow was a heavy, clumsy imple- 
ment, requiring four to six yoke of oxen to draw it; now in its place the 
riding plow with three horses does the work. Corn is cultivated by 
riding plows. The wheat is harvested bv a reaper run by steam, instead 
of the old sickle in hand. Wheat is threshed by steam. In addition to all 
this, steam and horse-power threshers, reapers, mowers, corn-crushers, 
stalk-cutters, self-bmders, seed-drills, gang-plows, sulky-rakes, patent 
harrows and cultivators, rollers, corn-droppers, clover-hullers, and riding 
plows are used extensively in this county. Prior to the war of 1861, but 
few farmers kept hired hands; since then honest, skilled farm hands are in 
demand and get good wages, varying from ten to twenty dollars and 
board per month; without board, fifteen to thirty dollars per month. It 
s found that the better they are educated in economy and cultivated in 
mind the better it is for the farmer. A rude, ignorant, profane, and 
wasteful hand on the farm is worse that no hand. The intelligent farmer 
who expects to keep his family in the path of moral rectitude will shun 
the society of the profane hand and keep him from his premises. 

Agricultural societies are organizations often chartered by the state for 
the dissemination of knowledge among the agricultural classes and the 
promotion and encouragement of better methods and appliances. A brief 
historical sketch of agricultural societies would hardly be out of place 
here,and doubtless will be read with pleasure and profit by many. 

It is generally believed that Elkana Watson, the author of a work en- 
titled, " The History of Agricultural Societies," is the originator and 
founder of these institutions in America, dating the commencement as far 
back as 1816, about a year after the ratification by the United States of 
the treaty of Ghent, which ended the war of 1812. The first agricultural 
society was the " Albany County Society," of New York, which dates back 
over a period of about sixty-seven years. The history of all fairs are 
about the same as far as object and general exhibition, but as the times 
change the manner of presentations change. One thing is noticeable in 
this age, and that is, the elements that contributed to successful fairs in 
former times fail to produce like results to-day. Good fairs are unmis- 
takable evidences of prosperity; however, some fine agricultural sections 
have done quite well without any organization. When the farmers of any 


county are thoroughly organized in their business, it is a standing adver- 
tisement of thrift and enterprise. The man must be a poor and spiritless 
person that can pass through the fair grounds, past the stalls filled with 
stock, which has taken generations of scientific selection to produce, with- 
out being animated with a desire to profit from what he sees. If a man 
cannot be an exhibitor, he can be a spectator and get ideas. One good 
idea will pay all expenses of coming to the fair, and but few ideas until 
you are largely in debt to the fair society for knowledge. The sociality 
and the mutual feeling of farmers and stock-raisers is of some worth to 
the citizens of the county. 

In 1857 an agricultural and mechanical association was organized. The 
fair association was an immense success, participated in by many of the 
county and surrounding counties. Col. Thos. F. Houston was president, 
and Hon. Jno. F. Phillips, secretary, and Maj. VVm. Gentry, marshal. 
John Born was fiddler, who it is said never missed a fair for seventy years. 
The old fair grounds were in Maj. Wm. Gentry's pasture. The following 
year (1858,) Col. Jno. F. Phillips, then a young attorney, made the agri- 
cultural speech. Among those who took a deep interest in county fairs, 
we mention the names of John Sneed, Col. Joe. Higgins, Sam'l Brown, 
Sam'l and Hawk Scott, George Anderson, C. E. Bouldin, and many 
others of the county. 

The first annual exposition of the Sedalia Industrial and Art Exposition 
Association, was opened September 7, 1880, and continued five days. 
This association was permanently organized and incorporated under the 
laws of the state with a large paid up capital, and now has no debts. The 
object of this association is to make the exposition an exponent of the in- 
dustrial and agricultural interests of Missouri, and to promote the de- 
velopment of the fine and useful arts in Pettis and surrounding counties. 
The fair and exposition grounds consist of fifty acres of beautiful land, 
lying within the city limits of Sedalia. During the year 1880 the grounds 
were converted into a beautiful park, and leased to Sicher Brothers. The 
grounds have a one and one-half miles race in full view of the spectators' 
stand, where upwards of 5000 people can be seated. The grounds con- 
tain a floral and textile hall, machinery hall, stables, pens, well supplied 
with every needed convenience. A beautiful artificial lake supplies the 
grounds with water by pumps and wind-mills. Telephone wires extend^ 
from the fair grounds to all parts of the city, and six to ten miles in the 
rural districts to some of the leading stock raisers. Although the methods 
of conducting fairs have somewhat changed since the ante-heUiim days, 
nevertheless, good order and success have crowned the expositions of late 

Albert Parker was president and J. H. Both well secretary of the first 


Sedalia Exposition for ISSO and also for 1881. The second exposition 
(1881) was opened September 20, and continued live days with a large 
attendance and good success. 

At the second annual fair held in the count}'- about 1858, the following 
persons competed for premiums on corn: 

Andrew Haggard exhibited 102 bushels raised on one acre; Maj. Wm. 
Gentr_v 116 bushels raised on one acre, and Geo. S. Priest 135 bushels 
and one peck raised on one acre. These figures of the magnificent 
production of corn by the early settlers are vouched for by some of the 
best men of the county who were present at the fair, one of whom took a 
part in the competition. 

First Fair. — The following is an order of court as presented by Col. 
Thomas F. Houston, one of the leading farmers of the county, and pres- 
ent representative in the state legislature, March 2, 1857: 

Thomas F. Houston presented of himself and fifty others, free holders 
of Pettis county, expressive of their desire to be incorporated for the pur- 
pose of promoting improvements in agriculture, manufactures, and the 
raising of stock. And the court being satisfied that the said petitioners 
are freeholders of the state. It is therefore ordered and declared that the 
said petitioners be incorporated as a body politic and corporate by the 
name and style of the " Pettis County Agricultural and Mechanical Asso- 
ciation," which is ordered to be certified. 

This was the beginning of agricultural societies. In 1872 the "Grange" 
was organized, and by 1875 the order was quite strong in the county. 


Introduction— Adaptability of Ditferent Kinds of Fruits to Pettis County— Maj. Gentry's 
Orchard— Names of Horticulturalists — The Nursery of Phil. Pfeitier and J. C. 
Thompson — The Advancement of Gardening. 

"The blossoms and leaves in plenty 
From the apple tree fall each day ; 
The merry breezes approach them, 
And with them merrily play." 

Horticidtura is a Latin word which means garden culture. Hortus, a 
garden, and ailtura, culture. The subject virtually includes the cultiva- 
.tion of everything that is hortensial. The early settlers paid but little 
attention to this subject of agronomy. The few old apple orchards in the 
county tell the tale. Many of the trees of the old orchards are seedlings; 
nevertheless, some produce rich, juicy apples, equally as palatable as 
grafted fruit. The deer and other wild animals destroyed many of the 
young orchards of the pioneers. 

The State Horticultural Society was organized in January, 1859, and 
has kept up its annual meetings in spite of all difficulties. Each con- 


gressional district of the state is classed as a separate horticultural dis- 
trict, and is represented in the society by a vice-president, who is expected 
to keep himself posted on the interests of this industry in his district, and 
make a report at the annual meeting. 

Pettis county is one of the best fruit growing counties of Central 
Missouri. Every variety of fruit does well here that grows in this latitude. 
Apples, pears, peaches, grapes and berries do well in all parts of the 
county. Fruit growing took an impetus in 1865, and since that date hun- 
dreds of orchards and vineyards have been planted over the county. The 
conditions of the soil, altitude and climate make this one of the best fields 
for the culture of fruits in Missouri. At present there are too many half 
cultivated orchards in the county. Some years in the past thousands of 
half cultivated fruit trees have been seen in autumns bent to the ground 
or broken with the burden of as fine fruit as ever grew between the 
Atlantic and Snowy Range. Many hundreds of bushels of luscious 
peaches have been fed to swine for want of a market. Pear, cherry, and 
plum trees yield generously of as delicious fruitage as that of any 
country. Here along the streams are acres of* the loess hills, whose soil is 
almost identical with the slopes of the Rhine and other European streams, 
the texture, flavor and color of whose fruits are world famous. 

Almost every little farm of the county has a few orchard trees; many 
of these orchards bear sufficient fruit for home use of the families. From 
an orchard of eight acres Maj. Wm. Gentry sold one year $1,030 worth 
of apples to one man, besides using considerable for other purposes and 
furnishing his neighbors all they wanted. Mr. J. W. Dickerson, John S. 
Woods, Dr. G. W. Rothwell are cultivating good orchards. W. K. Tay- 
lor, florist, is cultivating a green house at Georgetown. 

Fine, thrifty, fruitful apple, peach, pear, cherry and plum orchards, and 
equally fruitful vineyards, greet the visitor in all parts of the county. The 
smaller fruits of the garden respond to ordinary culture with the most 
generous crops, and the local markets are well stocked with the choicest 
fruits of every class, in their season, at reasonable prices. The vineyard 
of Phil. Pfeifier, of Sedalia, planted by Prof. Geo. Hussman, recently of 
the State University, but now of the state of California, is, for the variety 
and superior quality of its fruits, one of the most complete and valuable 
in the State. No region in the West produces finer grapes than this; the 
texture, flavor and size of this fruit rivaling the finest grown in the islands 
of Lake Erie. 

In April, ISTO, the enterprising citizens of Sedalia and Pettis county 
signed a call for a meeting, at Smith's Hall, to consider the feasibility 
and propriety of organizing an agricultural and mechanical association. 
The meeting was well attended by many of the farmers and stock raisers, 
as well as many of the citizens of Sedalia, and after several speeches by 


the leading men a subscription of $10,000 to $15,000 stock was taken on 
the spot, and the next month the following officers were elected, viz: W. 
P. Paff, of Sedalia; C. W. C. Walker, of Mt. Sterling; H. J. McCormack, 
of Flat Creek; Col. Frank W, Hickox, of Elk Fork; John C. Shy, of 
Washington; Col. Thos. F. Houston, of Blackwater; Maj. Wra. Gentry, 
of Mt. Sterling No. 2; George Anderson and J. B. McClure of the county 
at large. The association was organized by electing Col. Thos. F. Hous- 
ton, president; Col. F. W. Hickox, vice-president; Col. T. A. Switzler, 
secretary, and Cyrus Newkirk, Esq., treasurer. Fifty acres of choice 
land was purchased by the association in the western part of Sedalia and 
an amphitheater erected the first year capable of seating 10,000 people, 
one-eighth of a mile in circumference; also, a splendid floral and fine art 
hall 50x160 feet, besides many other improvements. The association paid 
upwards of $7,000 the first year, $8,000 the second, and ^12,000 the 
third year. Maj. Wm. Gentry was elected president of the association in 

Prof. George Hussman started the "Sedalia Nursery" in 1872, and 
stocked it with very choice varieties of all the fruits and shrubbery that 
were suited to this climate. In 1878, Philip Pfeiffer took charge of this 
excellent nursery, and in connection with J. C. Thompson, proprietor, has 
made it one of the best nurseries in central Missouri, shipping stock to all 
parts of the United States and territories. In the spring of 1882, Mr. 
Pfeiffer sold 267 orders by the first of April. 

The office and packing rooms of this nursery are on 12th and Moniteau 
streets, and the nursey grounds are about four miles east of Sedalia. 

This nursery contains the following stocks: 

Apples. — Red Astracan, Red June, Early Harvest, Early Straw- 
berry, Summer Queen, Sweet June, Totosky, Maiden Blush, Duchess 
of Oldenburg, Rambo, Haas or Fall Queen, Fameuse or Snow Apple, 
American Golden Russet, Barley Sweet, Baldwin, Ben Davis (New 
York Pippin), Fallowater, (Pulpehoken), Fulton, Grime's Golden, Jona- 
than, Huntsman's Favorite, Newton Pippin, Northern Spy, Penankee, 
Janeton, Red Bietgheimer, Rome Beauty, Willow Twig, Winesap, Yel- 
low Belleflower, Limbertwig, Eansingburg, Lawyer, Wallbridge, and 

. Crab Apples. — Hawes' Virginia, Hyslop, large Red Siberian Crib, 
Transcendent, Yellow Siberian, ^nd other choice varieties. 

Pears, dwarfs and standards kept in this nursery. The cultivation of 
this fine fruit is rapidly extending, as its value is more appreciated. The 
range of varieties is such that, like apples, they can be had in good edible 
condition from August until spring. The melting, juicy texture, the re- 
fined flavor and the delicate aroma of the pear, give it rank above all 
other fruits except the grape. But the pear, like most things highly de- 


sirable and valuable, cannot be had without attention, labor and skill. 
The relative prices of the apple and pear being about as one to ten, 
show at the same time the superiority of the latter, and the greater skill 
to required to bring it to perfection. This exxellent fruit does well in 
many portion of Pettis county, both summer and winter pears. 

The nursery also contains a full assortment of all varieties suited to this 
climate, of cherries, plums, peaches, nectarines, apricots, quinces, currants, 
raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, and Russian mulberries. The 
Russian mulberry is a new fruit in this country, very ornamental and re- 
markable for its hardihood. It stands the cold thirty degrees below zero, 
and produces fruit like the blackberry. It is very early and grows fast, 
making a line shade and timber tree. The leaves can be fed to the silk 
worm, and it stands shearing to form a beautiful hedge. 

The ornamental department of this nursery contains every variety of 

decidious trees that flourish in Pettis county and Central Missouri. The 

many beautiful groves of the handsome farms of the county contain 

maple, ash and linden in abundance. 

" If thou lookest on the lime-leaf, 
Thou a hearts' form will discover; 
Therefore are the lindens ever 
Chosen seats of each fond lover. " 


The bulbs and bulbous plants kept here are a very rare collection. 
The green house is kept stocked with very choice plants and flowers. 

He who has a soul for flowers has one of the higest integral parts of 
the Deity. 

Rev. H. W. Beecher, in his discussion on flowers, has said: 

"Flowers have an expression of countenance as much as men and ani- 
mals. Some seem to smile; some have a sad expression; some are 
pensive and diffident; others again are plain, honest and upright, like the 
broad-faced sunflower and hollyhock." 

Those who cultivate flowers beautify home, and thereby elevate and 

refine their social position for a higher, nobler and purer life. Bishop Cox 

has well said: 

"Flowers are words 

Which even a babe may understand." 

Phil. Pfeifter has on hand a fine collection of verbenas, geraniums, 
dahlias, heliotropes, lantanas, gladiolus, tuberoses, and every sort of plant 
found in a green house. 

A small nursery is conducted at Lamonte, by Mr. George Shepherd. 
This nursery has kept a general stock of fruit trees and has had a fair 
patronage. For many years a small nursery was cultivated at Smithton. 

Richard Rowe purchased the fruit trees cultivated by E. R. Young, 
south of Sedalia. 


Edward Brown, east of the city of Sedalia, cultivates an excellent fruit 
garden. He is a practical horticulturist, furnishincr the city with consid- 
erable of its finest marketable fruits. 

Many other gardeners have engaged in horticulture on a limited scale, 
and their business will be noticed under the special head of their 

Of late years special attention has been given to the cultivation of ele- 
gant vineyards, in many parts of the county, which have proved to be a 
source of considerable worth to the horticulturist, paying him back many 
times the worth of his outlay. In the early settlement of the county, but 
few of the pioneers thought about cultivating vineyards, shrubbery and 
small fruit. The tomato, strawberry, and other small fruits, had not 
received any attention worthy of notice, prior to 1860. The old settlers 
cultivated a vegetable garden, consisting of turnips, cabbages, potatoes, 
onions, melons and pumpkins. Beans and peas received some attention, 
but few cultivated them for the market. 

As schools sprung up over the county, and the people became better 
qualified to appreciate a higher state of horticulture, men began to pay 
attention to ornamental trees, fruits of all kinds, and house plants, so that 
at the present day there are but few homes in city, village or country, but 
what have paid some attention to beautifying and rendering home pleas- 
ant and attractive by sweetening the surroundings with the brightest and 
rarest plants and flowers that can be commanded. Children, in their 
purest and holiest lives, adore plants and flowers. What gathering flow- 
ers in a wood is to children, men and women should never fail to culti- 
vate the taste so imparted by nature. 

"I never cast a flower away, 
The gift of one who cared for me, 
A little flower — a faded flower, 
But it was done reluctantly." 

— Mrs. Southhy. 



Early History of Stock Raisino; ia Pettis County — Pioneer Etnigraats and Aboriginal 
Inhabitants — The Peculiar Habits, Methods, and Personal Characteristics of the Span- 
ish and French Half-breed Herders of " Ye Oklen Time"— The Origin and History 
of the Missouri " Scrub " — Some of the Men Engaged in Stock-raising and Elaborate 
Descriptions of Their Farm and Stock — The Xatural Advantages Afibrded by Pettis 
County for the Propagation, Development and Growth of Animal Life. 

Emigrants to Central and Western Missouri, as early as 1818, found the 
country inhabited chiefly by Indians and half-breed Spanish and French. 
The latter had cattle of Spanish breed, tall, lithe, sinewy, with horns of 
immense size and length. They were as swift of foot as the native deer 
and antelope, but their flesh had the flavor of wild game — was tough, of 
a dark color, and as an article of food, by no means desirable; their value 
consisting chiefly in their hides, horns and tallow. 

These half-breeds and Indians had also manj^ horses, — queer looking, 
unshapen animals, vicious, ill-natured, clothed with long, wool}^ hair, low 
in stature, strong of limb, and capable of great endurance. The Indians 
were in part permanent inhabitants of the country, and had plantations 
and villages, but the half-breeds had no fixed habitations, and moved from 
place to place, selecting camping grounds where the conditions were the 
most favorable for the care of their stock and easy subsistance. From 
May to October they roamed the country watered by the Osage and 
Missouri rivers, but with the first frost they began moving slowly south- 
ward, arriving at the beginning of winter in that delightful region now 
known as the Indian Territory and southeastern Kansas. There grass 
and water were abundant, and thither deer, buffalo, and other game 
flocked from the bleak barren plains of the northwest, rendering that 
region a veritable paradise, and capable of sustaining a dense population 
in ease and comfort. There they remained during the winter, enjo3'ing, 
as only barbarians can, the simple luxuries of that semi-tropical clime, 
but with the advent of spring they followed the birds, buffalo, and deer 
north and eastward, reaching their summer camping grounds while the 
grass was young and tender and the air was laden with the perfume of 

This peculiar people instinctively retained the customs of civilization, 
and the refinement of the land of their fathers, and in a magnified form, 
the treachery and ferocity of their Indian kinsman. Speaking numerous 
Indian dialects, and the languages of Spain and France, possessing the 
intelligence, courage and audacity of their European ancestors, they 
became valued counselors and leaders of their. Indian allies, fiercely 
opposed the advancing tide of civilization, and in many desperate and 
bloody encounters with the brave and hardy pioneers, they became com- 


manders of the Indian forces and led them to battle with intelligence and 
heroism rarely equalled in the world's history. 

It is a matter of history that the pastoral people of this country, the 
American pioneers inhabiting the wild regions of the far west, have ever 
been unfriendly to emigration, because, in proportion as the country be- 
comes settled, the grazing area is diminished, and as it is merely human to 
be selfish, ii is scarcely in order for those not similarly interested to criticise 
their motives or methods. 

The early emigrants brought with them many horses and cattle of good 
breeds, but those in time became mixed with the native, producing the 
much despised and caricatured " western scrub." The beautiful rolling 
prairies, with a large number of differtent varieies of grasses, watered by 
numerous streams, bordered by as fine timber as ever grew under the sun, 
the altitude, pure air, dry soil, and mild climate of central Missouri, pre- 
sented an array of advantages for stock-raising vastly superior to those 
of the older and colder states, and in this profitable husbandry the early 
settlers engaged most exclusively. They raised immense herds of cattle, 
nearly all " scrubs," and the quality remained nearly the same up to 1830, 
when stock men began to improve their herds by importations of thor- 
oughbred bulls and stallions. During the thirty years followiug, the im- 
provement was gradual and permanent, and the quality of the vast herds 
of central and western Missouri had reached a degree of excellence truly 
marvelous. During the war Missouri was almost entirely stripped of 
stock by the two opposing armies, and the few that remained were par- 
ticularly worthless, and soon disappeared. When peace was restored the 
farmers imported high-grade stock from the eastern states, Canada, and 
Europe, and the importations have continued upon a large scale, until the 
stock interests of Missouri have assumed vast proportions, and will com- 
pare very favorably, both as to quality and numbers, with many of the old 
stock-producing regions of the eastern and middle states. 

The warm and fertile soil of Pettis county, which yields such bountiful 
returns to the intelligent and industrious tiller, is not less generous to the 
experienced and prudent stockman. Probably, no county in the state 
offers superior advantages in soil, climate, and the various conditions 
essential to successful stock raising, and that these conditions have been 
appreciated and utilized by nearly every farmer in the county, is 
evinced by the facts gleaned from the last report of the county assessor, 
giving the total number and value of live stock in Pettis county, as 

Horses, 8,871, valued at $ 325,505. 

Mules, 2,658, valued at 130,570. 

Asses and jennets, 55, valued at 3,670. 

Cattle, 29,040, valued at 466,805. 


Sheep, 36,675, valued at 57,457. 

Hogs, 21,293, valued at 64,395. 

Dogs, 2,637, valued at 2,637. 

Total number, 107,229. $1 ,048,139. 

This is indeed a splendid exhibit — more in numbers and value than 

reported for either of the states of Delaware, West Virginia or Oregon, 
and yet, when the superior quality and condition of the stock produced 
here, is taken fairly into consideration, the value and importance of stock 
husbandr}^ in Pettis county becomes something marvelous. 

Visitors from the famous stock producing districts of the eastern states 
and Canada, are totally unprepared for the revelation w^hich the high 
character of the industry in Pettis county affords, and the first inquiry, 
invariably, is, what has become of the scrub stock of which at home we 
have heard so much that we have learned to regard it as indigenous to the 
soil, and a natural product of the peculiar climate, a degeneration from the 
higher grades, by reason of unskillful management in breeding, insuffi- 
cient and improper food and over work when \'oung. Of course, then 
follows a detailed history of the origin of the "scrub," ending with the 
information that he w^as annihilated by the war, and has become a thing 
of history. The}' marvel at the high standard to which stock breeding 
has been carried in Pettis county, but when told that many of our stock- 
men were trained in the best methods of stock raising in New York, 
Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, from whence 
they emigrated to Missouri, the mystery is satisfactorily explained. 

Here may be found extensive herds of Short Horn, Alderney and other 
high bred cattle of the finest types; Berkshire and Poland China swine 
of the best EngHsh and American species; Merino, Cotswold and Downs 
sheep of the purest blood and highest breeding and fleece producing 
qualities; Hambletonian, Membrino, Norman, Denmark, Drennon, Lex- 
ington, Morgan, and other fine breeds of horses. And so on through all 
the departments of stock raising — only the best animals of the finest 
species are kept or bred from. 

Many car loads of steers from two to three years old, weighing 1,200 to 
1,800 pounds, have been shipped from Pettis county to Europe, during 
the past few years, and many car loads of swine, weighing from 300 to 
500 pounds, are shipped to market every winter. 

The annual shipments to market, of live stock from Sedalia, Lamonte, 
Dresden, Greenridge, Smithton, Houstonia, and other points in Pettis 
county of minor importance, consisting of fat cattle, sheep, swine, horses 
.and mules, aggregate 1,600 car loads, valued at $1,630,000, and a careful 
estimate from a rehable source fixes the net profits to the producers at 
from thirty to seventy per cent, on the money invested. This is certainly 


a most favorable showing, and ought to be conclusive evidence that 
nothing pays better than stock raising. 

In this latitude the mildness of the climate affords a long season for 
grazing, the entire year, with the exception of about ninety days of mod- 
erately cold weather, which, together with the cheapness of lands and 
feed, and the excellent transportation facilities, constitute advantages 
vastly superior to states in a colder clime, where feed is scarce and 
expensive, and more shelter and labor required to carry stock through the 
long, bleak winters. In Pettis county nearly every farmer raises stock 
for market, and many of the wealthier, who do not make stock raising a 
specialty, buy from adjoining counties and fatten for market, turning off 
from eight to fifteen car loads every spring, and many of more limited 
means ship from two to five car loads, which contribute largely to increase 
the aggregate exports of fine stock to vast proportions. 

Added to the warm, fertile soil and mild climate, is the inestimable 
advantage of a dry atmosphere, which contributes in no small degree to 
render sheep husbandry one of the most profitable industries of this 
region. The surface of the country is high, dry, and gently undulating, 
afibrding excellent natural drainage, and there is scarcely a quarter section 
of land in the county on which a lake cannot be formed from the rainfall 
by the construction of a simple and inexpensive dam of earth, thus 
affording an abundant supply of pure and wholesome water. 

In Sedalia and vicinity water can be obtained in inexhaustible quantity, 
of the purest and most excellent quality, at an average depth of thirty 
feet. In the northern, northwestern and eastern portions of the county 
the well drillers seldom need to go more than eighty feet to obtain an 
abundant supply, although in the southwestern portion there are several 
wells in the neighborhood of one hundred and five feet deep, and splendid 
flowing wells obtained by means of wind mill pumps. 

It will be obser'v^ed that while Pettis county has but few natural flowing 
springs or running streams, nature has in other ways afforded facilities 
for securing an abundant supply of pure water, which added to the 
splendid grasses produced spontaneously upon the open prairies, and 
everywhere untouched by the plow of the tiller, shows this to be a most 
admirable region for stock raising in all departments, as well as for dairy 
and for general agricultural purposes. 

Blue grass is indigenous to the soil of Pettis county. Everywhere it 
ffourishes in rank profusion — on the prairies, in the fields and in the wood 
lands, conquering everything, crowding out the coarse weeds and less 
succulent herbage and furnishing to the farmer and stockman a free and 
exhaustless source of wealth. 

Clover also springs from the soil spontaneously— a companion of the 
blue grass — and flourishes everywhere. While orchard grass, timothy,. 


and other meadow grasses, with but little preparation of the soil or culti- 
vation, take root easily and quickly and grow with great rapidity and 
luxuriance, 3'ielding a bountiful harvest of hay, equal in every respect to 
the best produced in any region on this continent. 

Major Wm. Gentry is probably tlie most extensive stock raiser in Pettis 
county, and during the many years he has devoted exclusively to this 
branch of husbandry upon a large scale, he has achieved wonderful suc- 
cess. At present his landed estate comprises six thousand acres of choice 
land, well watered and timbered and in a remarkably high state of culti- 
vation. His home farm " Oakdale," containing twenty-two hundred 
acres, is located two miles northwest of Sedalia, and in full view of the 
city. It is a magnificent prairie and timber tract, well watered by 
numerous flowing springs, by Brushy Creek and by several fine artificial 
lakes. The residence is handsome and commodious, and the approaches 
arranged in excellent taste and with a view to convenience and economy 
of space. The lawns and shrubbery surrounding the residence are 
arranged, well cultivated, and kept in excellent order, and the entire place 
presents the appearance of refinement, comfort and affluence, suggesting 
to the visitor the application of that beautiful and pathetic song, "Home,. 
Sweet Home." 

Only about four hundred acres of this magnificent farm are devoted to 
the cultivation of grain, the balance being seeded down to blue grass 
pasture, and to clover and timothy meadow. Major Gentry's herd of 
breeding cattle consists of between thirty and forty thoroughbred Short- 
horns of the most popular families, and two fine bulls of about 2,300 }t)S. 
weight. He has also fifteen fine brood mares and a thoroughbred Nor- 
man stallion of excellent form and qualities, ninety horse and mule colts, 
sixt}^ work horses, six hundred pure bred Merino, Cotswold and Downs 
sheep, and one hundred high grade cattle. His annual sales of live stock 
average thirty horses and mules, three hundred to four hundred steers, 
six hundred swine, and six hundred sheep. He also has on his farm 
"Locust Grove," "Denmark Chief" and "Denmark Jr.," the very highest 
grade of that class of saddle horses. They are both premium stallions, 
having taken premiums at St. Louis, Cincinnati and at various other large 
fairs in 1874. Denmark Jr. is a young stallion of great promise, and is 
one of the fastest racking horses in the state. 

Another splendid farm owned by Major Gentry and sons is "Locust 
Grove," consisting of 1,400 acres and situated eight miles northwest 
of Sedalia. It has many pleasant surroundings, is in a fine state of culti- 
vation, and is regarded as one of the most valuable tracts in that vicinity. 
J. B. Gentry, son of Major Gentry, occupies the farm, and keeps there 
two hundred steers, one hundred and fifty stock cattle and three hundred 
swine. • 


Major Gentry is a native of Missouri, has resided in Pettis county fifty- 
eight years, is an intelligent, progressive business man, and intimately 
associated with many important public enterprises. 

Nine miles east of Sedalia is the valuable farm of V. T. Chilton, con- 
sisting of six hundred and fifty acres, supplied with an abundance of water, 
and improved in a very complete and substantial manner. One hundred 
and sixty acres are reserved for plow land, and the balance is seeded down 
to timothy and clover meadow, and blue grass pasture. Judge Chilton 
keeps six hundred to seven hundred Merino, Cotswold and Downs sheep, 
twenty-five to thirt}^ high grade breeding cows, and ships annually sixty 
to one hundred fat steers, and one hundred and seventy-five to two hun- 
dred swine. 

Three miles northeast of Sedalia lies " Greenwood," the home farm of 
AVilliam M. Gentry, consisting of nearly seventeen hundred acres of beau- 
tiful prairie land, well watered and improved. An elegant residence and 
numerous farm buildings of a very substantial character, fine orchard, 
shade trees, beautiful lawns and pastures, and other valuable and pleasant 
surroundings, contribute to render this one of the most desirable farms in 
that locality. Mr. Gentry is an extensive planter and stock-raiser; plants 
annually about three hundred acres in corn, from which he gets an aver- 
age of sixt}^ bushels per acre. He has one hundred and forty acres in 
timothy and clover meadow, twelve hundred acres in blue grass pasture, 
and keeps constantly about three hundred stock and beef cattle, fifty 
thoroughbred Short-horns, and two fine bulls; one thosand high-bred 
Merino and Downs sheep, from which he gets annually several thousand 
pounds of wool. Besides a number of choice brood mares, from which 
he raises superb carriage and saddle horses, he fattens yearly from one 
liundred to two hundred steers, about two hundred swine, and three hun- 
dred sheep for market. 

On Cedar Creek, two miles northeast of Sedalia, and in full view of 
the city, is " Cedar Vale," a magnificent farm of sixteen hundred acres, 
situated mostly on a prairie of deep rich soil and gently undulating sur- 
face. Cedar Creek and numerous flowing springs and artificial lakes 
furnish an abundance of water, and renders this one of the best stock 
farms in the county. An elegant residence which cost $11,000, is sur- 
rounded by fine shade trees, and well-kept lawns, and at convenient dis- 
tance in rear are numerous substantial farm buildings, surrounded by fine 
blue grass pastures. This was the home R. J. Gentry, recently deceased, 
who was one of the most enterprising and successful stock raisers in Pet- 
tis countv. Four hundred acres of this farm are devoted to the cultiva- 
tion of grain, and twelve hundred acres to timothy and clover meadow 
and blue grasss pasture. On this magnificent tract Mr. Gentr}^ kept a 
herd of one hundred thoroughbred "Short-horns, and two hundred stock 


cattle, and fattened annually sixty to one hundred steers, and two hun- 
dred high bred Berkshire swine. He also keeps five hundred Merino and 
Downs sheep, a number of fine brood mares and horses, and sold annually 
from twenty-five to fifty mules. 

Directly east of Sedalia two miles, is " Sunnyside," a valuable farm 
owned by John M. Sneed, comprising seven hundred acres of prairie 
land of rich, warm soil, in a high state of cultivation. It is furnished with 
a substantial residence, and farm buildings, is well watered, and is divided 
into fields of convenient size for cultivation and stock-raisinor. One hun- 
dred and fifty acres are devoted to grain culture, and the balance, five 
hundred and fifty acres, to blue grass pasture and to timothy and clover 
meadow. Mr. Sneed grazes one hundred and fifty to two hundred stock 
cattle, two hundred Southdown sheep; keeps fine thoroughbred horses, 
and sells annually three to five car loads of fat steers, and two to five car 
loads of swine. 

In the vicinity of " Sunnyside " is the farm of M. O. Green, consisting 
of sixteen hundred acres, surrounded by a splendid hedge of Osage 
Orange. A creek and numerous springs and ponds furnish an inexhaus- 
tible supply of pure water. The residence and other improvements are 
good and substantial; the soil is moist and fertile, and for all purposes the 
farm is regarded as among the best in that part of the county. Six hun- 
dred acres are devoted to the cultivation of grain; two hundred acres to 
blue grass pasture, and eight hundred acres to meadow. Mr. Green 
keeps three hundred to four hundred steers, four hundred to five hun- 
dred swine, forty to eighty mules, and sixty to eighty cows for breeding 

Twelve miles northeast of Sedalia, in an exceedingly fertile and attrac- 
tive district, lies the splendid farm of H. S. Scott, one of the most thor- 
ough and enterprising stockmen in Pettis county. The tract comprises 
four hundred acres of excellent land, well watered and improved, and 
possessing superior natural advantages for successful stock raising. Mr. 
Scott has a fine herd of twenty thoroughbred Dutchess and Maries cattle^ 
two hundred Cotswold sheep and one hundred Poland China swine, 
besides several fine brood mares and horses. 

The farm of J. W. Cole, five miles southwest of Sedalia, is very favor- 
ably situated for all purposes, and is in an excellent state of cultivation. 
The soil is deep, warm and of marvelous fertility, yielding bountiful 
returns for the labor of cultivation, and springs and ponds furnish an 
abundant supply of pure and wholesome water. The farm of eight hun- 
dred and eight}^ acres is surrounded and divided into convenient fields by 
a thrifty hedge of Osage orange, and the buildings and other improve- 
ments are substantial and well kept. Mr. Cole makes a specialty of thor- 
oughbred stock and has a fine herd of forty high bred Shor